Rules for planting zucchini and caring for them in the open field
This early ripening culture bears fruit throughout the summer. The plant is unpretentious, but requires care. Planting and cultivation is carried out in open beds, for an early harvest, seedlings are planted in greenhouses. In this article, we will look at how to properly plant zucchini in open ground, as well as how to care for it at home and what to feed it during the entire growing season.
Dates of planting zucchini seeds in open ground
Start planting seeds in the ground when the soil warms up to +12 degrees, not earlier than mid-May. In cold ground, seeds will not germinate, will rot and die. Therefore, the disembarkation is left until warmer weather. With late night frosts, tender sprouts will freeze. Planting zucchini seeds for seedlings is carried out at will, since the fruits have time to ripen and are planted immediately with seeds to the depth of the soil.
You can do this in early May (for the middle lane), after spilling the hole with warm water. The sowing site is covered with a plastic 5-liter transparent canister with a cut-off neck. It turns out a mini greenhouse for each plant. Do not forget that planting vegetables in the ground and in a greenhouse or greenhouse is significantly different.
After the onset of stable heat and the absence of night frosts, the canister is removed and the seeds can be grown further.
Proper preparation of beds and planting seed at home
The best way to prepare the ridges is in the fall. When digging, they bring in rotted manure or compost, a full range of fertilizers - superphosphate, potassium salt, ammonium nitrate. If necessary, they are preliminarily limed.
Where and which side to plant seeds? Zucchini can also be sown on compost heaps. Loose, humus-rich soil is a good place for this culture.
Do not plant zucchini next to the pumpkin. Over-pollination will reduce the yield of both crops.
It is enough to loosen a bed prepared in autumn in the spring and make holes in it. The zucchini bush is voluminous, planted at a distance of 0.5-0.8 meters. The seeds are treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, ash or nitroammofoska, holding for 20 minutes. Then washed with water. This will protect the seeds from diseases and ensure friendly germination.
Place 2-3 seeds in the hole, in case one does not come up. When shoots appear, one seedling is left, the rest are pinched off.
Care during the growing season
Zucchini loves warmth and moisture. In dry weather, watered once a week with water, no colder than +22 degrees. With massive growth of fruits - every three days. Up to two liters of water are poured under each plant. Do not watered before harvesting so that the taste is not affected.
The culture does not tolerate moisture on the leaves. Watered under the root from a watering can without a spray. After that, they spud and mulch.
A large bush and large fruits require a lot of nutrition. Top dressing begins after the appearance of true leaves and continues the entire period of fruiting. Fertilizers are good to apply in liquid form. Most of all he loves organic. Foliar dressing has a positive effect on the development of a vegetable. Spraying the bush every 10 days with a fertilizer solution can significantly increase the yield.
Weeds are only dangerous until they grow in the future, they simply will not be able to develop under a spreading crown.
How can you feed and fertilize zucchini?
What fertilizers are used for the plant, we list them:
- Fertilizers from improvised means.
For the development of this culture, a complete complex fertilizer is used in the following composition: 1 tbsp. spoon of potassium sulfate, double superphosphate, urea dissolves in 10 liters of water. After complete dissolution, watered under the root system by 1.5 liters per plant.
Nitrogen cause the growth of the green mass of the plant. Used in spring and summer. Closer to autumn, their use is undesirable. These are urea, ammonium, calcium and sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate.
Phosphoric help fruits ripen faster, reduce the growing season. These are superphosphate, double superphosphate, phosphoric flour.
Potash increase the resistance of plants to lack of moisture and heat. Increases resistance to diseases and pests. Distinguish between potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, potassium salts.
Magnesium and iron-containing ones include magnesium oxides, boron, and iron. They increase the yield of fruits and their quality. Magnesium contributes to soil deoxidation. It is better to fertilize in the fall according to a certain scheme, indicated in the instructions.
It is very convenient to use ready-made complex fertilizers. They contain the necessary chemical elements as a percentage. Azofoska, nitrophoska, diammophos include phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium in a state of easy assimilation for plants.
Microadditives are very important for the development of plants: boric, molybdenum, manganese, copper. A small amount of them is required, they are added to the complex.
Organic - an important component in the nutrition of zucchini. They include the main elements - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, trace elements, vitamins. All this is easy to digest. So you can feed the zucchini at any time.
Manure. Organics of animal origin. Not a very nutritious top dressing. Improves soil structure. The simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers and manure improves the assimilation of mineral fertilizers.
Humus. Rotted manure. Improves the condition and composition of the soil. Assimilated after application under the bush in a short time.
Compost. It is obtained after the decomposition of vegetable and kitchen waste. Its ripening lasts at least three years. Used for feeding, mulching.
Bird droppings... Contains all the necessary ingredients, the most valuable manure fertilizer. It takes time to be ready for application under crops. When fresh, it is caustic and can burn roots and leaves.
