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Aristolochia - Aristolochiaceae - How to care for and grow Aristolochia plants

Aristolochia - Aristolochiaceae - How to care for and grow Aristolochia plants


HOW TO GROW AND CARE FOR OUR PLANTS

ARISTOLOCHIA

L'Aristolochia, in addition to being widely used to adorn walls and pergolas, it is known both in European homeopathic medicine but above all in pharmacopeacinese for the treatment of various pathologies.

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom

:

Plantae

Clado

: Magnoliid

Order

:

Piperales

Family

:

Aristolochiaceae

Kind

:

Aristolochia

Species

: see the paragraph on "Main species"

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

The genre Aristolochiaof the family of Aristolochiaceae it includes very many species (over 350) herbaceous or shrubby, with deciduous or evergreen leaves. Of all these species only a few are cultivated for ornamental purposes and all are climbers, used to adorn walls and trellises or to enrich pergolas.

The peculiarity of these plants are the flowers that in most species emanate very intense scents to attract insects, functioning as real traps as the pollinators, once they have entered the corolla, slip on a waxy coating that is inside the flower tube that allows you to enter but not to exit because it has numerous hairs that act as a barrier. The same shape of the flower, tubular and with a swollen base, favors the capture of the insect. Only after fertilization and with the withering of the flower, the captive insects, covered with pollen, will be able to go out and pollinate another plant.

MAIN SPECIES

There are about 350 species in the genus Aristolochia among which we remember:

ARISTOLOCHIA MACROPHYLLA

The species Aristolochia macrophylla is a climbing plant, ideal for adorning pergolas, fast growing. It is characterized by very large leaves, up to 30cm wide, of an intense green color with bluish reflections.

The flowers are characteristic, pipe-shaped, yellow-green on the outside and dark red on the inside and very fragrant.

ARISTOLOCHIA CLEMATITIS

There A. clematitis it is native to the regions of the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and the Caucasus.

The plant has perennial underground creeping rhizomes from which each year old forms the aerial part. It reaches a height of one meter and is characterized by an erect stem on which the petiolate leaves develop, alternately arranged, heart-shaped and obtuse at the apex.

The flowers, typical of the genus, are pipe-shaped, yellow in color and usually develop at the axil of the leaves in groups of two or more.

The fruit is a globular pendulous capsule of about 3 cm in diameter.

ARISTOLOCHIA GIGANTEA

L'Aristolochia gigantea it is native to Brazil, Colombia and Panama. It is an evergreen climbing plant, with lignified stems at the base that reach 10 m in height. The leaves are arranged alternately, obovate in shape with a pointed apex and light green in color.

The flowers are very large, solitary, devoid of petals, with the calyx consisting of a swollen and curved greenish-white tube, which widens and takes the shape of a pipe with the vertical end widened and up to 20 cm long, densely marked burgundy color. They give off a not very pleasant scent.

ARISTOLOCHIA ELEGANS

There Aristolochia elegans, originally from Brazil, it is a climbing plant that reaches three meters in height without difficulty, characterized by heart-shaped and broad-flowered leaves even 10 cm, tubular in shape of yellow color and with the extremities of the flower tube of a more or less shaded red color and with white veins . It blooms during the summer period (July - September).

ARISTOLOCHIA FANGCHI

There Aristolochia fangchi it is frequently found along streams and in valleys. It is a perennial, climbing plant characterized by a thin stem that grows no more than 5 m in height. The leaves are whole, petiolate, oblong in shape.The flower is violet with yellow spots. The fruit is a capsule that contains numerous seeds inside. It blooms from May to June.

CULTURAL TECHNIQUE

The Aristolochia they are plants of easy cultivation that require few and simple tricks.

They are plants that do not tolerate low temperatures and do not like full sun badly in partial shade positions.

WATERING

From spring and throughout the summer they should be watered abundantly while starting from autumn and throughout the winter, irrigation should be significantly reduced.

TYPE OF SOIL - REPOT

They are not particularly demanding in terms of soils even if they prefer light substrates, rich in organic substance and well draining as they do not tolerate water stagnation.

FERTILIZATION

Starting from spring and throughout the summer, they must be fertilized using a liquid fertilizer diluted in the watering water every two weeks and halving the doses compared to what is reported in the fertilizer package.

It is advisable to use a fertilizer that in addition to having macroelements such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) also has microelements such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) , zinc (Zn), boron (B), polybdenum (Mo), magnesium (mg) all important for a correct growth of the plant.

PRUNING

Pruning is necessary where the plant has grown too much and needs to be pruned. This operation can be done at the end of winter (February) by cutting the branches for a third of their length.

