How to harvest potatoes in July: 6 subtleties of an early harvest
Traditionally, potatoes are planted in the first half of May. At the same time, a young crop can be obtained by mid-August. But if you take on board a few useful tips, it is possible to harvest the first potatoes in early July.
Correctly selected variety
Potatoes with an early growing season ripen in 60-70 days. The best varieties are breeze, horizon, agria, margarita, lapis lazuli, robust, radich, adretta and whim. They are well adapted to different climatic conditions. If you plan to plant potatoes before winter, it is not recommended to choose ultra-early varieties. Such tubers always sprout in early spring. At the same time, there is a great risk that the soil will not have time to warm up to an acceptable temperature. Landings can also be killed by late frosts.
Preparing tubers before planting
To prevent fungal infections, for example, late blight, seeds should be treated with fungicidal preparations. The most common biological agents are Mikosan, Baktofit, Fitosporin-M and Fitolavin. For early varieties, it is undesirable to use chemicals, because by the time of harvest they will not have time to "come out" of the potatoes. When planting, do not forget about additional feeding of the tubers. "Energin", "Ideal", "Gumi" are considered to be effective complex fertilizers.
Growth stimulants "Kornevin" and "Heteroauxin" will accelerate the development of the root system and plant shoots. They will bring the harvest time much closer.
All of these products are sold in dry form, before use, they must be dissolved in water in a certain proportion and the seeds must be soaked. To save time, you can prepare one solution with all the necessary components.
Pre-cultivation of seedlings
Home-grown seedlings give their first shoots within a week. And tubers planted in the ground germinate in three weeks.
For potato seedlings, it is better to use peat cups, small pots, milk bags.
The tubers should be placed in the ground so that the top is covered by 2-3 cm. It is not necessary to buy special soil. It can be taken from the garden and mixed in equal proportions with sand or sawdust. When transplanting seedlings into open ground, it is important that the soil temperature is at least 10 degrees. Before disembarking, it is advisable to add 1 tablespoon to each hole. ash. To protect the seedlings from aggressive weather factors, it is better to cover the bed with foil for several days. In stable sunny weather, the film is not necessary, since the high temperature is detrimental to young shoots.
Warming up the soil
Potatoes are not a frost-resistant crop. If it is planted in cold soil, the tubers will not begin to develop until the soil warms up to a comfortable temperature. This is why potatoes planted in late May grow much faster than those planted 2-3 weeks earlier. To get an early harvest, the soil needs to be warmed up. As soon as the snow melts, the beds should be covered with plastic wrap and pressed to the ground with stones. The film cover creates the effect of a greenhouse, in which the earth begins to warm up quickly, and there will be no dry crust on the soil surface.
Even at a temperature of -2 degrees, potato bushes begin to hurt, the leaves turn yellow and die off. Therefore, with an approaching frost, the sprouting of the risen potatoes should be carried out so that only the upper leaves are visible above the surface of the bed. So the bushes are warmed up, and the root system continues to grow and becomes more powerful.
Instead of hilling, the plants can be mulched.
A dense layer of straw or sawdust is used to warm the tubers. This mulch will gradually decompose, improving the structure of the soil. However, this method slightly slows down the development of early-maturing potatoes. To prevent the potatoes from freezing, young bushes are covered with non-woven material (spunbond). To do this, arcs made of flexible PVC pipes or thick wire are installed in the ground above the landings. The covering sheet is pulled onto the assembled frame. During the day, so that the potato tops do not fade from the heat, the greenhouse must be ventilated by opening it on both sides for ventilation.
