Cultivation and varieties of actinidia
Actinidia is gaining popularity in our gardens. The botanical name of the plant comes from the Greek word "actis" - a star (for the radiant arrangement of the ovary columns).
In its natural form, actinidia lives in Indochina, China, Japan, Korea. Most of the species, and there are 36 of them, have a decorative value, and only a few are food and medicinal. The largest-fruited species (fruit weight - 28-30 g) - Chinese actinidia.
Breeding work with plants of this species was first carried out in New Zealand, where five large-fruited varieties were bred, called "kiwi", after the kiwi bird - a symbol on the coat of arms of New Zealand. They began to grow in Italy, France, USA, Germany, Bulgaria and other countries.
In our country, in the wild, actinidia grows only in the Far East - in the Primorsky Territory, on South Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. Three species live here: actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta, or sharp-toothed, and actinidia polygamous.
In amateur gardening, two of its types are most common: actinidia arguta and actinidia kolomikta... For gardeners in the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia, actinidia kolomikta is of greatest interest - the most frost-resistant and early-growing species. For convenience, we will call it simply actinidia.
In the Far East it is called "raisins", "raisins", "Amur grapes". It is appropriate to call it the "vine of health". Actinidia fruits are tender, fragrant, juicy, sour-sweet taste. They contain up to 5 times more vitamin C than black currant and 25 times more than lemon. To meet the daily requirement for vitamin C, it is enough to eat 1-2 berries or 10 g of jam. One actinidia plant can provide a year-round vitamin C requirement for a family of 3-4 people.
Actinidia is suitable for all types of processing. At the same time, it is important that a significant amount of vitamin C is retained in the processed products. Wine from actinidia, for example, due to its high content of ascorbic acid (up to 1140 mg per 1 l), can be attributed to medicinal wines. It has a golden yellow color and resembles aged nutmeg brands. Berries are good for pie fillings. Dried berries are similar in quality to dried seedless grapes (raisins). Raw preparations are well preserved in the refrigerator: berries covered with sugar (1: 2) and rubbed with sugar (1: 1.5-1.7).
For the first time, I.V. Michurin carried out breeding work on the breeding of actinidia varieties. He predicted that actinidia is capable of ousting grapes and gooseberries from the gardens of Russia. Unfortunately, actinidia has not yet received the proper distribution, remaining a rare culture.
Actinidia - climbing shrub (liana), which is of great interest as an ornamental, fruit and medicinal plant.
As a highly decorative plant, actinidia has been cultivated in Russia since the 1850s. Plants differ in variegation - a rather rare phenomenon in the plant world. When blooming, the leaves are bronze, then green, in June some of the leaves are pale pink, over time they are bright crimson, in autumn they turn purple or brown.
Plants of actinidia are dioecious. The flowers are white, with a delicate scent of lily of the valley. Female flowers are located singly, male flowers are collected 2-3 per inflorescence. In female flowers, the petals fall off one by one, the perianth of the male flower falls off entirely. There are also bisexual forms that yield a crop with self-pollination.
The fruit is a multi-seeded berry, oval-elongated, 2-3 cm long. The average weight of the berry is 2.5 g, the color is emerald green, when ripe it turns green even more. The fruits ripen in late August and early September. In appearance they resemble gooseberry berries. Ripe, they quickly fall off and deteriorate. The seeds are very small (60-100 pcs), like strawberries. Harvest per bush 2-10 kg.
The root system of actinidia is densely branched. On sod-podzolic soil, it lies in a layer 25-30 cm from the surface, develops in a horizontal direction.
In its natural habitats, actinidia is able to withstand frosts up to 43 degrees without damage. Under culture conditions, young plants of 1-3 years of age are very sensitive to temperature drops and require mandatory shelter for the winter.
Plants that have entered the fruiting period are distinguished by greater winter hardiness compared to non-fruiting ones. Plants grown in high light conditions are more hardy. In the conditions of the Leningrad region, the tops of immature shoots can freeze in actinidia.
Actinidia prefers light or medium loamy in texture, sufficiently fertile soils with a good water-air regime, weakly acidic or neutral reaction.
Although actinidia is shade-tolerant, the best results are obtained when growing it in well-lit, sheltered places, from the south or south-west side of buildings.
On heavy and waterlogged soils, a drainage layer (broken brick, gravel, crushed stone, etc.) with a thickness of 25-30 cm is laid on the bottom of a pit or trench (which is better) with a depth of 60-70 cm. The pit is filled with a mixture of equal parts of humus, sand and clay. The distance between plants is 1.5-2 m. One male is planted on five female plants. The best planting time is spring. In the first 2-3 years after planting, the plants need to be shaded in hot weather.
Plants need vertical support for successful growth and fruiting. It can be a wire trellis, lattice frame, guide cords. Practice has shown the advisability of using soft wire and rope trellises, which can be lowered to the ground along with the plants, covering them for the winter. Actinidia is formed in the form of a fan, evenly distributing shoots in the plane of support.
In the absence of supports in open places, this climbing plant turns into a low, highly branching shrub. In such conditions, the bark of its branches is affected by sunburn.
Pruning actinidia is reduced to the removal of diseased, broken and thickening shoots.It is better to carry it out after the end of the spring sap flow, in late May-early June, so as not to cause abundant "crying" and drying out of the plants. Sections are covered with garden pitch. The main branches are replaced every 2-3 years.
The soil is weeded, loosened, mulched. Fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, should be applied in limited quantities so as not to cause prolonged growth of shoots. In the spring, add 30-40 g of ammonium nitrate and 15-20 g of superphosphate and potassium salt. After fruiting, add 20-30 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium salt per square meter.
Actinidia reacts negatively to both soil and atmospheric drought and requires regular and abundant watering. For the winter, it is advisable to mulch the area of the near-trunk circle with a layer of 8 -10 cm to protect the root system from freezing.
Young plants should be protected from cats, which, being attracted by the strong, specific odor emanating from the plants in spring, gnaw at the bark at the base of the stem.
Actinidia can be propagated by green, lignified cuttings and layering. In the latter case, a strong one-year branch during the period of mass shoots regrowth (end of May) is laid on well-loosened soil, pinned at the points of origin of the growing shoots and spud with loose, fertile soil, leaving only the top of the shoots. As the shoots grow, hilling is repeated. Rooted layers are separated after 2-3 years.