Since they are plants that tend to develop more in height than in width, in order to have them thicker, it is advisable to trim the vegetative apexes once or twice a year to stimulate the growth of the lateral branches.

Remember to use cutting tools that are clean and disinfected (preferably with a flame) to prevent them from becoming a vehicle for parasitic diseases.

MULTIPLICATION

The Arispolochia multiply by seed or by cutting.

MULTIPLICATION FOR TALEA

In July, cuttings about 10 cm long are taken by cutting them immediately under the node so that some leaves remain and eliminating those placed further down. It is recommended to cut in an oblique direction as this allows to have a greater surface for rooting and avoids the accumulation of water on this surface.

Use a razor blade or a sharp knife to avoid fraying of the tissues and make sure that the tool you use for cutting is clean and disinfected (preferably with a flame) to avoid infecting the tissues.

After immersing the cut part in a rhizogenic powder to favor rooting, the cuttings are placed in a substrate formed by peat and sand in equal parts, making holes with a pencil, as many as there are cuttings to arrange, taking care subsequently to gently compact the topsoil.

The pot is placed in an area of ​​the house where the temperature is around 18 ° C and the soil must be checked every day as it must always remain slightly humid. Once the first shoots start to appear, it means that the cuttings have taken root. At that point the cuttings are expected to harden and once they are large enough, they will transplant into the final pot and treat themselves as adult plants.

PARASITES AND DISEASES

They are not particularly prone to diseases or parasitic attacks.

CURIOSITY'

Several species of the genus are included in the farcope of the People's Republic of China:

  1. Aristolochia manshuriensis

    of which the stem is used, called in the Chinese pharmacopoeia Guan Mu Tong,it is used in combination with other herbs, as an anti-inflammatory and diuretic in the case of acute infections of the urinary system and as an emmenagogue (1) and galactogen (2);
  2. of which in China the stem is used (called Tian Xian Teng in pharmacopeacinese) is used in the treatment of epigastric pain, in arthralgia (3) and in the case of edema; the fruits (calledBut DouLing in the Chinese pharmacopoeia) they are used as a remedy for hemorrhoids, coughs and asthma;
  3. of which it uses the stem (called Tian Xian Teng in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia) is used in the treatment of epigastric pain, in arthralgia (3) and in case of edema; the roots (calledQingMu Xiang in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia) are used to treat divertigens, headaches, abdominal pain, pustules, boils and insect bites; the fruits (called in the Chinese pharmacopoeia Ma Dou Ling) they are used as a remedy for hemorrhoids, coughs and asthma;
  4. of whichthe dried root is used, it is called Guang Fang Ji in the pharmacopeacinese, and is used in association with other essences, as a diuretic in the case of edema and as an antipyretic and analgesic.

A separate discussion deserves the

used not only in the Chinese pharmacopoeia but also in European homeopathy, where the dried root (fresh is toxic) is used as an astringent, emmenagogue (1), vulnerary (4).

The name of the genus comes from the Greek αριστος (aristos) «excellent» e λοχεία (lochèia) «childbirth» because in ancient times different species were used to favor childbirth in the prevention of infections.

Note
1. Emmenagogo: able to stimulate the blood supply to the pelvic area and uterus
2. Galactogen: which intensifies the production of milk by the mammary glands
3. Arthralgia: pain in a joint
4. Vulnerary: which has a healing action on wounds and sores

Warning
The medical information in this article is for illustrative purposes only, not for exhortation and in no case for medical purposes.


Dutchman's Pipe Information: Learn how to grow and care for pipes

If you are looking for a striking plant, try a Dutchman's pipe ( Aristolochia macrophylla ). The plant is a woody vine that produces curved tube-shaped flowers and large heart-shaped leaves. The flowers attract pollinator flies with a smell like rotting meat. Learn how to grow Dutchman's pipe for a unique plant you'll be talking about in your garden.


When to water a peanut plant

Water your peanut plant when the soil appears to be starting to dry out. You may need to water two to four times a week, depending on local weather conditions and the amount of rainfall.

Consider other horticultural plants in answer to the question, "How much water does a peanut plant need?" Peanut water requirements are similar to those of more common garden varieties. These plants typically need about one inch (2.5 cm) of water, including rainfall and irrigation from you, each week during their particular growing season.

Watered peanut plants are typically safe throughout much of the growing season. However, the growth, flowering, and development of peanut pods all depend on abundant moisture. Growing conditions that are too dry during these critical periods will significantly reduce the size of the crop and jeopardize the health of the plant.

