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Flowering plants

Flowering plants


History

The world, our cities, our gardens are densely populated by a huge number of flowering plants. The relationship that has been established between flowering plants and the creatures that populate our planet is absolutely two-way. In fact, if on the one hand this type of plants are particularly important for the life of man and animals that live on earth, on the other it must be said that animals and man himself are extremely important if we consider the aspect of reproduction.

The flowering plants they are essentially of the angiosperm type that "dominate" unchallenged over the other types of plants. Another important type of plant that produces seeds is gymnosperms. Gymnosperms are still divided into a plant that produces a floury almond containing seeds and one that produces only seeds.

The flowering plants they are particularly ancient, in fact, the first examples known to us date back to one hundred and fifty million years ago.

Having evolved exceptionally during the lower Cretaceous period, they managed to replace conifers as the dominant species about six million years ago.


General information

The flowers par excellence are the reproductive organs of all the plants that bloom. Flowers are what differentiate flowering plants from all other types of seed producing plants. The success of angiosperms lies in their great ability to adapt, managing to create real ecological niches. In this way, flowering plants have managed to colonize practically all areas of our planet and to dominate the different ecosystems. The stamens appear to be decidedly lighter when compared with the corresponding organs of the gymnosperms. They have decisively prevented the phenomenon of self-fertilization, thus succeeding, through pollination, in significantly diversifying the species of angiosperms. In this way they made the adaptation mentioned earlier feasible.

The male gametophyte in angiosperms is also decidedly small in size when compared to the equivalent of gymnosperms. In this way, thanks to a decidedly minute pollen, the fertilization time of female flowers is significantly reduced while in gymnosperms the time required for fertilization is greater, reaching a maximum time of one year.

In the closed carpel there are the ova. This element of the angiosperms allows adaptations to specialized and controlled pollinations. Another extremely important element of the reproductive system of angiosperms is the endosperm which is a particularly nutritious tissue that serves to feed the developing embryo, the cotyledons and sometimes even the newly sprouted seedling. The endosperm usually develops after fertilization but before the division of the zygote.

All these characteristics have made the angiosperms the plants present on our planet more diverse and numerous. Also the most commercially relevant group for humans.


The species

Amborella: it is a single species with shrub-like habit native to New Caledonia;

Nymphaeales: they consist of eighty species including water lilies and Hydatellaceae

Austrobaileyales: they consist of about one hundred species of woody plants from various parts of the world;

Chloranthales: there are dozens of species of aromatic plants with toothed leaves;

Magnolidae: they are made up of about nine thousand species characterized by flowers, pollen with a pore, and usually leaves veined ramifications - for example magnolias, laurel and black pepper.

Ontogenic flowers use a combination of genes normally responsible for the formation of new shoots. Many modern flowers have been modified to such an extent by man that some of them can no longer be pollinated in nature.


Diseases and adversity

Root rot causes a showy wilting in the affected plant, followed by complete drying of the plant or a large part of it. The smaller roots even tend to rot while the main roots are markedly browned, especially at the level of the collar.

The first stage of preparation for the treatment of this disease is certainly prevention.

Prevent root rot by growing plants in very well drained soils so as not to have dangerous waterlogging. For plants grown in pots it is necessary to distribute the water ration very carefully without exaggerating the dose.

For plants raised in the garden, a habitat as drained as possible should be created at the level of hydraulic arrangements in the territory. In case all this is not enough, use fungicides.

The white disease or powdery mildew is a species of fungus that systematically develops in all the vegetal organs of plants, for example leaves, buds, not yet blossomed flowers and small branches.

The preferred target of this type of fungi are certainly the leaves in which the overturning of the disease can be found more easily. In fact, on the leaves of the infected individual, ash-white formations in the shape of a dense spider web are found in the early stages of the disease, becoming more and more evident with advancing. It should be noted that in other forms of powdery mildew it is possible that the leaf takes on a bullous appearance and may have wrinkles. The defense that must be prepared, to repel the attacks of powdery mildew, with extreme speed in such a way as to block the advancement of the infection. Treatment must begin towards the month of May. Therefore, use a systemic fungicide in five treatments in twenty days.