The varieties recommended for our zone include: Leningradskaya early, Pavlovskaya, Pobeda, Matovaya, Urozhainaya, VIR-1, September, Leningradskaya late and others with berries weighing up to 5 grams.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Read also about actinidia
• Actinidia - general information and features of cultivation
• Features of actinidia, timing of flowering and ripening
• Cultivation of actinidia kolomikt at their summer cottage
• Actinidia in my garden
• Decorative vines of the North-West zone
Many varieties of actinidia have been planted all over the world for many years, and during this time they have earned a good reputation. Some of them are in particularly high demand and have the most positive reviews.
You can often hear from gardeners that the European varieties now sold in Russia have insufficient winter hardiness for regions with a cold climate, and you should not count on a regular harvest from them. Therefore, most of the "Europeans", mainly of the Argut species, are grown in containers and sheltered for the winter.
I grow two varieties of actinidia. Kiev large-fruited and Mezhygorskaya. For 10 years they have never froze. They bear fruit every year. They do not get sick and there are no pests. I would highly recommend Kievskaya large-fruited. Delicious, large. Some berries from a matchbox. Cats don't touch. Mezhigorskaya has a specific taste. Not everyone may like it. Cats fight with terrible force. Not only seedlings, but also an adult bush, constantly peel off the branches. It is very dry and hot here in summer. Therefore, a prerequisite, the lower part must be in the shade. And mulch. The roots are almost at the surface. Therefore, a thick layer of mulch will not help save you from the heat.The roots still rise to the surface. Next to the bush I poured out a bunch of granules. So over the summer, the roots rose 70 cm up. Those branches that are in the sun bear fruit. Those that do not bear fruit in the shade. All plants love the sun. The plant is powerful. For a gazebo just right.
Today I have harvested my first arguta Veika harvest, about 3 kg. The bush is six years old, blossoming for the second year, growing at the southeastern corner of the heated house. It should be noted that fruit setting was due to the use of Ovary and Bud, respectively, at the beginning and end of flowering. My arguta are still growing, but they are still small, not mature enough to bloom. General impressions: the fruits became soft, rather sweet, with a pleasant aroma. It should also be noted that in the fruits, against the background of fairly good sugar, acidity is very pronounced, which is not felt immediately, but manifests itself in tingling of the tongue, slight sore throat, more than 200 gr. do not eat at a time. In general, what they didn't eat was rubbed with sugar and put into the refrigerator. It turned out delicious.
The plant is unpretentious, withstands our harsh seaside winters and humid hot summers. It also manages to multiply.Maska91http://irecommend.ru/content/u-nas-na-dache-rastet-mini-kivi-ego-lyubyat-vse-dazhe-nash-kote-ne-mozhet-ustoyat-foto-chudo
My actinidia began to ripen 25 days earlier than our dates. Collected 12.5 kg of berries from one vine. This is the answer to scientists who write that such and such a variety of actinidia kolomikta gives 1.5 - 2 kg of berries. You could get more, there is no room to form._stefanhttps://www.forumhouse.ru/threads/125485/page-5
The plants have started well enough, they have been blooming for three years, but there is no harvest. After reading and looking at the photos on the Internet, I came to the disappointing conclusion that I have only "men".
The fruits are not large. Winters well. It is necessary to plant both male and female. The fruits are just honey. One drawback is that they ripen unevenly, so they are quickly eaten.Vostochnyhttps://www.forumhouse.ru/threads/125485/page-7
Lovers of exotic plants will certainly be interested in this unique culture. Actinidia is unpretentious, resistant to all possible diseases and pests, and its flowering lashes will become an adornment of any garden. Many plant varieties feel great in our climate and delight gardeners with abundant fruiting.
If you do everything right, then actinidia will begin to produce crops from the age of three, sometimes it can bear fruit a year later. Of course, at first it will be just a few berries, then the yields will begin to grow and their maximum will be reached by the age of six or seven, and when systematic rejuvenating pruning is carried out, the vine can bear fruit for several decades.
On good, nutritious soil, with sufficient moisture and good care, actinidia will produce up to six dozen kilograms of delicious fruits from one bush. Fruits ripen at different times, sometimes, in order to harvest the entire crop, it is necessary to carry out up to five harvests. You should not rush and pick the first ripe actinidia berries, you can wait a little and harvest in two or three doses, but you should not delay too much, strongly overripe berries may begin to crumble. The first fruits of early actinidia varieties usually ripen in mid-August, the latter can be found on vines and at the end of September.Immediately after harvesting the entire harvest, the liana can be fed, suitable for this is either wood ash in the amount of 250-300 g under a bush or a tablespoon of potassium salt and superphosphate under a bush.
Planting and leaving
Correct planting and care of the actinidia kolomikt Dr. Shimanovsky is very important for the plant to grow healthy and give a good harvest.
Plants are best planted in partial shade. At a young age, seedlings are shade-tolerant, but with growth they need sunlight.
Actinidia does not like stagnant water and lime, so it should not be planted in places where moisture can accumulate.
The soil for actinidia should be slightly acidic or neutral, light, fertile, fed with organic fertilizers.
The root system of the plant is located 25 cm from the surface of the earth. Therefore, you should constantly monitor the moisture content of the soil, avoiding overdrying. Insufficient watering provokes shedding of foliage. In addition, it is important to mulch the trunk circle with humus or peat. Loosening is not necessary.
From the description of the actinidia variety, Dr. Shimanovsky, it becomes clear that the plant needs supports 2.5 m high.
Considering that actinidia does not like being removed from the tapestries, they should be made strong, of durable materials, so that they will last more than one year. It is best if it is a structure that can be laid and put together with a vine and sprinkled in the winter.
The pruning procedure is performed to remove broken, diseased shoots, as well as to prevent thickening of the crown, which reduces the yield of the plant. As a rule, 3 vines are left on the bush and distributed over the trellis.
Pruning is performed in late May - early June at the end of the spring sap flow or in the fall, then smearing the cuts with garden pitch. The main actinidia vines should be renewed every 2-3 years. Upon reaching the age of 7-10, actinidia is cut off, leaving only a stump of 30-40 cm.