Peat... Makes the soil lighter, nourishes. Not all peat is healthy. Sour peat is used in composts.
Other organic fertilizers and fertilizing
Grass and leaves, yeast, ash, food waste are used for nutrition.
Green grass, nettle is especially good, is soaked in a barrel of water, kept for 10-15 days, and get herbal infusion. Strain it and get a fertilizer that is easily absorbed in a short time.
Green herbal dressing is obtained by digging and embedding in the ground grown on a garden bed.
Stimulates the growth and development of zucchini, yeast additives. Yeast can be added to herbal infusion or diluted in warm water with sugar.
Folk infusion of wood ash contains many trace elements, reduces the acidity of the soil. Does not contain nitrogen, it must be added.
Pests and the fight against them
Zucchini are subject to the following diseases:
- White rot
- Gray rot.
- Powdery mildew.
- Fusarium wilting.
White and gray rot covers leaves, stems and ovaries with bloom, they soften and dry out. It's a fungus. Appears in cold, wet weather in dense plantings. Spores persist in the ground. To destroy the disease, spray with copper sulfate, sulfuric zinc, urea solution. Do not thicken the planting, water with warm water.
Powdery mildew. The leaves are affected first, then the disease damages the whole plant. Absorbs plant nutrition, reduces yield. It spreads with temperature fluctuations, excess nitrogen. It is treated by spraying with colloidal sulfur, manure infusion, potassium permanganate solution.
Fusarium wilting affects the roots. With further development, it passes to the stem, and it dies. It can only be destroyed by completely replacing the soil.
All these diseases persist on plant debris and in the soil. Their appearance can be prevented by careful preparation of the ridges, burning plant residues, post-harvest processing, and observing crop rotation.
Insect pests for squash:
- Melon aphid.
- Spider mite.
Larvae melon aphid hibernate on plant debris, multiply rapidly in spring. They damage stems and leaves, after which they dry out. Autumn cleaning of ridges, burning of plant debris will help to prevent the invasion of insects. In summer, plants are sprayed with infusion of hot peppers, onions, potato tops, and powdered with tobacco dust.
Spider mite small invisible pest. Occurs in the lower part of the leaf. Causes leaf spotting and drying out. Control measures are the same as with aphids.
Whitefly forms a sticky sugar bloom on the back of the leaves. This is the environment for the formation of various fungi and plant diseases. The pest can be washed off with water, not allowing them to remain on the ground after that. In case of a large number of insects, treat the soil after harvesting with the Komandor insecticide.
Harvesting and storage
The most delicious and healthy are green fruits up to 25 cm long. They have a thin skin and small unripe seeds. By removing zucchini on time, we help the formation and growth of new ovaries. In this case, we will have fresh greens all summer. From the end of August, we begin to make a blank for storage for the winter. We harvest fruits with hard skin and a long stalk for better storage. We collect the harvest until the frost.
Well-ripe zucchini can be stored in a cool room for 4-5 months until March.
Zucchini is an early ripening culture, we get the first harvest 20 days after flowering. An early harvest allows you to get fresh vitamins already at the beginning of summer. Their wide range of uses makes zucchini a popular crop among gardeners.
Perennial garden geranium - planting and care
Many gardeners like perennial garden geraniums: planting and caring for this plant in the open field does not cause difficulties. Its delicate greenery and delicate colors of flowers adorn the garden from early summer to late autumn.
Rounded bushes with carved leaves complement the beauty of a flower garden, flower bed or country lawn, without requiring frequent watering and annual replanting. Even busy gardeners will be able to grow outdoor pelargonium on the site by planting once seeds that resemble the shape of a crane's beak.
Preparation and sowing procedure for vegetable marrow seeds
It must be remembered that culture refers to light and heat-loving. A sunny and wind-protected place should be taken away for planting zucchini. Growing will require quite a lot of water, so regular watering should be possible.
It is best to prepare the garden in the fall, but if you did not have time, then this can be done a few days before planting. The soil is dug up to a depth of 30 cm, and, if possible, organic fertilizers are applied. A rich, nutrient medium is simply necessary for zucchini, otherwise there will be no good harvest. Depending on the type of soil, additional components are added, such as peat, ash or sawdust.
If sandy soils prevail on your site, you need to make:
- turf soil and peat at the rate of a bucket per 1 m²
- 2-3 kg of compost and sawdust
- 1 tablespoon of phosphorus supplements and 2 tablespoons of ash.
For loamy soil, make:
- peat 3 kg per 1 m²
- compost and sawdust - a couple of kg
- a tablespoon of phosphorus fertilizers, ash - 2 tablespoons.
Growing zucchini outdoors with a high peat content requires adding:
- compost - 1 m² bucket
- turf land - 1 m² bucket
- a teaspoon of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers
- ash - 2 tablespoons.
