My experience in growing small-fruited and large-fruited strawberries
Everyone loves strawberries
Many gardeners are familiar with remontant strawberries. They grow it in the beds, harvesting delicious berries from June until frost, and since the weather has become unpredictable lately, I began to grow strawberries in large pots in a greenhouse.
I grow small-fruited and large-fruited remontant strawberries of the following varieties: Alexandria, Ali Baba, Ruyana, Queen Elizabeth II.
Soil for strawberries
I prepare the soil loose, consisting of 50% leafy earth, 25% humus and 25% river sand. I mix all this well, adding the purchased soil "Magic Garden" to it. I begin to prepare the soil in advance, in the fall. This soil is intended not only for strawberries, but also for seedlings and indoor flowers. In a free place where there were beds, I dig a trench and put leaves, grass and tops from vegetables there. I sprinkle it all with the soil taken out and water it with Biocompost, and then cover it with a black film, the edges of which I sprinkle with earth.
In the spring I shoot the film - the earth is like fluff. I put it in a specially designated place in the garden until next season, cover it with a black film on top so that weeds do not grow. It is impossible to remove such soil in bags or containers, otherwise the microflora will die, and plants in such soil will not grow.
Sowing strawberry seeds
The best time to sow strawberry seeds is mid-February. Then I will get a harvest of berries in the year of sowing. These plants bear fruit in early August. Fill half the pot with coarse sand. I pour the soil prepared last season on top. I level it and spread the seeds over the surface, lightly press down and cover with snow. I close the pot with glass. You cannot sprinkle the seeds with earth. Plants should germinate in the light, so I put the pots in a bright, but not sunny and warm place. I often check the crops to prevent the soil from drying out.
When the cotyledon leaves appear, I put the pot in a lighter place, but I do not remove the glass from the pot. The root of such plants is still small and has not penetrated deeply into the ground, therefore, if you remove the glass, the top layer of the earth dries up quickly and the seedlings may die.
With the appearance of the first true leaf, and this will happen approximately two weeks after germination, I dive the plants into pots with a diameter of 12 cm, 25 plants in each pot. I make depressions in the ground and plant young plants there, pinching the tip of the root. I take out the plants with a wooden stick. Sushi sticks work well for this: one side is sharp and the other is flat. I water the cut plants with some kind of growth stimulant.
In April, when there are 4-5 true leaves on the strawberry seedlings, I transplant the strawberries into pots of 1-3 plants each. I keep these seedlings already on the veranda, which I often ventilate, thereby gradually tempering my strawberries. In early June, I plant one plant in a pot with a diameter of at least 15 cm. I try not to damage the earthen lump around the roots. I add heavier soil to the pot - garden soil, so that it does not dry out longer. I put the pots on the racks in the greenhouse.
Preparing a greenhouse for growing strawberries
In early April, I cover the greenhouse with plastic wrap. When it gets warm there, I raise the grapes on the supports - it grows in the northern part of the greenhouse, and I put pots with annual seedlings and plants overwintered in the basement on the racks (wooden shelves under the ceiling of the greenhouse). The racks are on the opposite (south) side of the grapes. I sow greenery under the stands in the beds - twice a season: in spring and at the end of August.
I must ventilate the greenhouse from both sides so that there is no stagnation of air, and moisture condensation does not accumulate on the ceiling, from which diseases can appear on the plants. In addition, droplets of water falling on the leaves can cause them to burn. And it is convenient to look after the plants on such racks: water, feed, cut off obsolete leaves, remove the infertile flower stalks, and you do not need to bend over at all.
On the same racks I place not only small-fruited strawberries, but also large-fruited remontant strawberries of the Queen Elizabeth II variety. I have been growing it like this for five years. I tried to put pots on the path curbs in the greenhouse, but they interfered with walking and caring for the plants in the beds.
Mature plants of large-fruited strawberries, well-developed grow whiskers, which can also give a good harvest of berries in the same season. Each mustache on the plant also produces a mustache of the next order. On each of them, I leave only the two strongest rosettes, the rest I remove as they grow. Peduncles appear on each mustache outlet. I leave only 3-4 of the largest flowers on each peduncle.