In early spring, pruning is not done, since the anemones can leak out and die.
Actinidia is used both in cooking for cooking various sweets, and as an ornamental plant, for landscaping gazebos, walls, and hedges.
To the genus Actinidia from the family Actinidiaceae (Actinidiaceae) belongs to 75 species native to Southeast Asia. Almost all of them are perennial vines, dioecious plants, that is, females and males grow separately. Woody shoots of actinidia climb to a very great height. Their leaves are simple, slightly serrated along the edge, with a sharp tip, arranged alternately. Small flowers from 1.5 to 3 cm sit in the axils of the leaves. The colors are usually white, but there are also yellows.
Actinidia flowers. Photo from happymodern.ru
The main advantage of actinidia is its fruits. These are berries of an oblong shape, yellowish-green in color, 2-3 cm in length, tasty and aromatic, having a very rich composition of nutrients. Let's take a closer look at some of the representatives of this genus. There are 4 types of actinidia growing in our country, all in the Far East. These ancient plants have survived from the pre-glacial period, when there were subtropics here.
In the Far East, actinidia kolomikta (Actinidia kolomikta). Here it is distributed in forests, on the slopes of hills, where it rises to a height of 1000 to 1800 m. Its thin shoots with smooth brown bark grow up to 7 m, climbing trees.
Beautiful leaves have the ability to change their color during development. At first they have a bronze tint, then they turn dark green. Before flowering, the tips of the leaves, especially those exposed to light, turn white and after flowering gradually turn into pink and crimson.
Actinidia leaves change color
Such elegant leaves, together with shiny light shoots, make the plant decorative. During the flowering period, which lasts 20 days, the vines look especially beautiful, they constantly feel the aroma, emitted by graceful white flowers.
After flowering, fruits are formed - elongated berries, similar to small cylinders up to 1.8–2 cm long. They are green in color with light touches, have a delicate aroma and pleasant taste.
Fruits of actinidia kolomikta
With the onset of autumn, when the leaves of the creeper acquire a light yellow, pinkish or violet-red color, kolomikta is also beautiful. This species is the most winter-hardy, grows well and bears fruit in all regions of Russia. There are many varieties that are suitable for growing.
Varieties of actinidia kolomikta
- 'Grape'... The variety is fruitful, early - the first berries begin to ripen in August. Ripe fruits are about 2.4 cm, with a thin skin of greenish-olive color and a very pleasant sweet, slightly sour taste.
- 'Sweetheart'. Ripens later, in late August - early September. The berries taste sweet, larger than those of 'Grape', up to 3.4 cm long, with a pointed tip. Covered with orange skin, which takes on different shades.
Other varieties: 'Waffle', 'Monetka', 'Parkovaya', 'Gourmet'.
You can choose actinidia seedlings in our catalog, which includes offers from various online stores. Choose actinidia seedlings.
Growing and varieties of actinidia - garden and vegetable garden
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Raspberries grow successfully, bear fruit abundantly and more easily endure all the hardships with the systematic application of organic fertilizers to the soil. They are various composts and rotted manure.
Raspberry seedlings are placed in one or more rows. Distances between seedlings for single-row placement and belt cultivation 0.3-0.7 m, depending on the quality of seedlings
In the first year, for intensive use of the area between raspberry bushes, you can plant early vegetables: dill, garlic, onions, turnips, radishes, carrots, beets for summer borscht
To decorate the site, raspberries can be grown in the form of a hedge, the so-called vertical flat trellis, tunnels (4), flower beds (2), borders, rabatok, standard plants
At the end of September, while the raspberry shoots are flexible, even if the leaf fall has not ended, they are tilted to the ground, intertwined or tied to neighboring ones, pinned with pegs and hooks.
The outer covering tissues are cracked and peeling as a result of a sharp change in weather in the fall: early snow, which then melts, rain and snow, a decrease in temperature
I prefer summer, June green cuttings: seedlings can be obtained quickly, they are not infected with kidney mites and take root well. In addition, green cuttings make it possible
No other disease of fruit trees has such a destructive effect as fire blight of fruit trees. It happened that due to its strong spread, it was necessary to cut down trees
Autumn is the time to tidy up the lawn and prepare it for winter. Those wishing to get a beautiful, even fluffy grass cover next summer need to carry out a number of activities.
Vegetable crops have different requirements for organic fertilizers. The most demanding (cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkin, zucchini, squash). These vegetables can even be fertilized with fresh manure.
Among the most useful crops I consider beets. It has been known since ancient times in Greece, Rome and the Mediterranean countries. Beets came to Europe in the XIV century.
The tomato culture has found wide application due to the high nutritional value and versatility of the fruit. They contain carbohydrates, organic acids (malic, citric, etc.)
When growing seedlings from sowing to emergence, the temperature is maintained at 18-21 °. After emergence within 4-5 days, the temperature should be 14-16 ° during the day.
The plot for tomatoes should be dug up in autumn to a depth of at least 20 cm.In the spring it is fertilized (per 10 m2: 1 kg of ash, 200 g of ammonium nitrate, 400 g of potassium salts
Preventive measures to protect tomatoes from pests and diseases include: compliance with crop rotation, timely implementation of agricultural practices, removal of post-harvest residues
Gooseberry is the most fruitful crop among berry plants. The best varieties yield up to 32 kg per bush. The gooseberry is currently experiencing a rebirth.
Plum fruits are high in calories, surpassing apples, pears, apricots, peaches, currants, raspberries and strawberries. 100 g of plum fruit contains 6 - 14 g of sugars
Nikolai Pavlovich, Moscow: "My mother-in-law recently bought a raspberry tree in the nursery. And I haven't even heard of this plant. How to grow it and can you get a harvest from it?"
Cold dew in late summer is a scourge for many vegetables, but tomatoes are especially affected. If brown spots appear on the lower leaves, and brown elongated strokes on the stems
The Moscow state has been eating cucumbers only since the 16th century. Cucumbers are native to northeastern India and were cultivated several millennia BC. Then the plants
Otherwise, Vitluf is called - a white leaf - because bleached young heads of cabbage from leaves are mainly used for food. In general, this plant belongs to the tsikorny salads.
