Cherry Chermashnaya is a very early yellow-fruited variety
Sweet cherries have long been considered a southern fruit, but in recent decades, many varieties have been bred for cultivation in regions with relatively cold climates. The assortment is rich: there are varieties with fruits of different colors and different ripening periods. Earlier than most others, the fruits of the yellow cherry Chermashnaya ripen.
Description of the variety
Cherry Chermashnaya is well known to gardeners: not so few years have passed since its appearance.
Origin of the variety
Cherry Chermashnaya was obtained at the beginning of this millennium at the Institute of Horticulture and Nursery (VSTISP) on the basis of the Leningradskaya Zheltaya variety. The authors pollinated the seedlings of this cherry with the pollen of a mixture of varieties. As a result of research, a sweet cherry with fruits similar to the parental ones, but bearing fruit at a much earlier date, appeared.
The fruits of the Leningrad yellow cherry are very similar in appearance to the fruits of its descendant - Chermashnaya
Cherry Chermashnaya was registered in the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2004 and is recommended for the Central Region. The properties of the variety allow it to be grown in warmer regions, but it is in such areas as Moscow, Nizhegorodskaya, Vladimirskaya and others that a zoned sweet cherry variety was urgently needed, the fruits of which would ripen very early.
Description of the plant
Many varieties of cherries grow in the form of very tall trees that are difficult to harvest. Chermashnaya, too, cannot be called a dwarf, but her tree is of medium height, reaches a height of four, maximum - five meters. The tree grows quickly, forms straight shoots of red-brown color, without pubescence. The crown is characterized by medium density, round-oval in shape. Leaves are green, medium-sized, glossy.
The variety is highly resistant to diseases typical of stone fruits (in particular, moniliosis and coccomycosis) and pests, only in hot seasons it is slightly damaged by leaf-eating. It tolerates the winters characteristic of Central Russia well: both frosts and possible periodic thaws. However, when the temperature drops below -20 aboutWith weakened trees, partial freezing of flower buds is possible. Drought tolerates easily.
Flowering and fruiting
Fruiting begins three years after the two-year-old is planted, and by the sixth year the yield reaches its peak. Cherry blossoms early, before the blooming of vegetative buds. The flowers are white, in the shape of an umbrella. Fruits ripen in the second half of June, but not all at once: the elongation of fruiting allows you to extend the harvest by 2-3 weeks.
The first leaves unfold when the cherry is already beginning to fade
From an adult tree, you can collect up to 30 kg of fruits, per hectare, with industrial cultivation - up to 90 centners (on average, the yield is 85.2 centners / ha). Basically, the fruits are found on bouquet branches, partly on the ends of shortened young shoots. However, normal productivity is possible only in the presence of pollinators - trees of other varieties.
The main types of pollinators
Chermashnaya is self-fruitless: only single fruits can grow on a lonely tree. Almost any varieties blooming at the same time as Chermashnaya are suitable as pollinators. The best are Fatezh, Bryansk pink, Leningrad black or Iput.
In the absence of other cherry trees, the Shokoladnitsa cherry copes well with the role of a pollinator, other varieties of cherry can also pollinate cherries to some extent.
There is a known method of grafting a cuttings of a different variety into the crown of a tree, which saves space in the garden. It is especially readily used by land-poor summer residents.
Description of fruits
Chermashnaya's fruits are of medium size: they are round, slightly elongated towards the crown, mostly weighing 4.0–4.5 g. Color is yellow, slight blush is possible, pulp of the same color, sweet and sour, juice content is high. The separation of the smooth bone from the fruit is free, the skin is thin. Tasters rate the taste of fresh fruits at 4.4 points, considering it a dessert.
Depending on the degree of ripeness, the fruits have different shades of yellow.
The fruits are stored for a very short time, and cannot be transported either. Therefore, the excess harvest, not consumed fresh, has to be processed. Easy separation of the seed allows you to make all kinds of preparations for the winter from cherries, but nevertheless, jam from it is rarely cooked, usually processed into compotes or cherries canned in their own juice are prepared.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Cherry Chermashnaya is appreciated for its early maturity and early ripening, dessert taste of fruits, high yield and unpretentiousness to growing conditions. It is quite winter-hardy and is almost not affected by diseases and pests. Self-infertility (a property inherent in most varieties of cherries) and too short shelf life are noted as disadvantages: even in the refrigerator, the fruits remain usable for only a few days.
Planting cherry varieties Chermashnaya
The sweet cherry of the variety in question is mainly grown in the middle lane, which is characterized by a temperate continental climate with rather cold winters and quite warm and humid summers. This, as well as the properties of the tree to withstand not too severe frosts, leaves an imprint on the peculiarities of planting cherries and caring for them.