Next year, these plants will already be stronger, which means that the first and subsequent harvests on the outlet itself and on their whiskers will be abundant.
Watering and feeding strawberries
I water the strawberry seedlings through the pallet as the earth dries up. The pots must be with pallets, otherwise the soil in the pots dries out quickly, and this must not be allowed! It is also impossible to fill in the plants, otherwise the roots will rot, and green algae may appear on the surface of the soil. This means that air will cease to flow to the roots, which will negatively affect the growth of plants.
Once a week, I definitely feed the strawberries and spray them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and an infusion of ash. Thanks to this, it bears fruit until late autumn.
I remove the first flower stalks that appear (pluck out). They, as a rule, are formed a little, and they only weaken the plants. Therefore, I continue to build up the green mass of the strawberry bushes. The more it is, the more powerful the plant will be, and, therefore, the larger the harvest of large berries will be.
The next flower stalks will appear in about 2-3 weeks, but they will be strong and strong. As a rule, there will be 7-9 flowers on each peduncle. I leave 3-4 flowers on each of them, delete the rest. Thanks to this operation, each strawberry plant will have very large berries. If you leave all the flowers on the peduncle, then only the first ripe berries will be large, the rest will be small, and the plants will waste their energy on the ripening of the crop. And since my strawberries are remontant, soon after the first fruiting, flower stalks will appear on the plants. So I save the plant's strength for the next fruiting.
Strawberries like to grow in a greenhouse: it's warm there, no wind, no rain. And most importantly - I do not need to share the harvest with voracious birds, slugs, snails and frogs!
Remontant strawberries can bear fruit all year round if they are grown in a winter garden or greenhouse, supplementing them in winter. What I dream about!
Pest control of strawberries
Before flowering, I spray strawberry plants from midges and other pests, combining this with spraying shrubs, roses and flowers in the open field.
As a remedy for pests, I use an old recipe, which I learned about 50 years ago from the newspaper "Rural Life" and have been preparing it all these years. To do this, pour boiling water over the leaves of celandine, nettle and a pod of hot pepper in the evening. In the morning I filter it, dilute it with water and spray it on the plants.
Preparing strawberries for winter
In early September, I examine pots with small-fruited strawberries. I transplant young plants grown from seeds this year into fresh soil so as not to disturb them in spring. They will spend the winter in the basement. I will throw out old strawberry bushes at the end of the season - this is how I rejuvenate the planting material.
I divide the large-fruited strawberries and plant them in pots with a diameter of 20-25 cm. When it becomes cold outside in the fall, I bring the pots of strawberries into the house on the veranda, and they bear fruit for a long time until frost. Before removing the pots with plants to the basement at the end of the season, I cut off the entire aboveground part of the plants, otherwise it will rot, and I lower the pots into the basement.
Collection of strawberry seeds
I collect my own strawberry seeds. For the seeds, I leave one of the largest berries. After it becomes dark in color, I remove it, wipe it in a strainer under running water, and then leave it in a glass of water for 2-3 days so that the pulp moves away from the seeds. Then I rinse and dry on a napkin. This is how I get seeds of small-fruited strawberries. And from large-fruited strawberries I remove the top layer of pulp with seeds and repeat the procedure. And I also get my seeds.
Growing large strawberries on the street
In recent years, the weather has not pampered us, so I have to grow large-fruited strawberries in areas sheltered from the winds and well-lit areas. I grow remontant strawberries of the Queen Elizabeth II variety in the open field. I have two beds of it.
In the previous season, due to the huge amount of rains, there were no berries at all in the first half of summer, so the bushes of this strawberry rested and bloomed in August. There were many berries, but it was clear that they would not have time to ripen. Therefore, in order to save the harvest, we had to build a mini greenhouse. To do this, I installed arcs over the beds, connected them with twine so that the film did not sag. This structure was covered with plastic wrap. At the ends of the greenhouse, I left a hole 20 cm from the ground for airing, and so that insects could pollinate the flowers. Thanks to this, I still harvested berries last year. For the winter, I remove the shelter and spray the plants with Inta-VIR from pests.
