How to protect fruit trees from bark beetles
Don't let bark beetles into the garden!
As practice shows, bark beetles are dangerous pests that can not only infect fruit trees in areas, but also lead to their death.
Based on personal experience and the experience of other summer residents and gardeners, I tried to remove frequently asked questions from the land owners and give them more specific recommendations.
The bark beetles include, first of all, wrinkled and apple bark beetles, often called sapwood, as well as unpaired bark beetles, which are found everywhere in our zone, and the first and the last affect all fruit crops. All bark beetles are small beetles with a short body reaching 4 mm, and the beetles themselves and their passages through which they got out of the tree can be seen. The larvae of beetles lead a hidden lifestyle, are white-colored, with a brown head, have no legs and are usually curved, and their size is almost 2 mm larger than beetles.
Both larvae and beetles feed on living tissues and sap of trees, making passages under the bark in which the larvae hibernate and pupate. All of these bark beetles usually affect weakened or diseased trees with wounds, burns, cracks, cracks, frost cracks, etc. in the bark. The unpaired bark beetle quite often affects young trees, which are characterized by abundant sap flow.
To consider and determine the varieties of bark beetles, their size, color and the nature of the moves made after removing the bark in this place help. As a rule, wrinkled bark beetle has a smaller size - 2.5 mm, apple - about 3 mm, and unpaired 3.5-4 mm, and males are smaller than females.
The color of the wrinkled bark beetle is usually black-brown, apple and unpaired bark beetles are often red-brown. Females of wrinkled and unpaired bark beetles lay their eggs directly on the move, and females of apple bark for this purpose grind a chamber between the bark and wood, from which the uterine passages depart and lay eggs in their walls. Determinants of the species of bark beetle can also be the species of trees that they affect most often.
For example, wrinkled bark beetle usually prefers plums and cherries, apple also harms pear and bird cherry, and only unpaired has no preferences, affecting all breeds. Note that, contrary to literary sources, neither the developmental features, nor the time of emergence of beetles can be the determinants of these bark beetles, since all of them develop only one generation, and the time of departure, depending on the weather, can stretch until the end of July.
Wrinkled bark beetle
It is pertinent to note that in recent years, scientists have revealed that bark beetles have a very delicate sense of smell, which makes it possible not only to choose the desired tree species, but also to distinguish a weakened tree from a healthy one by smell.
Moreover, as soon as the tree becomes the prey of bark beetles, and the beetles, penetrating into it, begin to throw out the dust of the bark, it attracts more and more groups of beetles to the tree. The larvae of bark beetles, having rich food, quickly grow up, and in the abandoned course, mushroom embryos accumulate, serving as an additional supplement to food for new groups of beetles. It is noteworthy that the processes of wood destruction in the garden are more rapid than in the forest, where the number of beetles and their larvae is noticeably limited by woodpeckers and other insectivorous birds.
Judging from my own experience, it is quite difficult to deal with the invasion of the bark beetle garden. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to take preventive measures against them, and in addition to general agricultural recommendations related to providing conditions for the best growth and development of fruit trees (fertilization, feeding, watering, pruning, etc.), which are known from the literature, the following is very effective:
- covering wounds on trees with garden pitch to eliminate the possibility of beetles laying eggs;
- coating boles with clay with casein glue (200 g per bucket) and adding Karbofos to the mixture (90 g per bucket) to prevent beetles from flying out from under the bark and introducing their females under the bark for laying eggs;
- whitewashing of boles in the pre-winter period with the "Protection" emulsion or water-based paint to protect trees from the formation of defects (frost holes, cracks, etc.), in which the beetles lay their eggs.
Apple bark beetle
If you have taken all the above measures, and the pests still appeared in the garden, then fruit trees should be treated with insecticides before flowering. At the same time, you should not use the Kinmix, Rovikurt and Fury recommended by the literature, since they are not allowed for use in summer cottages and garden plots due to excessive toxicity according to the RF Law "On the Safe Handling of Pesticides and Agrochemicals".
According to the experience of gardeners against sapwoods, it is most effective to use biological products permitted by the aforementioned law: Bitoxibacillin at a dose of 60 g per bucket of water or Lipidocide at a dose of 25 g per bucket of water. Against the unpaired bark beetle, it is more effective to spray the trunks and branches with Karbofos (100 g per bucket of water) or Intavir (1 tablet per bucket of water).