From its homeland - the middle part of North America - the artichoke as a cultivated plant was introduced to southern Europe and North America and is widely cultivated there.
This herb will certainly be served to your table in Georgia, and delicate narrow-leaved shoots will surprise you with a spicy aroma and pungent taste. Transcaucasian cuisine is unthinkable without tarragon - as tarragon is called here.
Small nondescript fruits of this plant remain green even at full maturity. They look clearly unappetizing. But whoever tastes them once will remember this peculiar taste and strong
An interesting story happened with pineapple - a story as a result of which it began to bloom, one might say, by the will of man. But first, a few words about the features of this plant.
In the Non-Black Earth Region, watercress is promising among green vegetables. This culture was already well known in antiquity in the countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea. Abundance of vitamin C
This root crop is appreciated for its cold resistance and early maturity, for the fact that for the inhabitants of the northern regions of agriculture it is a source of valuable vitamins, protein substances, and mineral salts.
There are many varieties of basil, including those that have a pleasant aroma of allspice and are specially cultivated as a garden crop. Basil is widespread in Georgia
During storage, potatoes may develop dry rot. At the same time, dull brown spots with wrinkled skin appear on the tubers. The pulp under them becomes dry and rotten.
Flower buds appeared on the apple tree, and suddenly trouble: instead of swelling and blooming, they seemed to stick together with some sweetish liquid.
After all, the survival of the tree in a new place depends on this. If you have to move it over a long distance, then you cannot do without a machine or tractor.
When growing seedlings, it is very important that plants of equal strength fall on the beds: this is an indispensable condition for obtaining a high, evenly ripening yield.
In June, the time for sampling of green onions comes from seeds sown before winter. With good care at the end of the month, you can start picking onions sown in April.
Gray rot is a very annoying disease for those who grow garden strawberries. Almost every year she "collects tribute" from the strawberry beds, and in some years, especially if the summer is damp and cool
So CALCIUM. With this element, not everything is completely clear.Plants absorb it in fairly large quantities, but its physiological role is not fully understood.
IRON is also one of the most essential elements. Without it, chlorophyll does not form in the leaves, although this element is not included in chlorophyll. There is a lot of iron in the soil
The method of grafting with a graft for the bark is one of the simplest. It is good when the stalk is much thinner than the rootstock branch. The cut (and the cut for a thick branch) should be even, smooth.
For seeds of heat-loving crops, there is an agricultural hardening method. Seeds swollen after soaking, which have begun to function (some of them hatched)
Many growers are aware of the benefits of cubed seedlings. Let's talk about how best to make them at home. Well-decomposed peat is the main material.
The reasons are most often the following: fresh (previous year) seeds were taken for sowing, in addition, they were not pre-warmed up; the plants in the garden are placed too densely; the beds are shaded with something
However, it is better to do this without waiting for autumn: dig up the shoots while still young, reaching 15-20 centimeters, and plant them for growing separately, in loose soil. By autumn
Tomatoes do not need to be watered too often - just once a week is enough. It is important that watering is regular, otherwise, with an uneven flow of moisture, tomatoes can get sick with apical rot.
Those who have learned how to grow them under captivity begin to pick garden strawberries two weeks earlier. Of course, there are a lot of additional troubles with it, but they pay off with an early and bountiful harvest.
Summer is just beginning, and in raspberry plantations there is trouble: recently young shoots have appeared from the soil, and already some of them have turned black and bent down tops.
The peculiarities of the development of berry bushes are such that they begin to bloom in the spring earlier than other plants in the garden. That is why it is important to carry out the bulk of the work required for them in the fall.
Many people are familiar with this picture: in August and September, on the shelves of shops and markets in the central regions of Russia, there are heaps of apples, in the orchards there are a lot of fruits, and worn-out business executives are trying
Digging up the garden, clearing the garden of dead foliage and grass, rolling away a stone from the path, you see how disturbed beetles, large and small, black and colored, shimmering with metal and dull, rush to flee.
In dry weather, it is necessary to clean up all wounds and cracks on the skeletal branches and boles of fruit trees, treat them with a 3% solution of copper or 5% solution of ferrous sulfate
But the June dropping of the ovaries is not at all a sign of some trouble, but an inevitable physiological process, when a tree naturally frees itself from unnecessary stress.
This variety, according to the famous Russian pomologist L.P.Simirenko, was bred in Saxony in the 19th century and bears the name of the originator Drogan. The variety is self-fertile (pollinators
Many of you may be surprised to learn that there are vines among the nightshade. But it is so. Bittersweet nightshade is a beautiful woody liana and belongs to the same family
The readers of the site learned about the medicinal and nutritional qualities of one of the types of scorzonera - black root, or black carrot, as this plant is often called by amateur vegetable growers, from an article by Professor A. Turova.
Many bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of vegetable crops are transmitted through seeds. Therefore, they are pickled before sowing. Etching contributes not only to the destruction of pathogens
To do this, the boles are tied with polyvinyl chloride captivity, you can use roofing roofing paper, spruce branches. Not only the bark of boles and the forks of skeletal branches are closed from hares and elk with a lapnik.
Many amateur gardeners, taking up a sprayer, think only of how to quickly destroy insects in the garden, forgetting that among them there are many useful ones - the gardener's allies.
For several years now I have not used pesticides in my garden. I make do with herbal pest control products. Nature has created many plants. Possessing insecticidal properties.
We have already talked about Chinese lemongrass on the Dacha Council website. Many are aware of the merits of this culture from other sources as well. But from correspondence with many amateur gardeners, I know
In Eastern Siberia, in the Far East, this shrub grows wild. There is a lot of it in mountainous areas, on limestones, along river banks, in moist coniferous forests, along the edges of peat bogs.
In the middle lane at the end of March, pruning and formation of berry bushes begins. The past winter turned out to be favorable for overwintering black and red currants, so they are pruned as usual.
Premature shedding of leaves on a pear, a decrease in the annual growth of shoots, abnormal development and death of buds, a decrease in yield - this is not a complete list of the tricks of a malicious pest
The weather conditions this year in many regions have delayed the ripening of currant, gooseberry and raspberry berries. Naturally, the timing of post-harvest care has also shifted.
And during winter dormancy, the life of deciduous trees continues, albeit in a latent form. Respiration in dormant plants is comparatively intense even in severe frosts.