In the spring, when the snow melts, I put the strawberry bushes in order: I remove the yellowed and dried leaves, spray them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and infusion of ash. I pour peat under each plant. In such soil, plants are warm, and moisture is well retained.
After such processing of bushes of large-fruited strawberries, I cover the beds with plastic wrap. In hot weather, I ventilate the strawberries, for this I slightly open the film from the ends so that the plants do not burn out from the heat. So the strawberries grow faster and bloom earlier. With the onset of warm weather, I remove the film.
I constantly remove the mustache so that it does not take away the strength from the plants. I water the strawberries as the earth dries up. I feed it once every ten days, usually a day after watering the beds. In rainy weather, during fruiting, I cover the beds with a film so that the berries do not rot.
Thanks to the use of potted culture, I start picking strawberries earlier than other gardeners every year, and end up eating delicious fruits later than everyone else.
Galina Balueva, gardener
Photo by the author
How not to be disappointed if you have purchased large-fruited Frigo strawberries, or My experience of growing seedlings from the Poisk company
For those who are not yet familiar with this word, Frigo is not a variety of large-fruited strawberries or strawberries (we are more accustomed to call this berry that way), it is, more correctly, a storage method for its further cultivation, or rather, for the sale of seedlings.
They come to Russia mainly from Poland, sometimes from Holland and are plants, but rather roots with a root collar, packed in a peat mixture. Before planting, they should be stored in special refrigerating chambers at t 0… + 20ºC.
And this is where the difficulties begin. If you buy in a large store (Obi, Ashan, etc.), it is advisable to try to buy seedlings in the hibernation stage, until the leaves begin to grow, and put them in the refrigerator until they are planted in the ground. Since I bought the seedlings in February, I put them in the vegetable compartment and checked them periodically. When I saw (at the end of March) that leaves were pecking out from the middle, I decided to plant them in pots and put them on the balcony.
And here is the second difficulty: the seedlings must be prepared for planting, avoiding temperature stress for the frozen plant. To do this, after defrosting for a day, give the seedlings "rest" in a shaded place - lie down in a plastic wrap to avoid drying out the roots or heatstroke. I was lying in the corner on the balcony. On the second day, open the packages and place the removed seedlings for 3-4 hours in water, the temperature of which should not exceed the ambient temperature (outside) - so the seedlings will get the missing moisture lost during the storage period. A root formation stimulant can be added to the water, but care must be taken that water does not get on the apical buds of the seedlings.
After defrosting and soaking Frigo strawberry seedlings, its roots should be cut to 7-10 cm, spread and immediately planted in prepared pots (if it is too early for planting in the ground), open ground or a greenhouse. Particular attention should be paid not to cover the root socket with soil - otherwise there is a possibility of root rot during watering. Due to non-observance of this condition, 2 seedlings died in me. The soil should be very well hydrated (this is extremely important for growing frigo!) And nutritious.
The planted seedlings must be shaded, since for further successful growth it is necessary that the roots begin to develop, and not the foliage, it is advisable to maintain the temperature not higher than +10 ° C. After 10 days, remove the darkening and grow further, like any seedlings before planting in the ground. Just don't put it in the bright sun.
In May (beginning, middle or end), depending on the weather in your area, you plant the seedlings in the ground.
Most of all, I would not want those who read this post to give up and say: "So many problems, I don't need this." It's very simple: my whole strawberry got sick and actually degenerated. I didn't want to buy at garden fairs, there was a lot of deception, but I wanted something large-fruited, tasty, unpretentious (to grow on my clay) and fruitful. I spent a long time on the websites, in the fall I was at the Flowers exhibition, where there was a Poisk stand, and it was decorated with luxurious strawberry bushes. There was a booklet with photos and names of more than 50 varieties. I went up to the employees, received a lot of recommendations and advice, and in the spring of next year I began to “hunt” for seedlings.