Peanut plants need a lot of water from the time they start flowering until the pegs are all fully dug into the ground. Look for your first flowers to appear between 25 and 40 days after planting. From flowering to harvest, be careful not to let the peanut plant dry out.

When the leaves of the plant begin to turn yellow in the fall, it's time to stop watering completely. The yellowing of the leaves is the signal that all your hard work will soon pay off. Your peanut harvest lasts 10 to 14 days.


Pachliopta aristolochiae

The common rose butterfly, Common rose in English (Pachliopta aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775)) is a moth belonging to the Papilionidae family.

Systematics -
From the systematic point of view it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Animalia Kingdom, Subarign Eumetazoa, Superphylum Protostomia, Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Tracheata, Superclass Hexapoda, Classe Insecta, Subclass Pterygota, Cohort Endopterygota, Superorder Oligoneoptera, Suborder Lepoptera, Suborder Ligoneoptera, Suborder Lepoptery Heteroneura, Ditrysia Division, Papilionoidea Superfamily, Papilionidae Family, and then to the Pachliopta Genus and to the P. aristolochiae Species.
The term is synonymous: Atrophaneura aristolochiae.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat -
Pachliopta aristolochiae is widely found in Asia, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (including the Andaman Islands), Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Japan (southwestern Okinawa only), Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Nicobar Islands, peninsula and East Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Taiwan. It is very common in almost all the plains of India and is not a threatened species. During and after the monsoon it is extremely abundant.

Morphology -
The Pachliopta aristolochiae is a showy butterfly that is characterized by the velvety black dorsal part.
I notice pale and well-marked stripes on the disc area that do not reach the terminal margin, the latter is very velvety black, the stripes are clearly visible, alternating with darker stripes. In specimens living in drier climates these signs are very short. Beyond these stripes, a series of subterminal spots can be seen in the intermediate spaces from one to seven of luminous red color sprinkled with black scales, and other areas of white color in the intermediate part of the wings.
On the underside of males, the color and markings are similar, but the subterminal red spots on the back are much brighter. The antennae, thorax and abdomen are black, the head, the upper part of the prothorax and most of the thorax and lower abdomen are bright red together with the anal segment which is also vermilion red.
This species has low sexual polymorphism, and females are similar to males differ from this only in relatively wider wings.
The eggs are round and reddish with subtle black markings and are laid singly on the top, bottom of the leaves or even on the shoots.
The caterpillar is a velvety-brown color and has a white band on a segment in the center that resembles a belt or collar. This has numerous fleshy white bumps with a red tip on the body. He is somewhat clumsy and slow in his movements.
The pupa is brownish with various shades of brown and pink. It attaches to supports where it lives with the tail and is held at an angle by a strap. The distinctive feature of the pupa is the presence of large semicircular projections on the back of the abdomen, chest and head.

Attitude and Life Cycle -
The Pachliopta aristolochiae is a swallowtail butterfly widely spread in South and Southeast Asia and is the most common of the broad-tailed butterflies of India.
Its morphological characters (red body, slow and characteristic flight, bright coloring and the design of the wings) are intended to indicate to predators that this butterfly is inedible, being well protected from the poisons it has obtained from the plants it has fed in the larval state. Among other things, it also emits a foul-smelling substance that further increases its unpleasant qualities.
The common rose, in the butterfly state, frequently visits flowers such as Lantana, Cosmo, Zinnia, Jatropha and Clerodendron. The common rose is a butterfly that is very active in the morning before most butterflies and remains as such throughout the day until sunset. It can be seen flying both in the presence of sun and in shady areas.
In drier regions, around noon, the butterfly rests in thickets or shady areas to avoid heat. After this rest phase, it resumes its activity in the late afternoon.
In the evening it retreats to wooded areas in search of dry branches or twigs to rest on. It prefers sites that are 3 to 5 meters above the ground, under the canopy of trees with good leaf cover, where it often congregates in the company of other butterflies of its species.
The Pachliopta aristolochiae is an insect that flies high, slowly and often descends when it needs to collect the nectar of the underlying flowers. On such occasions it often lowers with its wings closed, and as it approaches the flower, the wings reopen to encourage deceleration. In its flight this butterfly mainly rests on the powerful flapping of its front wings while the rear wings act as a balancing and steering mechanism. This flight technique makes its flight appear rather unusual to an observer, as one gets the impression that this butterfly is held in flight only with the assistance of its front wings.
From the deposition of the eggs voracious caterpillars are born that will feed abundantly before pupating. The female is often observed on Aristolochiaceae plants as she goes about selecting those healthy, more vegetated plants to ensure a sufficient amount of food for her voracious caterpillars. The female lays her eggs, arranged individually on top, in the lower part of the leaves and shoots.