Flowering plants: Scab

Another danger that threatens flowering plants are scabs. This type of fungal disease is extremely varied. In general, however, common characteristics can be denoted in its symptoms. The scabs act mainly on the leaves causing spots to appear that take on a brown color tending to olive. They are almost exclusively rounded. In some cases the outline can take on a yellowish color. In the incipit of this pathology the spots appear to be isolated but with the progress of the same there is an increase of the same until, in the full-blown phase, to merge. This disease causes the host to defoliate.

To counteract the scab it is necessary to use copper-based fungicides to be carried out in the duration of about twenty days during the spring period.



Pills of curiosity. I didn't know and you?

  • Seasonal herbs and aromas in November: watercress, marjoram, parsley, rosemary, sage.
  • The house plants should be watered regularly. It is useful to arrange and humidify the clay balls or pebbles in the saucers of plants and flowers: the humidity released will vaporize the leaves periodically.
  • If you are looking for advice on which products to choose to better take care of plants and flowers at home or in the garden in February, it is good to contact the CIFO experts. The CIFO company, active since 1965 in the Gardening and Agriculture sector, will be able to recommend the best products through ablogrich and always updated.

Credits featured image: Shutterstock - Flower_Garden


Garden plants - the most beautiful varieties to grow

If you are lucky enough to have a garden to fill with flowers, you are spoiled for choice. Here are the most beautiful varieties not to be missed

If you love the flowers, especially those colored is very fragrant, and you are lucky enough to have a garden to plant, you are spoiled for choice.

And it doesn't matter whether or not you have the green thumb because the garden plants, precisely because they are destined to live outdoors all year round, they are generally quite rustic and resistant, and do not need too much care.

Browse the gallery with us to discover the most beautiful varieties to plant immediately.

L'oleander it is one of the most plants common and widespread in the gardens of the Mediterranean areas. It is a vigorous evergreen shrub, which produces beautiful scented flowers, typically pink, but also red or white, sometimes variegated, throughout the summer.

I'm this way easy to grow and require so little care that they are often used as street furniture. The leaves are oval in shape, dark green, with a slightly leathery texture. The only thing they fear is the cold, so if your garden is located in an area subject to freezing and intense cold in winter, it is better to leave the plants in pots - they will not suffer from it in the center - to be able to easily take them away if necessary .

There fuchsia is a beautiful garden plant native to Central South America. Very common in its variants in pots, generally small and not very rustic, however, it is originally a very resistant plant that can also develop large bushes. It is much appreciated for its dense foliage, with a beautiful bright green color, and for its unmistakable "hanging" flowers, called earrings or dancers, with a pink and fuchsia color.

THE rhododendrons together with azaleas, they belong to the Rhododendron genus. They generally are evergreen rather rustic and adaptable, characterized by shrubs of various sizes - from 30-40 cm up to a few meters in height - with shiny dark green leaves, which produce large bell-shaped flowers, usually pink, even if there are hundreds of them in late spring of hybrids with purple to deep red flowers.

There camellia is a very widespread plant native to Asia and loved in our gardens. Its flowers are generally pink or white, but there are some red-flowered and yellow-flowered varieties, while the leaves are thick, dark and leather-like to the touch. It is perfect for your garden because it requires very little care and it blooms very luxuriantly, but pay attention to the intense cold by arranging covers or, if in pots, a shelter.

If you have walls to climb green the jasmine it's perfect. It belongs to the Oleaccee family, with white or yellow and very fragrant starry flowers and includes about 200 different species, all very fragrant and, above all, very easy to grow.

L'hydrangea it is one of the most used species of flowering plants for landscaping. It is a strong, rustic and extremely adaptable plant and is therefore perfect even if your thumb isn't quite green. Its leaves, large and heart-shaped, with a bright green color and its beautiful "pillows" of flowers they will fill your garden with color - and scent - with minimal effort.