I bought it very successfully at Obi, literally on the first day. Then I followed the instructions received. I bought four varieties: Deroyal, Maxim (Gigantella Maxim), Sudarushka and Elianni. Out of 12 seedlings, 2 died, and that was my fault. I took it to the dacha, left it in the house and just overmoistened the ground.
All varieties are just wonderful, but I decided to take the mustache from Elianni. The variety is quite rare on the market, but one of its advantages is that it grows even on heavy soils. And when I saw powerful peduncles that did not fall under the weight of large, ideal-shaped berries, and the taste turned out to be excellent, and the berries did not suffer from gray rot, I just fell in love with him. I can't say that he is very "mustachioed", but by mid-August I already had 18 luxurious seedlings with a well-developed root system. More at that time was not necessary, but this year I removed the remains of Tsarskoye Selo and planted new Elianni saplings in its place.
Photo on September 11, I always plant marigolds in the strawberry garden
There is no photo of berries, but there is an autumn photo, taken in early November.
Elianni's strawberries before wintering
And of course, I also boast: I grow from Search: Honeysuckle "Giant's Daughter" and late raspberries "Tedmore", grow only one year, but the honeysuckle has already given the first berries, very tasty, and the bush adds very well in growth ( but they say that the first 2 years the bush grows slowly), has overtaken everyone.
And with raspberries, it's a funny story: I bought it for a ridiculous 20 rubles at a sale in Auchan, but there was only one green bud. Nothing, it came out, though this year there were no berries, but alive and growing.
This bush is only 2 years old, variety The daughter of a giant
And this is the former wretch - Raspberry Tedmore
I hope that with the help of "Search" I will have "berry abundance". And in conclusion, I want to say - do not be afraid to buy Frigo seedlings, just take a closer look at its cultivation, and you will make friends with it.
37 best varieties of garden strawberries
Based on the new discoveries of breeders, the following types of remontant berries can be distinguished :
Small-fruited strawberries are considered especially valuable for novice gardeners.... Despite its small size, the berry is very tasty and aromatic. It is easy to propagate and grow it. Does not require special care. It is ideal for weekend summer residents. There are several different berries of different colors with some difference in terms of fruiting.
- white-fruited - Yellow miracle (beardless), Zolotinka.
3. Goji berry, or common Dereza
Once a friend treated me to dried berries that looked like barberry. And these were the very legendary goji berries, the rumor about which spread all over the Internet. This dried fruit is quite sweet with a light pleasant bitterness to the taste, I really liked it. And soon I bought a package of dried berries in a nearby supermarket to experience their effect on my health.
I don't know if this was the result of self-hypnosis, or if the goji really have such an effect, but while taking them, I clearly felt cheerfulness and a surge of strength. Thus, absolutely everything suited me in goji berries: the composition, and the effect on well-being, and taste. Only the exorbitant price was unsuitable. A couple of times I came across goji berry seeds for sale, but I decided to do it easier - I extracted the seeds from several dried berries and sowed them.
Growing goji from seeds was no more difficult than growing tomato seedlings. The seeds sprouted quickly, the seedlings were abundant and developed before our eyes. In mid-May, I planted the grown goji bushes in the garden in a permanent place. The distance between the bushes made about a meter. The first fruiting was already the next season, but the harvest consisted of only a few berries.
Goji berry, or common Dereza (Lycium barbarum).
Growing large-fruited strawberries in the Moscow region
It is known that strawberries are a labor-intensive culture: pruning dying leaves, whiskers, weeding, loosening, protection from pests and much more, which is not required by the same crop when it does. one year. The strawberries of the first year have more advantages - larger berries, the ability to plant twice as many bushes on the same site (not 30 cm from one another, but 15 cm).
Scientists recommend growing strawberries in one place for 3-4 years. In real practice, there are other examples.
- Prepare seedlings in full for the entire plantation, replant every year.
- In July, free up the area for planting outlets so that they bear fruit the next year.
- Significantly fewer pedicels and berries than on plants 2, 3, 4 years old.