Cherries, like other stone fruits, are tried to be planted in spring, although autumn planting of cold-resistant varieties is possible. Autumn planting is simpler in technique, but more risky from the point of view of possible freezing of seedlings that have not completely taken root. In the fall, planting should be completed around mid-October, and for the winter, although the Chermashnaya variety is cold-resistant, the seedling should be thoroughly insulated. However, it is still better to plant a tree in the spring.
Spring has its own difficulties: a very short time is allotted for landing. After winter, the soil should thaw and slightly warm up, and sap flow in the trees should not start. It is still possible to plant cherries with slightly swollen buds, but dangerous with blossoming ones. Therefore, there is only a week and a half for landing, falling, depending on the region and the current weather, in the second half of April or the first days of May. If everything is done correctly, over the summer the seedling will develop roots, grow the aboveground part and endure the first winter well.
Site selection and preparation
Any varieties of cherries bear fruit best in sunny areas not covered by tall trees or walls of houses. However, they do not like cold winds, especially northern ones, so small buildings or low fences nearby will be a plus. It is optimal to plant cherries on gentle southern slopes, but not in lowlands, where water stagnation is possible: it is detrimental to the roots of sweet cherries. If, nevertheless, the groundwater is closer than one and a half meters from the surface, you can fill in a small artificial mound.
In industrial horticulture, cherry orchards are laid out in the open.
The best soil is neutral loam or sandy loam, well fertilized and loose. Sand, peat and clay are unsuitable, and acidic soils (with a pH below 6.5) are unsuitable. Clay soils can be preliminarily corrected by adding sand and humus, and in sandy soils, on the contrary, they add a little clay when digging. Acidic soils are limy long before planting.
Chermashnaya's tree, although medium in size, is still rather big, so the distance to neighboring trees or buildings should be at least 3 meters. At least one of the neighboring trees should be a cherry pollinator: a simultaneously flowering cherry tree of a different variety, or, in extreme cases, a cherry.
Cherry and apple trees are not very fond of the neighborhood with each other, it is necessary to plant them further away from walnuts and apricots.
In any case, uncultivated soils must be dug deep before preparing the planting pit, removing stones, weed rhizomes and other debris. When digging, it is worth adding a bucket of humus per square meter, but if you have time, it is better to sow green manure in advance. Grasses such as lupine, vetch, oats, peas and some others, heal the soil and enrich it, you just need to mow them and bury them before flowering.
It is almost impossible to dig a hole in the spring, therefore, it is prepared for spring planting in the fall. For Chermashnaya cherries, it is recommended to dig a large hole: 0.9-1.0 m in diameter, at least 70 cm deep. As always, the lower, useless layer is thrown away, and the upper one is piled into a separate pile, and then, after thorough mixing with fertilizers, is returned back. But if the soil is heavy, it is worth putting a drainage layer on the bottom of the pit - at least 10–12 cm of gravel or gravel.
The pit for Chermashnaya is dug quite large, drainage is laid on the bottom
The main fertilizers for the planting pit are 2-3 buckets of humus and 2 liters of wood ash. But on poor soils, they also add 100–150 g of superphosphate, although usually mineral fertilizers are added for cherries in top dressing. You can immediately drive a strong landing stake into the center of the pit. It should protrude 80–90 cm above the ground. If the soil is dry, a couple of buckets of water are poured into the pit and left until spring.
It is best to plant a two-year-old. One-year olds take root no worse, but the harvest will have to wait a year longer. Three-year-olds are already too big, there are more problems with them when landing. There should be no swelling or significant damage on the roots (slightly broken off or dry ends should be cut to a healthy place). The length of the roots is optimally about 30 cm, in the three main areas there should be many small, absorbent ones.
The straighter the stem, the better, there should be no damage to the bark on it. If you buy a two-year-old, it should have 3-4 lateral branches: well-developed, not shorter than 30 cm. Experienced people advise to buy seedlings in the fall, and to bury them in the garden for the winter. This is, of course, unnecessary trouble, so if there is a reliable nursery that you can trust, it is better to make your purchase in the spring, right before planting.
Chermashnaya is planted in a traditional way, like most fruit trees.
- Having brought a seedling to the site, they put it in water for several hours, and just before planting, they dip the roots in a clay mash.
Clay and mullein chatter facilitates seedlings engraftment
- A part of the soil is taken out of the pit and the seedling is placed so that its roots are located without tension, and the root collar is located 7–8 cm above ground level.
If a seedling with a closed root system is planted, then after carefully removing it from the container, it is planted to the same depth as before: the root collar is not buried
- Gradually cover the roots with the removed soil, evenly distributing it between the roots without air pockets and slightly compacting. The stem is tied to the planting stake.