I think that today any summer resident or gardener has every opportunity to ensure that bark beetles do not appear in the garden and do not damage the crop.
Anatoly Veselov, gardener
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How to protect fruit trees from diseases and pests in the spring: advice from an agronomist
Now, when the summer season begins, the first step is to take care of your safety. I'll show you how to protect your areas from ticks and aphids. You will learn how to deal with damage to the bark of an apple tree, how to properly prune and how to cover cuts of fruit trees.
Photo: Protecting fruit trees from disease
Treating the area from ticks yourself
Our main safety is tick protection. Take any of the drugs: you can Kleschevit super, you can Cypermethrin. The active substance is the same everywhere.
Use 5 ml per 10 l of water. The vial is enough for 20 liters.
Photo: Kleschevit Super and Cypermethrin
And when we have treated the area with these drugs, we are already getting down to business. The most important event in the future is to protect your garden from diseases and pests.
For the first treatment, we take the drug Pharmayod. I draw your attention to the fact that now Pharmayod is produced in a plastic vial, and earlier it was in a glass one.
Dissolve the bottle in 10 liters of water and spray the entire garden.
From Pharmayod, the effect comes with lightning speed. Trees need to be treated in such a way that the drug covers all branches, even the smallest ones, because the source of infection can be anywhere.
We do the same with currants, gooseberries, and especially cherries, which can become covered with coccomycosis.
How to deal with aphids on fruit trees
After a week has passed after the treatment with Pharmayod, we start to destroy the aphids. We destroy aphids with the help of the drug 30 Plus. It can be in bottles, it can be in doypacks. By the way, they are cheaper than bottles.
Take 2 packs of 30 Plus, dissolve in 20 liters of water, add a bottle of Neofral. 20 liters of working solution should be enough to treat an entire garden!
Photo: Preparation 30 Plus and other means of protection in the online store
Important: This treatment must be carried out without fail after treatment with Pharmayod, and processed so that the drug already drains.
Why is 30 Plus so effective?
Look, here are the fruit buds, under which there is a clutch of aphids. When 30 Plus hits a pest in the resting stage, it simply dissolves its cell wall. If it does not dissolve, then it clogs up so much that the pest dies.
Photo: Aphids on fruit trees
We add the drug Neofral in order to have a double effect. If suddenly an insect imago has already appeared, so that it also perishes.
Important: Treatment with 30 Plus should be carried out when the temperature is above + 4 ° C. But the buds are not yet swollen, or are just opening up.
It is not always effective to process the leaves due to the fact that there are more suitable preparations. But, if you missed the treatment with 30 Plus for the kidneys, you can safely process the leaves. There will be no harm from this to the plant.
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Apple tree bark damage: what to do?
There is an apple tree that has suffered a lot this year. Pay attention to bark damage.
I will prune this tree with an electric pruner as it cuts great. The main thing in pruning neglected trees is to remove top shoots. That is, those that grow vertically upwards, although the branch grows horizontally.
If you do not cut into a ring, then the remaining stump will rot out and the plant will begin to die. Large branches are difficult to cut with an electric pruner, so I use a simple one.
I draw your attention: the cutting heel must be attached to the trunk in such a way that our cut turns out to be even.
We can cut no more than 20% of the wood at a time. If you cut more, the tree will begin to regenerate the remaining shoots. It is necessary to remove all branches that go inside the trunk, but at the same time do not carry a tangible semantic load.
How to cover up the cuts of fruit trees
To putty the sections, I use Zhivitsa. I suggest you use it too. Because this is a garden balsam that not only disinfects the cut site and covers it up, cements it so that nothing penetrates there, but it also heals.
I do not regret Zhivitsa and pour it in a large layer. Although the manufacturer says that it is not necessary to cast in a large layer, 2 mm is enough. Be sure to cover up all the cuts, you need to work with gloves.
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Even if the tree is crying, Zhivitsa cements the place of crying. After you have applied the gum, the tree stops crying. Therefore, if you did not have time with pruning in time and prune when the tree has already begun to cry, it's okay. Zhivitsa will save you.
After the pruning has been carried out, the tree needs to be painted. You can paint in spring, autumn, at any time. Because the paint protects against sunburn. You can take ready-made paint, you can dilute it yourself.
Photo: Painting an apple tree in spring
So, let me remind you of the chronology:
1. First, we process the tree with Pharmayod.
2. Then we process it with 30 Plus.
3. After that we whitewash. But if you whitewash the trees on your first visit to the country, there is nothing wrong with that either!