There is an experience of growing strawberries as a two-year crop. The adherents of this option have the following arguments: in two years the plant will not pick up as many pests and diseases as in 4, and economically (evaluating its own labor) the harvest in two years justifies itself. And the fruit change can be carried on. The next year, after strawberries, you can plant root crops, which have a long growing season. And in the year of planting new outlets - only green crops, which can be removed in July.
The experience of growing strawberries as a perennial crop is described in the literature - more than 20 years from the moment of planting and everything bears fruit. Who knows how over the years the roots of strawberries are exposed, how they crawl out of the ground, how the berries shrink from an old bush that does not receive enough nutrition, he will not believe in such an option. But the fact is that every autumn 20-year-old strawberries are sprinkled with 3-4 cm of leaf humus, and under this nutritious and warm pillow a huge number of new roots grow, the bushes seem to rejuvenate.
In the conditions of the Moscow region (not on sandy soils) it makes sense to grow large-fruited strawberries, colloquially called strawberries, in the beds. In our opinion, this culture does not need manure. It is better to lay in a thicker subsoil layer (by the way, it also helps from nematodes) of rotting grass remains, leaves, calcified, sprinkled with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, poured with a solution of potassium permanganate and covered with a fertile soil layer. Seal, tamp it, immediately cover it with black film or its substitutes.
The standard film is 6 m long and 80 cm wide. On a 90 cm wide bed, you lay the film cut along the length, push it to the edges. A strip 10 cm wide remains in the middle. The black foil has pre-cut holes 10 cm in diameter at a distance of 25 cm from each other. Lay out the strips so that the holes are staggered. It turns out: the distance between the bushes is 35 cm, between the rows - 40 cm. There are 30 bushes on such a bed. And in the center, sparsely plant garlic, onions, early greens. Between them, then add a small amount of whiskers, better thick ones, they are more valuable. Leave them one at a time, maximum two sockets to get strong seedlings. Take no more than two whiskers from one two-year-old bush, marked in advance, so as not to weaken the plant. Mother bushes (after all, they will transfer all their qualities to the seedlings) mark in advance with pegs, selecting not only the desired varieties, but also specimens according to the number of pedicels, the size and taste of the berries.
As soon as the rosette takes root, cut off the mustache so as not to weaken the main bush. And do not touch the future seedlings, let them grow and get stronger. You will dig it up with a large clod of earth, it will not feel a transplant, it will not require shading or daily watering. This method of growing rosettes also makes it possible to extend the planting time of a new plantation right up to September.
On the site you must have at the same time strawberries of all ages from one to four years old. The last bed after harvesting is dug up and prepared for planting another crop, say, cucumbers. And one of the cucumber, having given its harvest, goes under the planting of strawberry seedlings. Good predecessors of strawberries are green, carrots, onions, garlic, calendula, marigolds, and unwanted ones are potatoes, tomatoes, beans.
In the holes of the spread out film with a planting scoop, make holes (the size will tell you the lump with your seedlings), into which you pour 1 tablespoon of wood ash, 0.5 teaspoon of superphosphate, a pinch of chopped flowers and stalks of calendula (marigold), which act on pests, fall asleep earth, water. With a large clod of earth (pre-watered so that it does not crumble), take out the seedlings and transfer them to a prepared place. Do not bury the base of the upper kidney - the heart - into the soil.
All four years of fruiting, caring for strawberries boils down to the following: remove the old leaf in spring, spray with a solution of crimson potassium permanganate (repeat before flowering), iodine - before the formation of buds, when the flower stalks have already moved forward (30 g of iodine per 10 l of water), and right along the buds - boric (2 g per 10 l of water) ). Remove weeds, loosen. After harvesting, remove all whiskers, feed with ashes, huddle 3-4 years old: its roots are exposed. Nitrogen fertilization is given if the entire leaf is cut off after harvest for the purpose of rejuvenation or for pest control. Best of all - liquid top dressing. In general, do not get carried away with feeding strawberries. It is better to lay enough food when planting, otherwise you will get a lot of leaves from nitrogen fertilizers, not fruits.