Planting potatoes before winter
A generous harvest of potatoes can be obtained already at the beginning of summer if planted before winter. In addition, for the southern regions with hot summers, this is an opportunity to grow crops before the onset of the heat. High temperatures are detrimental to the plant; winter plantings require a place protected from the wind, where the soil is not swamped by melt water. 2 weeks before planting, the tubers must be exposed to the sun. This allows the potato to produce solanine, a natural defense against soil pests. To prevent the appearance of rot, the tubers are dipped into the Fundazol solution before planting. It is prepared in a proportion of 10 g of substance per 10 liters of water. The soil must be fertilized with Diammophos in advance and dug up. In each hole, you must first add 1 tbsp. Lower the tubers to a depth of 10 cm and cover with earth. From above, the garden bed must be covered with a thick layer of straw or hay mulch. It will protect the culture from the effects of sudden temperature fluctuations.
10 secrets of a fruitful garden and vegetable garden
Should you grow asparagus? Why tie cucumbers to twine? What kind of cucumbers should be grown in greenhouses?
The most interesting secrets in our selection.
1. Growing asparagus is a rather troublesome task even for the most experienced gardener. Therefore, fresh asparagus is best purchased from the market or supermarket.
2. If you abandon the idea of growing cucumbers on the ground, and tie them to a string, the plant will be better illuminated. Hence, one can hope for a rich harvest.
3. Greenhouses allow gardeners to get an earlier and more abundant harvest. If you are going to plant cucumbers, in no case buy varieties for open ground. For the protected only!
4. For trees to bear fruit well, they must be fed regularly. Compost and humus are quite suitable for this. But if you have the opportunity, you can also use peat.
5. One square meter occupied by a fruit tree must account for at least six kilograms of organic fertilizers.
6. To get rid of the bear next season, after harvesting (that is, in the fall), you should dig out small beds and fill them with manure. You dig in with earth, and you dig it in the winter. In the manure, you will find a huge number of bears that are going to winter in this heap. The most attractive manure for these pests is horse manure.
7. How to get rid of cabbage now? Take a plastic bottle, cut off the neck, pour in a small amount of unrefined sunflower oil, throw in a piece of bread and dig it into the level with the ground. This is one of the coolest traps. But its disadvantage is that such beds are quite difficult to water.
8. Do not believe the advice that says that you need to plant any vegetables between the tubers for compaction. After all, modern potatoes are ruthlessly attacked by the Colorado potato beetle, so you cannot do without spraying the potatoes with chemicals.
9. Do not plant raspberries and lilies of the valley near fruit trees, as shrubs and flowers take away the lion's share of moisture from the tree. And this fact negatively affects the yield obtained.
10. It is better not to plant lily of the valley in your garden, as this is a real weed that is difficult to get rid of. It is of no use whatsoever. And in August, small berries are formed, which children can poison.
To protect your soil from weeds, you need to loosen it regularly. You can start this process about 6 days after disembarkation. It is also necessary to take into account the weather and the amount of weeds. Loosening will also help to retain moisture in the soil.
When the spring frost ends, loosening and harrowing are carried out. If the potatoes are damaged due to frost, you can feed them with nitrogen fertilizers. The principle of this care is simple.
You need to lay a pile of straw near the potato plantings, and then set it on fire (at a relatively low air temperature). The result will be more effective if the soil is previously shed.
When growing early potatoes, you can use a covering material, for example, plastic wrap. But this method has one drawback. It lies in the fact that in such a favorable climate, weeds can grow. When the weather turns warm, the shelter can be removed.
There are cases when darkened agrofibre is used for shelter, under which the harvest will be plentiful. It can be left even until harvest.
Early potatoes: growing secrets
In many Russian regions, gardeners have to make significant efforts to get a good harvest. Nevertheless, even in unfavorable conditions, various crops can be successfully grown, for example, early potato varieties. Proper preparation of planting material will not only ensure a bountiful harvest, but also increase the nutritional quality of the tubers.
- - peat pots
- - humus
- - sawdust or peat
- - wood ash
- - superphosphate, urea, potassium salt
- - succinic acid
- - ferric chloride solution.