Crop rotation and compatibility with other crops
Not all beds are suitable, in order to plant zucchini, outdoor cultivation is allowed after such predecessors as: potatoes, tomatoes, root vegetables, cabbage, onions and legumes. In no case should be planted after cucumbers, pumpkin and squash. It is not recommended to sow zucchini again in the same place.
Experienced gardeners advise planting this crop on potato plantings, using small areas of 1-2 plants. Thus, they can also be placed in the garden in open, sunny places.
Preparing squash seeds
Planting material should be chosen as the best, undamaged and full-weight. It is recommended to give preference to proven varieties and packaging companies. When purchasing seeds through catalog sites, you have the opportunity to choose the right seller based on customer reviews, and a huge assortment allows you to purchase the desired product or exotic novelty.
Selection and preparation of zucchini seeds
Growing zucchini both by seedling and by sowing seeds in the ground, provides for pre-sowing seed treatment, since most of the result depends on this. First of all, the planting material must be soaked, for this they use such growth stimulants as: "Bud", sodium humate or liquid fertilizer "Agricola".
The seeds are kept in a warm solution for 24 hours, then laid out on a moistened cloth and placed in a plastic bag. In this form, they are stored in a warm place until sprouts appear. When the first seeds hatch, they are immediately sown into the prepared soil.
The procedure for sowing zucchini in open ground
If you want to get an earlier harvest, you will need to pre-grow the seedlings in containers. When young shoots are planted in the soil, it is necessary to take care of the obligatory cover with a film or agrofiber.
Zucchini seedlings prepared for planting
With the seedless method, germinated seeds are sown directly into open soil. For central and southern Russia, the most suitable period for sowing is June 16-17 and 25, in the northern regions it is recommended to wait until July: 6 and 15-17.
Before sowing, a handful of humus and a little ash are introduced into each hole, then mixed with the soil and watered with a pink solution of potassium permanganate in the amount of 3 liters per 1 m² - this will disinfect the soil. Upon completion of the procedure, the planting is covered with a film.
Zucchini is a bushy crop and occupies a significant amount of space, so the holes must be placed at a distance of 0.6-0.7 m. When sowing, 2-3 grains are placed in each cavity. When the first shoots appear, the strongest sprout is chosen, and the weak ones are removed.
The first shoots of zucchini in the open field
It is recommended to carry out the procedure in the afternoon, when the heat begins to subside. On lighter sandy soils, the seeds are deepened to 5-6 cm, and on heavy less - up to 3-4 cm. Immediately after sowing, watering is carried out with water heated in the sun during the day. Further care for zucchini in the open field provides for regular loosening of the soil, mulching, timely watering and top dressing.
Growing zucchini in the open field video
Planting zucchini seeds
Agricultural technology involves planting seeds in an open area without shelter, but in the northern regions, some gardeners resort to the seedling method of growing crops in greenhouses. The use of a greenhouse method of cultivation is rare, since it is unproductive and requires forced pollination and periodic monitoring of the moisture level.
Zucchini have a negative attitude towards frost, therefore, the end of May, when warm weather sets in, is considered a suitable time for planting seeds in the garden. You can sow dry seeds into the ground, but it is better to put them in wet gauze a few days before sowing and let them hatch.
To accelerate the appearance of sprouts in seeds, you can soak them in solutions of mineral fertilizers or resort to the help of growth stimulants.
The agrotechnology of growing zucchini involves their placement in the garden according to the scheme, becausethe plant is a branching crop that requires a lot of space to grow. Many gardeners argue that the best option is to place no more than 3 vegetable crops per square meter.
Before planting the seeds, holes 4-7 cm deep are dug throughout the bed and a little ash and humus are poured into each of them, which are then gently mixed with the ground. Sprouted zucchini seeds must be planted in well-moistened soil, because in dry soil, they will die. Usually 2-4 seeds are placed in a small hole, and after emergence, only the healthiest and most resistant of them is left.
Those gardeners who want to enjoy an early harvest of courgettes can resort to using seedlings. For this, special purchased soil is well suited, which has a neutral reaction and has a sufficient amount of humus.
For growing young seedlings of zucchini, medium-sized containers or peat cups are suitable, where seeds are sown 20-30 days before the date of their intended planting. A suitable temperature for the emergence of sprouts is considered to be 20-22 degrees, and for about 5-6 days it is recommended to reduce it to 14-16 degrees at night and no more than 15-18 degrees during the day. This helps to avoid pulling the seedlings out and to get an evenly formed bush.
For the first time, young seedlings can be fed on the 10th day after sowing and this is done with a mullein solution or mineral fertilizers. At the age of 30 days, the seedlings are transplanted into the garden, usually at the beginning of June.