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How to protect crops from birds?
Unfortunately, not only cherries and cherries, but also strawberries, blackberries, and sea buckthorn have to be protected from starlings and sparrows. In a word, the struggle can drag on until late autumn, therefore, if there is something to defend, you can also experiment in order to know for sure the best method of preserving the fruits of your labor next season. Until then, here are the basic ways to scare away birds.
Strawberry protection from birds. © portwings
1. One of the oldest, old-fashioned, methods of saving the harvest is the use of rustling objects... Pieces of cellophane, cellophane bags, and (if any) film from old cassettes are suitable here. The main thing is that these objects should be conveniently fixed on the branches and that they, developing in the wind, emit a sound unusual for birds.
2. You can scare off the bird lads and gleaming... New Year's rain, damaged computer disks, reflective film, foil plates, refracting the sun's rays will scare the birds, forcing them to stay away from your garden.
3. Sufficiently reliable means is shelter of young trees non-woven covering material left over from the shelter of the beds, a film, or just old sheets fixed to the edges with clothespins.
4. Very often modern gardeners recommend throwing on trees fine mesh... At the same time, there are options for their temporary and stationary installation, as well as the choice of material for their manufacture.
5. Based on the fact that birds are frightened off by white, a good solution is white stripes fabrics or films attached to the peripheral branches of the crown. And in the question of strawberries - a white canvas stretched along the garden bed.
6. Some guidelines state that birds do not like both blue and red... Therefore, you can try to hang or install flags of a given color in the garden.
7. Quite an interesting solution is homemade turntablesmade from plastic bottles. Mills, twists, birds - moving under the gusts of wind scare away sparrows, chase away starlings, and at the same time decorate the garden, breaking the monotony of hot summer days with their cheerful thrill.
8. Has a deterrent effect smell of onions... The chopped heads can be, periodically renewed, hung on the branches of young trees.
9. An innovation of recent years is sound electronic scarers and thunderbolts, emitting the sounds of birds of prey, scaring away feathered pests with repeated clapping or the sound of a siren, frightening them with a bright flash of light.
10. There are also special gels made from extracts of plants unpleasant for birds, exuding a repulsive smell for them.
That is, perhaps, all that was found. However, this is not enough. Let's start experimenting!
CD disc scares birds away from cherries. © Nancy Leek
How to properly attach a sticky trapping belt to a tree trunk
You can buy a ready-made sticky hunting belt, or you can make a trap yourself. To do this, take a dense fabric 20 cm wide, wrap it tightly around the trunk, making two turns. On top of the fabric, fix a plastic wrap 10 cm wide so that 5 cm remains to the edges of the burlap, then tie the entire structure with strong twine, close up all the gaps, and use the Glue-aerosol to protect against insects as an adhesive layer. This innovative, unparalleled product was developed by Technoexport, which made sure that not a single ant or caterpillar reached the crown of the tree.
The product is simple and easy to use: it is enough to spray it over the entire surface of the oilcloth layer so that it does not fall on the burlap. You need to update the layer once a month. The bandage is kept on the trunk until the end of summer, then it is removed and burned. The glue is non-toxic, safe for people and animals, economical - the consumption rate is 2.5-3 g / sq.dm. The shelf life is 5 years.
Treating the garden in the spring from pests is the most important task for gardeners. About 180 different types of pests cause irreparable damage to fruit plantings, to combat each of which you need to use sometimes the same, and sometimes completely different drugs.
Let's go through the main pests and effective drugs to combat them.
Green apple aphid
It begins to harm after the buds open and continues throughout the growing season. The larvae suck the juice from the sprouts and leaves. Young trees are especially affected by aphids.
How to spray?
To treat the garden from pests, the preparations Aktara ® and Engio ® are used, applying them at the first signs of the appearance of pests.
Brown fruit mite, hawthorn mite, pear gall mite, whose larvae begin to revive during the budding period. Larvae and adult mites suck sap from buds and leaves. Depending on the type of pest, it develops from 4 to 12 generations. Harmful to all fruit crops.
How to spray?
To protect against pests, use a new effective drug Vertimek ® or Tiovit Jet ® - they are used before flowering, after flowering and during the growing season with severe damage.
When treated with Vertimek ® pears in the phase of bud isolation - before flowering, protection against pear sap and pear gall mites is provided.