Ecological Role -
The larvae of Pachliopta aristolochiae feed on climbing species of the genus Aristolochia, from which they take up toxins, such as aristolochic acid, which they accumulate in their bodies. This makes the adults toxic to vertebrate predators such as birds and reptiles. However, the braconid wasps, which parasitize the caterpillars, are not affected by toxins because they most likely evolved together with this butterfly.
The food plants the larvae feed on are: Aristolochia bracteolata, Aristolochia indica, Aristolochia tagala, Aristolochiae griffithi and Thottea siliquosa.

Sources
- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
- Russo G., 1976. Agricultural Entomology. Special Part. Liguori Editore, Naples.
- Tremblay E., 1997. Applied entomology. Liguori Editore, Naples.


Aristolochia medicinal plant

There plant it was traditionally used as a regulator of the menstrual cycle in amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and menopausal disorders and as an oxytocic. Drastic purgative and diuretic properties were also recognized.

Aristolochia

For these characteristics it was used in folk medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and gout. Subsequent reports had highlighted for the extracts ofAristolochia properties that stimulate the phagocytosis activity with consequent increase in the body's defense capacity against bacterial infections.

Externally, the Aristolochia preparations were used as cicatrizants in ulcerations and sores in general and in the paronychia of the hands and feet.

Common name: Aristolochia
French: Aristoloche
English: Aristolochy
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Part used: rhizome and leaves

Main constituents:

  • 0.4% essential oil
  • aristolochic acid (0.9%)
  • magnoflorine (alkaloid)
  • allantoin
  • flavone pigment
  • bitter pigment: clematinin

Main activities: emmenagogue and oxytocic, diuretic-purgative and immunostimulating.

Therapeutic use: not recommended

  • It owes its name to the Greek Aristos (excellent) and ìokein (lochi), as tradition recognizes properties suitable for promoting menstruation and lochi after childbirth.
  • In the Middle Ages it was used to combat gastric disorders, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries against gout, in the nineteenth century against intermittent fevers, then its use was abandoned.
  • It was considered an antidote to snake venom:
    in fact, aristolochic acid is able to inactivate some poisons while it would have no effect on others.

The Aristolochia plant.


Aristolochia: very dangerous!

Published by marcellanicolosi

The Aristolochia is a plant belonging to the Aristolochiaceae family of which there are numerous species in nature (some sources speak of over 350, others of over 500) distributed throughout the world and in different climatic zones, which can be herbaceous or shrubby, with deciduous or evergreen.

Aristolochia utriformis and Aristolochia westlandii are also protected species because they are in danger of extinction.

All the species are climbers, but only some are cultivated for ornamental purposes to enrich walls, trellises and pergolas.

The peculiarity of this plant are the flowers which, thanks to their intense scent and their particular conformation, attract insects and "capture" them inside the corolla, letting them go covered with pollen only after withering.

The origin of the name is controversial: some believe that it derives from the Greek words aristos (best) and lochi (uterus / childbirth), while according to Cicero's writings the name derives from Aristolochos, that is, from a man who, thanks to a dream , he had learned to use it as an antidote to snake bites.

Among the most widespread species there is the Aristolochia Macrophylla, a fast growing climbing plant ideal for adorning pergolas. Macrophylla has very large leaves and distinctive pipe-shaped flowers.

The Aristolochia Gigantea, native to Brazil, Colombia and Panama, is an evergreen climbing plant with obovate leaves and tube-shaped flowers without petals that widen vertically and emit a not very pleasant scent.

The Aristolochia Elegans, also native to Brazil, is a climber that can easily reach three meters in height, has heart-shaped leaves and tubular-shaped flowers that bloom between July and September.

The Aristolochia Fangchi it grows in valleys and along streams, it is a perennial climbing plant that can reach up to five meters in height, has oblong leaves and violet-colored flowers that bloom between May and June.

A separate discussion must be made for the Aristolochia Clematitis, a perennial herbaceous plant with creeping rhizomatous root, erect woody stem at the base that can be simple or branched. It has heart-shaped leaves with irregular edges, yellow flowers and globular capsule-shaped fruits.

Clematitis is native to Asia Minor, the Caucasus and the Mediterranean, it is found along ditches, on uncultivated land or as a weed in fields and vineyards up to 1000 meters above sea level.

According to the directive of the Ministry of Health of 2009, the inclusion of substances and plant extracts of the Aristolochia plant, root and rhizome in food supplements is prohibited.