Tie up the seedlings with a figure of eight at such a height so as not to injure the skeletal branches
- Water the seedling, spending 2-3 buckets of water, and form sides around the pit for subsequent watering.
More water may be required: watered while it is quickly absorbed
- Mulch the soil around the seedling with a layer of 3-4 cm using humus, sawdust or peat.
When mulching, you do not need to fill up the stem
After all the operations, the root collar will drop a little, but it should barely be visible from the ground; over time, everything will return to normal.
At first, the seedling is often watered, preventing the soil from drying out. But after it takes root well and resumes growth, caring for Chermashnaya cherries will practically not differ from caring for cherries of other varieties of similar zoning.
Sweet cherries are watered quite often, but the variety in question is quite drought-resistant, so if you tighten it a little with watering, nothing bad will happen. On average, cherries are watered, depending on the weather, once or twice a month, this is especially important in the first half of the growing season. If at normal time 7–8 buckets of water are consumed on an adult tree, then during the period of fruit pouring in the absence of rain, the rate can double. It is important to wet the soil at least half a meter.
Usually cherry trees are kept under black fallow, and Chermashnaya is no exception. This means that some time after watering or heavy rain, the soil in the near-trunk circle is slightly loosened, at the same time destroying the weeds. Watering is stopped 2–3 weeks before the fruit ripens, and less watering is also given in the fall, when the tree must prepare for winter. But just before the onset of frost, if the autumn is dry, be sure to carry out subwinter watering.
For the first 2-3 years, the seedling will have enough fertilizers that were introduced into the planting pit. Then Chermashnaya is fed. Cherries in top dressing are mainly provided with mineral fertilizers; humus is enough of what is brought in as mulch or to cover the roots for the winter. Young trees need increased growth, so in the spring they apply 20 g / m2 urea: dry for digging or dissolving in water and pouring the solution under the tree after watering.
Urea is the first organic substance artificially obtained from inorganics: it is completely safe for plants even with a slight excess
With the entry of cherries into fruiting, the spring doses of urea are reduced by 1.5–2 times, but other nutrients are also added. After harvesting, 200-300 g of superphosphate and 80-100 g of potassium sulfate are buried under an adult tree (by continuous digging or in 6-8 shallow pits). In late autumn, a liter can of wood ash is brought in. For the winter, 3-4 buckets of humus are scattered in the trunk circle, which is embedded in the soil already during spring processing.
Once every few years, they correct the acidity of the soil, but caution is needed in this matter. The optimal pH value for the Chermashnaya variety is from 6.7 to 7.2. Anything below 6.5 and above 7.5 is bad. If the pH rises strongly (this is rare), high-moor peat is added. More often, the soils, on the contrary, become slightly acidified over time due to the applied fertilizers, so you have to add slaked lime or chalk up to 500 g per tree.
Like all stone fruits, Chermashnaya cherries gratefully accept qualified pruning, but they can suffer greatly from incorrect ones. In any case, pruning should be carried out in early spring, and the wounds must be covered with garden varnish. During the growing season, only a few damaged branches can be removed. The first few years, pruning pursues the goal of forming a comfortable crown, and then it becomes sanitary: the Chermashnaya variety is not prone to excessive thickening and does not require significant thinning.
Chermashnaya grows rapidly from the very first year after planting, so you cannot even skip pruning once. The following procedures are followed.
- Immediately after the spring planting of a two-year-old seedling, a stem is formed. Anything that has grown below 50-60 cm is removed. Choose 3-4 best side branches, well placed, and shorten them in half. The guide is shortened so that it is 15–20 cm higher than the upper branches. The remaining branches are removed.
- A year later, from the newly regrown lateral shoots, 2–3 are selected, located half a meter higher than last year, they are slightly pruned, the rest are removed. If necessary, shorten the conductor again in the same way as for the first cut.
- In the third year, the conductor is cut out, transferring the growth of the tree to the upper lateral branch: in this way, they fight against the excessive height of the plant.
For 3-4 years, the crown is fully formed, easy to care for
In a fruiting tree, only dried and broken branches are cut out, as well as those that grow in an unwanted direction or rub against neighboring ones.
Chermashnaya cherries are stored for a very short time, so they must be collected on time. They choose the moment when the cherry is fully ripe, but the stalk is still green. The collection is carried out in dry weather, trying to pluck the fruits together with the stalks, but without disturbing the branches. It is best to use scissors when doing this. The fruits are placed in low boxes with a capacity of no more than 5 kg, preventing rotting specimens from entering.