With what impatience the gardeners await the harvest! And now he is ripe. It is good when the berries are whole, fragrant, juicy: and for them to always be like this, the berry growers need good care.
The weather is known to have a strong effect on fruit plants. For successful horticulture, it is necessary to solve not only the issues of improving the general production culture
Polina Lebedeva, Bryansk: "An old pear tree grows in our garden with beautiful, tasty, well-preserved fruits. Can it be pruned for rejuvenation, forming a new tree from the growth that has appeared on the trunk?"
Will cherries bloom and bear fruit today? Alas, successful seasons are less and less common. And she gives a good harvest only with skillful tree care from early spring!
Cherries are infected with coccomycosis. The main symptom of coccomycosis on cherries is spotted leaves (Fig. 2). Sick trees completely lose their green outfit by the beginning of August.
Petr Bolyshev, Solnechnogorsk, Moscow region: "I bought a plot, and with it a monster that lives in the soil - dark brown, about 5 cm long, hairy, with front legs like pincers.
If in the past you have had failures with eggplant, but you risked growing the seedlings of these healthy and tasty vegetables again, try this time to take into account all your previous mistakes and get a good harvest.
Everybody knows that the home clothes moth is the enemy of woolen and fur products. However, many of its relatives can be dangerous for various garden plants. One of them is apple moth.
Signs of the disease - a mosaic of alternating green and light yellow areas on the leaves - are found already a month after planting the seedlings in the ground. Such mosaic plates remain small.
The caterpillars of the ringed silkworm are very bright and catchy. They are fairly easy to spot when moving in the crown of a tree. The length of an adult caterpillar reaches 5 cm, the main background of the body is bluish-gray
From spring to late autumn, in gardens, especially in thickened ones, there are many different weevils. They eat up buds, petals, ovaries, but this is not so bad. But when will egg-laying begin?
Summer residents noticed long ago: the earlier the snow melted and the warmth came, the more terrible the return cold and frost for the plants. However, from such natural disasters in late spring and the very beginning
Cabbage seedlings are already asking for a permanent place. The time of harvesting and the harvest depends on when you plant it. Whatever your nursery, but the techniques for arranging the future garden
Let us remind you that ooculent rootstocks are called oculants. In the spring, it is necessary to remove the harness from them (if they did not do this before winter) and check the survival rate of the grafted kidneys.
Temper seedlings. On warm, quiet days, take the seedlings out into the open air, shading them from the direct sun. Gradually, over 10-12 days, reduce shading time
In the middle lane, early varieties and hybrids of cabbage (Aigul Fv Golden hectare 1432) are planted in a permanent place from late April to May 5.
Potatoes, like a vacuum cleaner, absorb a disease-causing infection. It is deposited in storage tubers, and we plant them again next year. But even such unhealthy potatoes are eaten by pests.
Gray rot (Botrytis) is one of the most dangerous and harmful fungal diseases of flower crops, affecting more than 200 plant species from various families. It does not spare the most refined and refined representative of the flower kingdom - the lily.
A reliable way to deal with the Colorado potato beetle. The Colorado potato beetle used to adapt to crop protection chemicals that were used year after year.
The copper-yellow worm-like larva of the click beetle is probably no less harmful than the Colorado potato beetle. The most dangerous are the larvae of older instars, they are especially active if the ground is wet.
Some are sure that it needs to be dug up. Others argue that grass should grow in the trunk circle - as in nature. So where is the truth? And to understand who is right
Tatyana Ogareva, Smolensk: "In the literature on the subject of the country, they often write that for one tree for irrigation, you need so much water in buckets.Of course, this is convenient when there are 2-3 trees in the garden.
Proper watering for fruit trees is most directly related, because without moisture they will die. And even if they survive (many crops are very tenacious), then they will definitely not give a good harvest.
Such feeding is done, as a rule, when it is necessary to urgently "heal" the plant. If you fertilize the garden every year according to all the rules, foliar feeding is not needed.
Most summer residents plant their apple and pear trees in the spring. But recently, in books and magazines, there are more and more expert tips who recommend planting trees in the summer.
Devices for fine atomization of solutions are so different that, choosing the right one, it is easy to get confused. Several types of sprayers may be useful
Watering in the country is a large-scale business! Plants, especially vegetables, almost like people, are 75-80% water, so they are waiting for it, rejoicing in it, grateful for every drop.
However, for a very short time, the ground under the vegetables may not remain dry, but dry. The main thing here is not to cross the critical line. Clear symptoms indicate that the plants are already suffering.
Moisture-charging irrigation (with a hose) is needed to create a moisture reserve in the soil. So water the beds before planting seedlings of vegetables in the summer. Or before filling the containers with soil.
To get a good harvest, vegetables need a large supply of moisture. The fact is that vegetables consume up to about 300 liters of water per 1 m2 per season.
Watering cans are now so different that their eyes run up. For the garden, we choose a comfortable one, and let the color, shape and other design delights become a pleasant, but not an obligatory addition.
The roots of cucumbers are weak and are located in the surface layer of the soil, which dries quickly. In addition, plants have large leaves, they evaporate a lot of water. Therefore, cucumbers are often watered by sprinkling.
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied before sowing, planting. In the second half of the summer, they are not needed, and sometimes even harm. Foliar top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers is undesirable - a lot of nitrogen is lost.
Top dressing is an addition to the diet of vegetables. If the soil is initially rich in nutrients, vegetables need not be fed. But, alas, this almost never happens in the middle lane.
It is prepared like this: the mullein is mixed with water in a 1: 1 ratio (for example, half a bucket of manure and half a bucket of water), tightly covered with a lid (this is important!) And kept warm and dark for 7-10 days
Any summer resident knows: the most unpleasant job on the site is weeding. Especially perennials such as thistle, bindweed and wheatgrass. No matter how you cut them with a hoe, they climb into the light of God.
Elizaveta Ukhova, Tver. Against powdery mildew, I spray the lashes with a solution of urea (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). And if I don't have this fertilizer, milk diluted in water helps
If you do not go into details, the depth of loosening for herbaceous annuals is 10-12 cm, and for perennials and dwarf shrubs up to 20-30.