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- How to grow a large crop of potatoes
- How to sprout potatoes
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- Growing potatoes "Rosara"
- How to get high yields of potatoes
- How to grow potatoes with seeds
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- How to plant potatoes
- How to prepare potatoes for planting
How to speed up the process
You can bring the ripening of potatoes closer by senication (spraying the tops). Ripening with subsequent ripening of tubers will go more actively if, before digging, the tops are treated with a solution of copper sulfate (0.5%). The vegetative tops will begin to dry out and all of their nutrients will be transferred to the tubers. Such potatoes are not afraid of early harvesting. Spraying is carried out three weeks before harvest.
You can store such tubers as long as during natural ripening. It is recommended to burn yellow potato stalks after harvest to prevent the accumulation of hazardous compounds in the soil.
If the tops have already turned yellow, and the harvest time has not yet come, the potatoes should be dug up, as the tubers may begin to rot. This approach increases the shelf life of root crops in a long winter.
For an empty vegetable garden, fertilization is required. In autumn, this event is especially important, as it helps to create favorable conditions for the future harvest.
With early mowing of tops, root crops also ripen faster. Acceleration of this process in an artificial way helps the reception of desiccation (spraying plants with special means).
Before using any method of accelerating the ripening of potatoes, it is worth consulting with professional gardeners so as not to upset the delicate balance in nature with your actions.
Secret 4: geographic
Many experienced summer residents believe that the most "productive" direction of potato furrows on the site is from North to South.
The direction of the potato furrows on the site is from north to south
Then in our latitudes until noon the sun will warm and fully illuminate one side of the rows - the east, and in the afternoon - the other, the west. This will allow the entire plantation to receive maximum light and heat, therefore, will have a positive effect on increasing the yield.
Secrets of early harvest of potatoes - garden and vegetable garden
Talk a lot about popularity potatoes not necessary. People call it the second bread.
Potato tubers contain up to 25% of dry substances, mainly starch, they contain sugar, fat, protein and other valuable substances, as well as vitamins C, B1, B2, carotene. Tubers straight from the plantation are especially good when they are especially rich in vitamins and other nutrients. It is clear that every hobbyist grower should strive to get the earliest potatoes.
There are a number of varieties early ripe potatoes Belarusian selection, such as Skorospelka 1, Belorussky early (forty days). In their absence, you can take mid-season varieties. The ancient variety Early Rose is popular among vegetable growers.
A good variety is the basis of the harvest. But they need to be able to dispose of. The most important agronomic element is pre-sowing treatment of tubers, preparation of planting material.
Interesting advice on how to prepare potato tubers for planting is given in the "Handbook of the gardener and amateur gardener" published in Vilnius. Experts advise sprouting potatoes 30 - 45 days before planting in boxes, on shelves and racks. You can take a plastic bag (28x135 cm), cut holes the size of a penny in it, so that air can enter and carbon dioxide, which is released during the "breath" of potatoes, escapes. 12 kg of tubers are poured into such a bag, the edge is sewn up or sealed with hot metal and hung on a pole or a stretched wire in a bright place. The temperature at first is possible up to + 20 ° C, and after the emergence of sprouts +8 .. + 14 ° C. If you want to have fresh potatoes even earlier, put the tubers in the boxes in layers: a layer of peat (sawdust, compost or in equal parts of all components), a layer of tubers, and so on 4 - 5 layers, filling in the top tubers at the end to hide the sprouts. Drizzle with water at room temperature with the addition of trace elements. After 2 - 3 days, roots are formed, and after 4 days the tubers can be planted in the ground.
Germinated potatoes can be planted in the second half of April in loose soil in ridges to a depth of 4 cm. Should not be planted in very dry or heavy soil, or after tomatoes and other nightshades.
In wet years early potatoes can be strongly affected by late blight, and in years with insufficient precipitation, early spotting. To combat these diseases, it is necessary to spray potato crops with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or a 0.3% solution of copper oxychloride.