Gray kidney weevil, beetle, goose and the like. During the period of swelling of the kidneys at a temperature of + 6 ° C, they begin to feed on the kidneys, gnawing out their contents. Later, young leaves, rosettes of buds and young shoots are damaged. Harmful to fruit trees such as apple, pear, stone fruit.
How to spray?
For protection, drugs Aktara® and Engio® are used in the phase of bud swelling, the green cone phase and the bud opening phase.
Apple blossom beetle
During the period of swelling, the kidneys begin to feed on their contents. In the phase of opening the buds, the females lay eggs in them. Because of this, the buds do not bloom, turn brown and dry out. Pests lay eggs for 10–20 days. With strong colonization, up to 80% of apple buds and up to 30% of pear buds are damaged.
How to spray?
For protection, drugs Aktara® and Engio® are used in the phases of bud swelling, green cone, opening of buds, rose bud.
Apple Sawer (Trach)
The pest appears at the beginning of flowering. One larva can damage up to 6 fruits. The most harm is done by a sawyer with a weak flowering - it can destroy almost the entire crop. The damage done by the sawfly resembles that of the codling moth.
How to spray?
For the treatment of trees from a sawyer, preparations Aktara ® and Engio ® are used before and after flowering of fruit trees.
Depending on the climatic zone, the pest develops from 1 to 3 generations. Caterpillars eat the pulp and seeds of the fruit. Flight of butterflies and laying of eggs begins after the end of flowering of late varieties of apples.
How to spray?
For spring gardening, use the preparations Match ®, Prokleim ® and Ampligo ®. The first spraying is carried out against the first generation of pests and coincides with the beginning of flowering of white acacia, all subsequent spraying - depending on weather conditions - after 25-30 days.
Ampligo ® is a new two-component contact action insecticide. In Ukraine, this drug is registered for use on tomatoes, apples and potatoes against scoops, leaf rollers, moths, weevils, aphids and some other pests.
Due to the unique formulation, the protective period of Ampligo® is significantly increased. Also, the drug is highly effective against pests in a wide temperature range, ovicidal action, high initial action - the so-called knockdown effect and high resistance to washing off by precipitation.
For repeated spraying of fruit trees against the next generations of caterpillars of the codling moth, after 2-3 weeks, an insecticide of natural origin Proclame® is used.
Promark ® - an insecticide of intestinal action - quickly penetrates into plant tissues, where it is placed in the form of microreservoirs. Caterpillars eat the drug and, within 1–4 hours, lose their mobility and stop feeding. After 1-4 days, they completely die.
The drug is effective against caterpillars of any age. In addition, it has a strong ovicidal effect - it destroys the larva in the egg or at the moment it leaves the egg.
Who will winter how?
The past season turned out to be wet and cool, which is why many fruit trees and shrubs were badly affected by diseases. Where there were not enough protective treatments, the plants lost their leaves much ahead of time and generally meet the winter in poor health.
At the same time, the garden is relatively lucky with the autumn weather. A smooth and stable temperature drop allowed trees and shrubs to undergo full hardening. The moisture saturated the soil well, but did not flood it, so the roots are in a comfortable environment.
So, if crops and varieties adapted to the area grow in your garden, you protected the trees from diseases and prepared them for winter, and there will be no weather anomalies, then most trees and shrubs have every chance to safely meet next spring.
Shelter of young trees
To protect young trees or shrub varieties from birds, a fine mesh or Agrotex material is well suited. A net cocoon is created around the plant, where it will be impossible for birds to penetrate. For all its simplicity, this method has its negative sides. To some extent, the movement of fresh air in the crown zone of the tree will be impeded, which will cause an increase in the temperature inside the cocoon due to the greenhouse effect. The level of solar radiation will also decrease, so covering trees with mesh material is not popular with gardeners. Preventive measures and agrotechnical work must not be carried out on trees packed in a net. You have to constantly remove the material and wrap the trees again, and you can easily damage the branches.
A fairly effective way to scare birds away from fruit trees is to use homemade turntables. The simplest device is a spinner made from a plastic bottle. For this, 3 or 4 cuts are made on the sides of the plastic container, so that part of the surface can be bent outward in the form of wings. The bottle, through the holes in the bottom and the cork, is put on a thick wire that can be tied to a vertical stick using electrical tape or tape. Even a light wind will cause the structure to rotate, which will scare the birds away. The design can be improved by sticking pieces of shiny foil on the wings and adding a simple ratchet to the rotating bottle.