It has long been known to all gardeners that plants get everything they need from compost for their development. There is no exact recipe for what and how much to put in the compost heap
Even a novice summer resident knows that the land in the beds, under the bushes and in flower beds should be loose. The crust must be regularly destroyed, armed with the appropriate tool.
Tomato bushes are persistent and tenacious, they do not give up easily to infections or addictive insects. But even poisonous leaves and stems of plants do not frighten pests.
Loosening that dry watering. Summer residents are well aware of the paradox of dry irrigation, when instead of water consumption, the soil surface is broken into small lumps. In terms of efficiency, two loosening
Cucumbers attract and attract not only people, but in general all living things. In the heat, there are insects that, although they cannot crunch green leaves, suck the juices out of the vines.
Gooseberry is a light-loving and demanding crop for soil fertility. The best place to plant is well-lit, sheltered from the wind, where a lot of snow accumulates in winter.
The best time to plant gooseberries is late September - early October. Container-grown seedlings can be planted throughout the summer and fall. It is advisable to leave a distance between the plants.
In the second and third years, 350 - 500 g of saltpeter are introduced (half - in early spring on thawed ground, and then in mid-May). Fertilizers are scattered around the bush at a distance of 30-50 cm from the base.
Pruning is of great importance for gooseberries. Without it, the bushes become very thick in the first years, and it is difficult to work with them, to harvest, they are more susceptible to damage by pests and diseases.
Winter cold can cause great harm to ornamental, fruit and berry crops. But we must not forget that summer heat, autumn frosts and spring thaws are no less dangerous for plants.
Soon after the New Year holidays, I looked at the summer cottage and it seemed to me that the buds swelled too early on the currant bushes. Can this happen when it's still so cold outside?
For lovers of the earliest honeysuckle berry, breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry made a gift - seven new varieties. These are Barballeta, Vlada, Koketka, Laura, Lenarola, Masha, Renata.
Anna Vorobyova, Tver: "What is the Dasha apple tree (some gardeners call her Dasha)? This variety is praised at sales of seedlings, but nowhere is there a description of it
Valentin Prigogine, Tver: “Last season, some strange green bug attacked my beets and almost left me without a crop. Do bugs eat beets?
Garden strawberries are planted in spring and autumn, so if you cannot thoroughly prepare the site in the near future, do not worry, but simply postpone planting until the end of August - September.
The potatoes are out of luck this year. The cold soil in the spring broke the usual planting dates, the germination of tubers was difficult, and even the pests did their job - they gladly ate the young seedlings.
Yuri Popov, Ryazan: "Please tell us about the largest and sweetest varieties of cherries that can be grown in central Russia. I want to plant in my garden, but I'm very afraid to make a mistake
Ostroumova, Moscow: “I have worked at the Klinsky state farm near Moscow for many years and have my own garden plot.In gardens, before budding, we have previously successfully used against scab and mottles
In July, the gardener seems to have nothing to do in the garden. The sowing tension is over, the harvesting harvest is just unfolding - it would seem that you can take a break
Today, in our field of vision, mainly the apple tree neighbors in the orchard who have fallen asleep for the winter, and some general techniques, rules, and patterns of pruning.
So that trimming does not cause much trouble, and the work goes quickly, so that the cuts are of high quality, first of all, take care of the inventory, learn how to use it, and also fix the problems that arise.
Hardly anyone will object to the statement that potatoes are the second bread. For some today, it has become the first and almost the only food product.
When choosing potato varieties for planting, it is better to give preference to domestic varieties and not only out of patriotism, but also because of common sense. They are more adapted to our climate
In summer cottages, vegetable peas are sown somewhere in the backyard, along the fence, almost near the compost heap. Yes, peas are modest and picky, but on the site they simply have no price!
In the spring, in April - May, all tree branches damaged by frost are already clearly visible: they either do not come to life at all, or their buds open with a delay. If the shoots still started to grow
Improved copulation is usually done when the thickness of the scion and rootstock is approximately the same. First, determine the branch on which you will graft the cutting. Place a blade at the grafting site
Grafting with butt is used when the stock is thicker than the cutting. First, cut the branch at the grafting site at a right angle, make a small bevel on one side of the cut. On the other side of the end of the branch
You bought a substandard drug. To avoid buying "left-handed" chemicals, contact reputable specialized stores. The market and private traders are more likely to
Fishing belts are wide strips (15-20 cm) made of straw bundles, thick paper, matting, shavings applied in rings to the trunks and thick branches of trees to destroy pests.
Experts have described about 30 types of plums. They differ in a number of specific features. The most important species is the domestic plum (Primus domestica L.). This species is rich in varieties
Real Hungarian women, renklods and mirabelles in Russia are mainly cultivated in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the Rostov Region and the plum-growing regions of the North Caucasus
However, this requires special techniques and technologies. For those who do not have this knowledge, the optimal planting period is spring and autumn. At this time it goes down
Plants are planted quickly, protecting the roots from damage and drying. This is done as follows: fathoms are lowered into a hole, on a mound or flat surface
First, it is thinned out, removing to the base low-lying, as well as broken, intertwining, weak, diseased and low-yielding branches of all ages. Usually such plants
Gooseberry shoot aphid. Damages leaves on young gooseberry shoots.In the spring (during the period of bud swelling), the larvae hatched from eggs that overwintered on the shoots
American powdery mildew (spheroteka) on gooseberries. The most dangerous gooseberry disease. Young parts of plants are affected: leaves, petioles, shoots, green and ripening berries.
Gardeners all over the world are attracted by strawberries with amazing, almost fabulous qualities, which in a rare combination are collected only in one: outwardly attractive, fragrant
At the end of last autumn, in November, after a long Indian summer, night frosts suddenly hit - right on the bare ground. And after an unfavorable winter, the spring return cold lasted for a long time.
I am constantly hunting for new varieties of strawberries. The year before last, the unexpected trophy was the "strawberry tree" - at least that's what a saleswoman in one of the Moscow firms called it.
Alas, our garden "princess" - strawberries are not long-lived. It is well known that the planting of strawberries has to be renewed every three to four years, giving it a new place of residence each time.
Galina Rogova, Mozhaisk: "I usually start working in the garden with sowing radishes. Are there any new varieties this year? Which ones are better to choose? What to look for when buying and sowing seeds?"
Tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers have already been removed from the dacha greenhouse. It stands empty and dull, as if asking: “Prepare me for the next season.” How best to do this?
Soil is a special complex natural formation. The system works according to the principles of self-regulation, and a person should not rudely interfere with the laws by which it develops and exists.
It turns out that in the winter cold, plants can quickly give a crop. In an apartment on the windowsill, you can get such unconventional healthy greens that you will not find in any vegetable market.
Not all plants are capable of producing fruits without pollination. In warm weather, this is usually no problem, insects do their job, and in cold weather, you will have to take care of pollination.
Valentina Laskina, Moscow: “I recently read in your newspaper that wild pollinating insects are much more resilient than domestic bees and better pollinate gardens, especially in bad weather.
Do you want miracle trees and unusual shrubs to grow in your garden? If yes, then learn to plant plants. This will require not only skill, but also excellent, perfect tools.
To do this, after planting, one or two of the strongest, most well-located shoots are left in the bush. On these shoots, all buds are removed from below up to a height of 30-40 cm.
Anna Bykova, Ramenskoye, Moscow region: "Apples, which had to be removed after a week or two, suddenly began to become covered with tiny brown spots, at first small
Vera Pichugina, Mikhnevo, Moscow region: "This spring, due to rainy weather and heavy floods, I could not sprinkle my fruit trees with anything. Instead of the expected white-pink
Gennady Zotov, Tver: "There were a lot of fallen apples this year. The trees seem to be healthy, and the fruits fall prematurely. Why is this happening?"
The pear leaves rolled into a tube are the result of the activity of the polyphagous tube-worm.This beetle is fairly widespread, but usually causes minor harm.
Many people are very worried when a tiny butterfly appears in the apartment - a clothes moth, whose caterpillars in just a season can greatly ruin the clothes stored in closets.
Vera Skvortsova, Galich: "Apple trees of summer and autumn varieties grow in my garden. This year we have a good harvest. But I don’t know exactly when to harvest the fruits. How to determine these terms
Many summer residents have transformed their vegetable garden by creating stationary raised ridges, edged with wood or other material. Growing vegetables this way not only makes work easier
Patisson is a type of bushy hard-bark (ordinary) pumpkin. They eat both young ovaries and fruits, as well as larger ones, similar to plates with a border. Their pulp, although dense, is very tender.
Summer is in full swing and gardeners are starting to harvest. Since early spring, they have been grooming and nurturing their green pets and waiting for the plants to be thanked for their care.
In recent years, many housewives have complained that the seeds of peas, beans and beans that they store at home are severely damaged by some pest, after which they are no longer suitable for food.
In the middle lane and to the north, some gooseberries and currants began to turn red in June. One would think that they began to ripen before the deadline.
To make the horseradish juicy, even and fleshy, you can plant its cuttings now, and dig up the finished roots in the fall of next season, letting them gain strength in a year and a half.
In order for actinidia and lemongrass to grow well and bear fruit, they need not only to be properly planted, but also to install supports and regularly cut the vines. Today we will tell
The American Indians called it tomato, from the Spaniards and the French came the name tomato (love apple, golden apple), but we call this culture this way and that.
Actinidia are southern subtropical plants; in their natural environment they live in Japan, Korea, China, India and other countries B, and Southeast. Asia. In Russia, actinidia are common in the Far East
Fruits and berries are essential in human nutrition. Of greatest interest are those that contain a large amount of vitamins, trace elements and other substances.
If irga does not grow on your site, then you probably have at least heard of korinka. So the real scientific name for cinnamon is round-leaved irga, or ordinary. But she's not quite ordinary.
We are used to the fact that apricots grow mainly in the south. Much has changed in recent years. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, they can now be grown near Moscow.
Alla Kashina, Ramenskoye: "My grown-up children planted the entire plot with flowers and beautiful shrubs, leaving only a few beds for the garden. I'm not complaining, the garden has become very beautiful
Vegetables in the room are more demanding on the soil than on the garden bed, because in a pot the plant is forced to develop a root system in very cramped conditions. Therefore, the soil must be close to ideal.
All gardeners plant dill, but not everyone grows it juicy and lush. Often, skinny bushes are cast red or yellow and bloom quickly.
The fact is that the correct preparation of the site and the introduction of pre-planting fertilizers is 50% of the guaranteed yield within 3-4 years. After all, as the people say: "The earth
Recently, more and more columnar apple trees are found in gardens. They almost do not form lateral branches and grow into one trunk vertically upward, therefore they are usually called columns.
Both adults and children love sweet and fragrant garden strawberries, but it's a pity that you can feast on them in the Moscow region for only a month - from the end of June to the end of July. And so you want
It is known that it is not enough to grow and collect a rich harvest, it is important to preserve it. In preserves, compotes and jams, there are not too many valuable substances for which you worked so hard all season
If you want to replenish your garden with new varieties of apple and pear, rely on varieties that are winter-hardy and resistant to diseases and pests. When choosing and buying seedlings, be very careful.
Any gardener wants to sow seedlings early in order to get, as they say, a longer run in time and, therefore, an early harvest. But if you plant it sooner, you won't end up with trouble!
Now I'll tell you about where I sow the seeds and why. Sprouted seeds of tomatoes and peppers of the first stage, as well as all cucumbers (they don't like picking), I sow in high transparent containers
Oddly enough, but the reason for the oppression of seedlings and vegetables on the windowsill can be ordinary water with which we water the plants.
Irina Sazonova, Troitsk: “I have long dreamed of planting jasmine with strawberry aroma in the garden, I finally bought it. Last year the bush bloomed profusely, but the promised fragrance was not there.
In our article, we are talking about general cleaning of the greenhouse, so that before early planting, there are no pests and microorganisms left in the soil and construction details that contribute to the development of plant diseases.
Scarce information is given in books for gardeners about sawdust. It is only said that they acidify the soil. So summer residents are afraid to use sawdust. And in vain!
There is always something missing in the room for the growth of vegetables: sometimes there is not enough space, sometimes the soil is poor, sometimes it is dark outside the window. Everyone solves such problems in their own way. You can approach this comprehensively.