Harvesting early potatoes is carried out when the tubers reach a size of 3 - 5 cm in diameter. Lovers of gardeners begin to dig up large tubers selectively, first from one side of the bush, without damaging the tops. After that, a handful of fertile soil is sprinkled on the roots, and the plants are fed with 0.5 liters of a solution of a garden mixture (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). With this care, the tops do not wither. After a while, large tubers are chosen from the other side. And they repeat the same care techniques.
As you know, one of the main enemies of the potato grower is the nematode. Penetrating into the roots, it feeds on plant juices. Potatoes as a result, it lags behind in development, the leaves wither, dry out, the flowering of such a plant is weak. The difficulty of dealing with a nematode is that it is almost impossible to influence it with drugs. Firstly, it penetrates directly into the root system and is located deeply; secondly, it is not a matter of flooding the earth with pesticides. But something needs to be done.After all, the nematode is not the pest that came and went, this year it is, and next year it is not. Nematode cysts, which contain up to 800 eggs and larvae, can lie in the ground for up to ten years, retaining their viability.
And yet, scientists have found a control over the nematode. They just deceived her. The thing is that the cyst releases hordes hidden in it at the signal of the juices of the root system. Only a tenth of the pests gets to the roots, and the rest die in the soil. But even a “squad” that has broken through to the roots inflicts irreparable damage to the plants.
The invented method of dealing with the nematode, like everything ingenious, turned out to be simple. Juice is squeezed out of the sprouted roots of potatoes and injected into the ground. The cyst opens up. Pests rush towards the smell. But in the place where the smell comes from, they do not find roots and die.
The potato tops are cut for compost a few days before digging the potatoes. Now she will no longer be able to transmit various diseases acquired over the summer to the tubers, along with rainwater, and it is much more convenient to harvest without tops.
Scab on potatoes most often appears when there is a lack of moisture in the soil, low humus content, on alkaline soils and when fresh manure is applied.
Potato tubers placed on the bottom of the furrow (or deep under the shovel) do not develop well. It is cold at depth in spring, the roots have to break through the layer of compacted soil. It is recommended to put the tubers not on the bottom, but in a loose bedding. Then the sun will get to them faster, and it will be easier for the roots to penetrate into the lower horizon of the soil. And the stronger and more branched the roots, the more powerful the bush.
■ Avoid excessive liming of the soil under potatoes ... This promotes the development of scab, reduces the starch content in tubers and impairs their keeping quality during storage.
■ The negative effect of excess lime on potatoes can be removed by increasing the introduction of potassium doses - increase them by about 1.5 times.
■ Using pure peat for potatoes is ineffective. Introduction of 3 - 4 kg of peat crumb per 1 sq. m plantation rarely provides an increase in yield by more than 10%. The low efficiency of pure peat is explained by the fact that its organic matter is difficult and takes a long time to decompose.
■ Higher yields of potatoes are obtained with the combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers (as compared to their separate application).
■ Two to three months after harvest, potatoes are "dormant". During this time, for dining purposes, it can be stored in a relatively warm room, the tubers will not sprout. You just need to make sure that no light penetrates them. Tubers turned green in the light are not suitable for food.
What is important to remember?
Generally, post-harvest early potato plots are ideal for growing other crops. The land on them is moist, loose, with high air and water permeability. However, the landing time poses certain problems.
Considering that the time of harvesting the first potato harvest falls on the hottest and driest time of the summer cottage season - the middle of summer, the seedlings can simply burn out.
To prevent this, you can grow vegetables and herbs through seedlings and plant them in open ground only after the young plants are a little stronger.
Another good idea is to cover the beds with a double layer of white spunbond for 1-2 weeks. The light-colored material will reflect the sun's rays and prevent the soil from drying out.
Water the beds regularly and shade the seedlings in case of extreme heat. Do not forget about timely weeding, otherwise the weeds will drown out the seedlings.
Read more about the rules of crop rotation in our material.