Another design of the turntable is made from scrap materials on the principle of a fan impeller. As blades, you can use unnecessary DVD discs, which are glued at an angle into the cuts of a small cylinder. It can be made from wood or Styrofoam.
In order for the structure to find the wind, a small weather vane is placed at the other end of the bar, which turns the impeller.
When making devices designed to scare away birds, it should be borne in mind that maximum efficiency is achieved when there are several frightening factors. For example, light, sound and movement.
The use of ultrasonic generators as a means to scare away birds is a rather controversial issue. In theory, ultrasonic radiation, which is not perceived by the human ear, should scare birds away from fruit trees.
To obtain the desired effect, you only need to purchase powerful devices that are quite expensive. Even more expensive systems are bioacoustic generators, which at high volume simulate the calls of birds of prey such as a hawk, falcon or owl. The use of such systems in private households is not justified for financial reasons.
Gas cannons and crackers
Gas or propane cannons are expensive but effective devices that make sense in large garden areas. The cannon consists of the following parts:
- metal bell
- the combustion chamber
- gas bottle
- ignition system
- programmable timer
- swivel mechanism.
A small portion of combustible gas is supplied from the cylinder into the combustion chamber, which is located at the back of the bell. When mixed with air, propane forms an explosive mixture. The mixture is ignited using a piezoelectric element, which works like a lighter for household gas stoves. The result is a very strong cotton that is reinforced by the bell. The sound pressure of such a "shot" can reach 130 decibels, which is a very high volume. A propane cannon is capable of driving birds away in areas from 2 to 7-8 hectares. The programmable timer allows you to set operating intervals from 2 to 30 minutes. Thanks to a tripod with a swivel mechanism, the bell after each "shot" turns by 300, which allows you to cover a large area of the site. The electronic part is powered by a battery, but there are solar-powered devices.
The use of gas cannons completely eliminates the habituation of birds to "shots", so the use of such devices will always be effective.
Spraying with protective agents
In addition to mechanical methods to protect cherries from birds, there are chemical methods of control. They are based on making the berries tasteless to birds. For this purpose, folk remedies and special chemical compositions are used.
You can read about the processing of cherries from moniliosis at the link.
Infusion of garlic
This is a fairly effective drug that is easy to prepare with your own hands. To do this, you need to pass 500 grams of fresh garlic through a meat grinder or chop in a blender. Then the ground garlic is poured over 5 liters of warm water for one hour. Then the water is drained, and the garlic is again poured with one liter of water. After an hour, both solutions are combined and another 4 liters of water are added. Cherries and cherries are sprayed with liquid. The disadvantage of this method is the high consumption of garlic and the fact that after rain the spraying procedure will have to be repeated.
Infusion of red pepper
To prepare this composition, you will need a hot red chili powder in powder. Mix one tablespoon of pepper with a few drops of liquid soap and four liters of water. Everything should be mixed and left to infuse overnight. In the morning, you can charge your garden sprayer and spray fruit trees. The use of pepper and, especially, garlic solution is questioned by gardeners. It is believed that no amount of washing the berries will get rid of the garlic smell.
Read about how to deal with aphids on cherries without chemistry in this article.
One of the chemical ways to scare away birds is to use the PSC Bird-Free Optical Gel. It has no negative effect on birds. Its action is based on the fact that birds can see in the ultraviolet range, and the components of the gel simulate a burning flame and birds, seeing fire, avoid approaching the place of application of this composition. Since the gel has a rather thick consistency, its application directly on the crown of fruit trees is associated with great difficulties. Most often, such compositions are used on building and architectural structures.
The old way of scaring away birds in gardens with the help of scarecrows, which are made in the form of a human figure, is unfortunately ineffective, since birds quickly get used to a foreign object among the trees and do not perceive it as a threat. Some gardeners attach an old hat to the branches of cherries or cherries, which should resemble a cat to birds, but the effectiveness of such an imitator is highly questionable. Modern electronic means make it possible to make scarecrows, which are an effective means of scaring away birds.
Such devices are diverse in design and functionality.
As soon as a flock of sparrows or tits tries to approach the cherry, the device will begin to emit sharp sounds, “flash” its eyes and flap its wings. This reliable layout is powered by a built-in battery. There are other garden robots out there. Their advantage lies in the fact that they are programmed to perform several actions at once, which can be considered the most effective method of fighting birds.