It is known that on cloudy days the light intensity on the windowsill is 10 times less than what plants need. Due to the lack of light, the sprouts stretch out, develop much more slowly
The author of the article is candidate of agricultural sciences. Sci. Lidiya Yurina explains the causes and mechanism of sunburn of fruit trees in gardens at summer cottages. The publication introduces the varieties of fruit trees included
Most often, in the middle lane, varieties that are valuable in taste, but not winter-hardy enough suffer from sunburn (for example, apple varieties such as "Lobo", "Spartan", "Melba", "Biforest", "Clos")
Cherry is one of the most beloved horticultural crops; gardeners love it for its early maturity. Most of its varieties begin to bear fruit in the 3-4th year after planting, and some even from the second year.
Bolotovskaya (Sverdlovsk Experimental Gardening Station) - the variety obtained from free pollination of steppe cherry. Late ripening variety (first decade of August).
Cherry has been known in Russia since the 12th century. It was widespread in Russian orchards and in terms of "importance" has always followed the apple tree. It was appreciated for its yield, delicious and healing fruits.
Common cherry is common in the European part of Russia. Its northern border is conventionally considered the line St. Petersburg - Vologda - Kirov. Limits cherry promotion to
Steppe cherry, it is also called Bushy, Siberian, Ural, Samara. The natural area of its distribution from the Center of Europe through Ukraine, the Volga region, the Southern Urals to Western Siberia.
Felt cherry, or it is also called fluffy. Chinese, Ando, Tomentosa. From China it penetrated the Far East, and then into Siberia, the Urals and the European part of Russia.
Felt cherries propagate like currants by cuttings and seeds. The method of propagation by seeds is available to every gardener, while, as you know, plants are easier to adapt to new conditions
The life span of the bushes is 12-13 years. Planting and care are the same as for currants and gooseberries. The authors had a chance to grow felt and common cherries in the Middle Lane
Sea buckthorn, say, in our suburbs began to spread back in the forties. The emergence of this culture was greatly facilitated by T.T. Trofimov.
Growing from seeds. It is better to sow seeds in spring, because during autumn planting during thaws the seeds begin to germinate and die in winter. But with seed reproduction about
Sea buckthorn prefers light sandy loam soils. If the soil is heavy, clayey, then before planting, it is necessary to add two to three buckets of river sand for each square meter.
Feed or not? How often do amateur gardeners ask themselves this question. And, of course, doubts are not in vain, since there is not always a need for summer feeding of fruit and berry plants.
Salad in Russia is cultivated everywhere: in the Far North and in the Arctic, in the south in the Middle zone. In the north, both head and leaf can be successfully grown. Its seedlings can withstand frosts down to -2 ° С
A shady seating area and a flat lawn, a small water mirror and several boulders nearby - not only will decorate the site by themselves, but will also increase the variety of plants
For an amateur who first received a plot for a garden and vegetables, its development can be a serious problem. Usually, this work should take 2-3 years.
Relief formation is the most important operation in preparing a site for planting. Those who got the territory with a slope of the surface or, for example, with a ravine, should not be upset
Anatoly Kuzenko, Belgorod region: "I purchased a plot on the site of a former collective farm field. I am going to plant a garden in the spring. I have heard that all crops should be planted separately, and not alternately. Is that so?"
The beginning of the dacha harvest usually coincides with the purchase of seeds and occurs long before leaving the city. This is a very important stage in the life of a gardener, because yields largely depend on his success.
We will try to help you.It is precisely such plants, adapted to the short and cool summer, which is common in the middle lane, and not suffering from diseases, that breeders tried to create.
At the end of April, in order not to bother with sowing seeds and growing seedlings, you can immediately buy high-quality young plants of resistant varieties. The safest way to buy them is in large
Anatoly Bystrov. Taldom: We have high groundwater. In the fall, I made flower beds, pits for seedlings of fruit trees, filled them with fertilizers. Are there any features of planting and caring for plants in flower beds?
The main early spring event is spraying the plants at the very beginning of bud break. Please note that apple and pear trees may not be harvested due to weevils and other pests.
Our summer cottage village almost burned out this summer - there are peat bogs all around, and we have solid peat on our site. Is it possible to somehow change the structure of the soil?
Banding is the removal of bark all the way to the wood around tree branches. As a result of such an operation, nutrients are retained at the site of the ring, which contributes to
Pruning trees and shrubs correctly and on time will keep them healthy and look as beautiful as you want them to be. We are often completely in vain afraid to approach the plant and remove the excess.
The first one, sanitary, is simple, applies to most plants and is carried out to maintain their health. Even an inexperienced gardener can learn it. You need to start with it anyway.
Such trees take root well if they have not been outside the soil for too long. For better growth and development, root pruning is very helpful.
An experienced gardener understands: before planting something, you need to "know" the land. What is its composition, acidic or not, how many organic substances it contains, what is the density
The acidity (pH) or alkalinity of the soil is the reaction of the soil environment. The agrochemical properties of the soil and plant growth depend on this indicator. On soils with high acidity
The mechanical (granulometric) composition of the soil is the relative content of particles of different diameters in the soil. Soil contains four essential components
Soil moisture is the content of moisture in the soil in three states (solid, liquid and gaseous). Soil moisture is expressed as a percentage of dry soil mass or volume.
Actinidia kolomikta - planting and care in the open field, photo
Few people know that in their own garden, in the open field, you can grow kiwi. The homeland of the plant is Asia, where you can find it in the wild. These fruits were brought to Europe from New Zealand. In autumn, you can enjoy their taste and support health with the beneficial properties of the fruit. The amount of vitamin C contained in fruits is 10 times more than in black currants.
Recently, this vine has gained great popularity among gardeners. And this is not surprising! Actinidia is unpretentious, planting and caring for the plant will not take much time.
- Plant characteristic
- Useful properties of fruits
- Types and varieties
- How to plant seedlings correctly?
- Precursor cultures
- Soil and planting site
- Landing algorithm
- Growing and care
- Watering and feeding
- Is pruning necessary for actinidia and how to do it
- Preparing for winter
- Diseases and pests
- Reproduction methods
- Reproduction by root suckers
- How to propagate actinidia by layering
- Dividing the bush when transplanting
- Actinidia from seed
- Inoculation by budding
- Actinidia in landscape design