Video: fruiting cherry Chermashnaya
Preparing for winter
Chermashnaya is a relatively cold-resistant variety, but we must remember that this is still not an apple tree: cherry has never been a crop intended for growing in a harsh climate. Therefore, after winter watering, carried out after the autumn digging of the soil, the near-trunk circle must be mulched with humus or straw, and the trunk and bases of the skeletal branches must be whitewashed with a composition consisting of 2 kg of lime, 300 g of copper sulfate and a bucket of water. The trunk must also be protected from rodents by tying it with coniferous spruce branches or agrofibre; this is especially important for young trees. When the snow falls, it is thrown under the trees and slightly trampled.
Young trees for the winter, if possible, are packed almost completely
Diseases and pests, the fight against them
Cherry Chermashnaya is highly resistant to moniliosis (fruit rot) and coccomycosis, one of the most dangerous fungal diseases. Other diseases are rare in her, but they do occur.
Clasterosporiosis first appears as brownish spots on the leaves, which later turn into holes. The disease spreads to shoots that can dry out. In the spring, before the tree awakens, it is treated with a 3% Bordeaux mixture (if the buds have begun to bloom - 1%). In the summer, Skor or Horus preparations are used according to the instructions for them.
With clotterosporia, the leaves are spotty and leaky
With cytosporosis, dark spots form on the bark, turning into cracks, from which gum is released. This can be observed already during the flowering period: the leaves begin to fall off, and the branches dry out. The affected fragments should be immediately cut out and burned by treating the wounds with a 1% solution of copper sulfate. A diseased tree is sprayed with a Bordeaux mixture in spring and autumn, and in the summer with a 4% solution of copper oxychloride.
Of the pests, the most common pests are leafworm, cherry fly and aphid. Aphids harm young shoots and leaves by sucking juices out of them. Cherry fly larvae damage fruits. The caterpillars of the leafworm infect the buds and buds, after which they crawl onto the leaves, capturing the fruits.
Black aphids live on cherries more often than others.
If you can fight aphids with folk remedies (ash and soap solution, infusion of onion peels, etc.), and with a fly - using baits like cans of compote, the situation is more complicated with a leaf roller. It is necessary to use insecticides against it, and Chermashnaya is a very early variety, and the period when chemicals are applicable is very short: most of them have a long duration, and the fruits cannot be consumed for 2-3 weeks after spraying.
Cherry Chermashnaya is a good choice for lovers of very early fruits living in Central Russia. It bears fruit with tasty fruits, gives high yields, and ripening is extended in time, which allows you to enjoy vitamin products for 2-3 weeks.
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Annushka is a mid-early cherry hybrid, which was bred by the efforts of one of the best Ukrainian breeders (Taranenko). This large-fruited frost-resistant variety is quite capable of competing with the most famous cherry varieties in the world.
Sweet cherry Annushka is considered a vigorous variety: the tree can reach a height of 4-5 m. All shoots are strong and straight. Nevertheless, in the process of cherry growth, a crown of an almost ideal round shape is formed. The leaves of the tree are also large, they are distinguished by a bright dark green color and an elongated shape. During the flowering period, the tree is covered with delicate white 5-petal buds, united in several pieces in umbellate inflorescences.
The fruits of the variety are rather large (the weight of one is 10 g), have a rounded, slightly flattened shape at the stalk. The color of the cherry is rich dark red. The flesh inside is also red, quite dense, juicy, crunchy. The palatability of the fruit is excellent.
According to the reviews of experienced gardeners, Annushka's cherry has a number of undoubted advantages, which include the following:
- resistance to low temperatures (wood can withstand temperatures up to -35 degrees)
- resistance to lack of moisture
- early (cherry, with proper care, will delight the first fruits in 3-4 years) and very long stable fruiting (about 10 years)
- the ability of the variety to fully preserve the taste of the fruit, despite sharp temperature fluctuations
- high yields (about 20-30 kg per tree)
- immunity to the activity of most pests.
But, unfortunately, despite the large number of positive aspects, the variety also has its disadvantages. These include: the need for regular pruning of wood, instability to the effects of certain fungi and fear of a humid environment.
Attention! Since the tree is quite vigorous, and the pistils are not very drought-resistant, the variety will not be able to develop fully in dry steppe regions and please with the same generous harvest as in other climatic conditions.
Tall trees of this variety are distinguished by a pyramidal crown with an average density.
By the berries Rossoshan gold cherries are dense flesh, they are large and as if slightly squeezed on the sides. In bright sunlight, the berries may turn pink. They taste juicy and sweet, with a slight sourness. The stone is slightly elongated, smooth, it is separated from the berry without much effort. Fruits are dense, do not crack.
Since the variety is not self-pollinating, it is advisable to plant pollinating trees nearby, blooming at the same time.
The undoubted plus of the variety is that it is adapted to the conditions of the middle zone, since it was bred on the territory of the Russian Federation.