8 Flowering Plants for a Sensory Garden

There Paeonia
From the common name peony, in China it is considered the "king of flowers" and is the object of a real cult. Plant with medicinal properties, it is also used for decorative purposes for your home or garden with the intense and elegant colors that nature generates.
The peony is a shrubby or herbaceous plant, cultivated in a very large part of the planet because of its colorful and often very fragrant flowers.
It can be both shrubby and herbaceous and is perennial, that is, if well cared for, it does not need re-sowing every year, but can survive the cold winter. It is a plant with deciduous leaves, meaning that when autumn comes it will lose all its leaves and even the flowers.

In Italy the peony is very happy, because it grows well and finds a climate that allows it to withstand flowering for many weeks from February / March.
Growing it is very simple, you need to arrange it correctly with respect to the sun and drafts, it prefers partial shade, that is, those areas where sunlight falls for half the day. It is a fast growing plant that needs to be positioned well over a meter from other plants due to its roots. It creates a pleasant contrast with Mediterranean flora species, such as the Myrtus, the Phillyrea and theHelichrysum.

The Lavandula
Commonly called "lavender", it is one of the garden plants widespread in the Mediterranean area most suitable for creating hedges and borders, such as the Lavandula angustifolia. It can be found spontaneously at the edges of country roads, in the parched landscapes of Sicily or Calabria. Its flowers were used in the Middle Ages to "wash" and hence its name. There are different varieties that differ in the color and fragrance of the flowers, since the botanical characteristics of lavender are similar in all the various species.

In colder areas, however, varieties are used that resist even low temperatures, such as Lavandula stoechas, the Lavandula dentata and the Lavandula lanata, with lilac flowers.
Ideal for playing with colors in its iridescent shades from pink to purple and the shapes of shrub compositions, both on hedges and sloping borders, and in chromatic games of parterre flowery.

The Allium
Commonly known as garlic and similar to the onion family, it is a bulb with flowers available in a wide range of colors ranging from yellow to white, through pink and purple.
The flowers vary in height from 20 to 120 cm and can be cut or dried for winter compositions.

L'Allium with his compositions he offers extravagant and highly textured structures, with unique contrasts in the garden in late spring.
L'Allium it adapts great to any well-drained garden soil in full sun. The smaller types are particularly suitable for growing in rock gardens.
The bulbs do not fear the cold and can be left in the ground even during the winter months, when they completely lose their foliage. Garlic can also be grown in pots in very large and deep containers for large species.
Generally it tends to be satisfied with the water provided by the rains, but during flowering it may be necessary to irrigate in times of water scarcity. It requires well-drained and not too compact soil.

La Lonicera
Commonly known as honeysuckle, it is an evergreen species that means it does not lose its leaves in the winter season, and can have both a climbing and shrubby habit. It is very easy to grow in general and can reach 6-7 m in height. Honeysuckle, with beautiful flowers and a delicate scent, is a spontaneous plant. Its flowers are very fragrant and gathered in bundles, with a tubular or bell-shaped corolla, of a color that varies from white, to red, to yellow which gives it a characteristic and singular appearance.

The best known species is Lonicera caprifolium, a climber widespread in the woods, with white-pink flowers that bloom from May. It differs in the types of species and prefers direct sun on the foliage and partial shade at the base. It can tolerate periods of drought, but absolutely avoid water stagnation.
Used very often as a creeping shrub and climbing plant, it revives and gives a touch of vibrant color to your garden.

The Lantana
It is one of the most used plants in the garden, both for the range of colors of its flowers, and for its adaptability in hedges or decorative pots. Its multiple varieties such as the Lantana amara, Lantana involucrata, Lantana selloviana they bloom until autumn and change color over the days of flowering. The trumpet-shaped flowers bloom in hemispherical corymbs begin to open in the lower part of the corymb. In the outer part and in the middle part they are orange and yellow in the central part.

There are varieties of lantana with pink and orange or white and lilac flowers, but also lantanas with completely yellow or white flowers.
Lantana needs a lot of light and it is important to choose an area of ​​your garden that is well lit from the sun and sheltered from the wind, as it can dry out the soil. In fact, it needs frequent watering, especially in summer: the soil must be humid, but never too wet.


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