Being toxic and poisonous, the domestic use and in phytotherapy has been abandoned, but it is still included in the homeopathic compounds against irritability, depression, venous insufficiency, morning headache, nasal congestion with tearing, sore of teeth caused by cold or hot, painful menstruation.

Contains aristolochic acid, resin, magnoflorine alkaloid, allantoin, pigments, clematitine, phytosterin, tannins and essential oil.

Aristolochia is a highly toxic herb, it is forbidden to use any of its parts as it is dangerous for the body, irritating to the intestine, carcinogenic and genotoxic.

Its toxicity was discovered in the 1990s when a large number of people who had undergone a weight loss treatment for which pills containing aristolochic acid were administered developed severe kidney disease.

Furthermore, studies have confirmed its danger when the Balkan nephropathy, widespread in rural areas of some Eastern European countries, was linked to the presence of Aristolochia seeds, normally present in wheat fields, in the flour produced in those areas.

Although the use of this plant is absolutely forbidden, it is not difficult to find products containing it on the internet. Therefore it is vital to know the content of herbal products and consult a specialist before using any remedy, natural or otherwise.

The first to classify Arisotlochia was Carl von Linné.

In the past it was used to treat gout and rheumatism, as a healing agent, against snake bites and to regulate the menstrual cycle.

Aristolochia are easily cultivated and do not require special care, even if they do not grow well at low temperatures and in direct sunlight.

They need a lot of water during spring and summer, but not during winter and autumn.

Aristolochia prefer light soils, rich in organic substance and draining, to make them grow in health it is good to combine liquid fertilizer, possibly rich in Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Boron and Molybdenum, to the water of watering throughout the summer.

Since it is a climber that develops in height, it is necessary to prune it periodically, preferably in February, cutting the highest peaks to make it thicker. But you have to use well-disinfected tools to avoid the development of parasitic diseases.

Aristolochia multiply through seeds and cuttings. In this second case, in July the tops, at least 10 cm long, are cut with a flame-disinfected knife or razor blade, to avoid infecting the tissues. After making an oblique cut, this must be immersed in a special powder that facilitates rooting and only after the cutting must be inserted into the hole already prepared in the earth of the pot. At this point it is sufficient to gently compact the soil, put the pot in an environment where the temperature must be kept at about 18 ° C and keep the earth always moist until the cutting strengthens. At that point the pot can be changed and placed wherever it can climb.

Although the Aristolochia is not a plant subject to disease or pest attacks, it is important to remember to prune it or cut the cuttings with a flame-disinfected tool.

In the Chinese tradition some parts of some species of Aristolochia are used to solve various ailments.

For example, the Manshuriensis stem is used as an anti-inflammatory and diuretic in case of urinary system infections, and as an emmenagogue and galactogen, that of the Contorta and Debilis for epigastric and joint pain and in case of edema.

The fruits of both are used against hemorrhoids, coughs and asthma, the roots of Debilis are used against dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, various types of blisters and insect bites.

Finally, the dried root of Aristolochia Fangchi is used together with other essences in case of edema and as a diuretic, antipyretic and analgesic.

The dried root of Aristolochia Clematitis is used as an astringent, emmenagogue and vulnerary both in traditional Chinese medicine and in European homeopathy.

Although it is used in Chinese folk medicine, it is always good to remember that it is a potentially very dangerous plant.


Passion fruit

Morphology. The roots generally fasciculate, in some cases they are fleshy, at times with the production of root suckers, some species such as the Passiflora tuberosa. Passionflower mother tincture has calming and anxiolytic properties useful in disorders of the nervous sphere. The presence of Bergamot in Calabria would have been ascertained. Anona - Annona cherimola Mill. Atlas of tree crops - Fruit trees General. The Annona (Annona cherimola Mill.) Is a plant native to the South.

The Passion Fruit. Passion fruit is the fruit of a tropical climbing plant, Passiflora, belonging to the Passifloraceae family. Passionflower is a medicinal herb able to give us peaceful nights without waking up. YOU CAN BUY YOUR PLANTS ONLINE, SHIPPING THROUGHOUT ITALY and EUROPE! PLANTS IN POTS AND BARE ROOTS - From January 18 to February 22, 2019, on all orders. Fruit nociculture: innovation and sustainability. The conference aims to illustrate and disseminate the most recent scientific achievements in the sector, proposing. turn on vtr phrasal sepphrasal verb, transitive, separable: Verb with adverb (s) or preposition (s), having.

Passionflower - Wikipeds

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Mother tincture of Passiflora - Cure-Naturali

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Video: Aristolochia gigantea