Zucchini - growing and care in the open field
To get beautiful zucchini on the site, cultivation and care should consist in methodical watering of the site, loosening the beds, planned replenishment of the vegetable, and the fight against parasites. Competent cultivation favors an increase in the growth of fruits and the ripening of a significant harvest. Zucchini - planting and care in the open field and the nuances of growing them:
- with the pecking of young shoots, it is necessary to thin out the plants
- to lure pollinators, the bush is irrigated with boric acid and sugar
- when the flowering of the bush begins, and insects are not visible on the site, you need to manually help the plant to pollinate - pick one male flower (on which there is no ovary behind) and mark 2-3 stamens in female rosettes with a pistil
- at the stage of 4-5 leaves, the bush is slightly spud, this favors the formation of side roots
- at the end of the season, ready-to-eat vegetables must be picked on time.
How many zucchini sprout in the open field?
Culture seeds germinate quickly. The rules of agricultural technology give an unambiguous answer after how much zucchini sprout in the open field:
- on the 5th day after planting at + 15-16 ° С, the first shoots are visible
- under conditions of + 12-13 ° C, they hatch on the 7th day
- the bush bears fruit 40-60 days after sowing, depending on the species.
What temperature can zucchini withstand outdoors?
The conditions for growing zucchini provide for compliance with temperature conditions ranging from + 18 ° С to + 25 ° С. The culture can withstand a cold snap up to + 4-7 ° С, but for a short time. If the low temperature regime of the environment lasts for a long time, the development of fruits is suspended and the bushes die. In the heat, the vegetable can dry out, the ovary is not formed.
How to water zucchini outdoors?
Garden zucchini are drought-resistant, but planting and care in the open field should be done with sufficient moisture in the soil. Long-term absence of rain and water negatively affects productivity. Watering zucchini in the open field:
- moisturize the bushes in the evening with sun-warmed water
- watering is necessary generous, the regime is weekly in cloudy weather and once every 2-3 days when it is hot
- pour water under the roots without moisturizing the foliage. Vegetables that are ripening and lying on the ground can be put on a support - a board, a piece of slate, so that they do not rot
- the rate of moisture is 8-10 liters per m 2, after the bush is mulched with grass
- 10 days before harvesting, watering is suspended so as not to worsen the quality of the fruits.
Zucchini care - feeding
To get burly zucchini on the site, planting and care in the open field involves three dressings per season. To do this, it is advisable to use the following schedule:
- Primary make-up. Produced in June before flowering, 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium preparations per 10 liters of water are recommended for it. Buckets of composition are enough to feed 10 copies.
- Zucchini is the second feeding and care. Required at the time of flowering, the norm is 1 glass of ordinary wood ash per bucket of water. Half a liter of solution is enough for one bush.
- Third feed. It is planned at the fruiting stage: in 10 liters of water add half a liter of liquefied mullein and 1 tbsp. l nitrophosphate. The rate of the solution is a liter per bush.
Outdoor zucchini care - pinching
Competent care of zucchini in the open field involves pinching in climbing varieties. At the beginning of budding, they cut off the main stem at a level of 1 m, leave 3 large shoots 70 cm long with one vegetable on each. In bush species, pinching is not necessary. But such a plant is photophilous, so plantings cannot be thickened. For thinning at the fruiting stage, 1-3 large leaves are cut off on the shoots in the middle zone of the lash. This procedure will increase ventilation and lighting of the shoots and avoid the appearance of rot.
Perennial geranium is an unpretentious garden culture. But to make her bloom profusely and for a long time, she will have to pay a little attention.
The plant needs regular but moderate watering. Usually geraniums are watered immediately after planting and at first in a new place. Already rooted shrubs are moisturized, taking into account the weather conditions. Watered abundantly at the root during the summer drought.
Top dressing and fertilization
If peat and compost were introduced into the soil during planting, then additional fertilizing of geraniums is not needed. If desired, you can apply mineral fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium during the growing season, which will stimulate flowering.
Leaving during flowering
Perennial geranium begins to bloom from mid-June to mid-July. Flowering can continue until cold weather. It all depends on the care and type of plant. The shade of flowers can be varied. Special conditions for geraniums during flowering are not needed. The main thing is to provide moderate watering and remove timely dried inflorescences in order to stimulate the formation of new buds.
Geranium has fairly branched roots. There is always a risk of injury during transplantation. Therefore, the plant is transplanted only as needed. In one place, the bush can grow up to 10 years.
To reduce stress on the plant, it must be dug as deep as possible, divided into parts and transplanted into prepared pits, which are several centimeters larger than the root system. The transplant is best done during the rest period. So the geranium will take root in a new place faster.
What you can and cannot plant next to zucchini
When it comes to growing zucchini, gardeners immediately imagine that a plot of considerable size should be allocated for this culture. Therefore, in small gardens, joint planting will be very useful. The melon in question actually requires a lot of space, but the bush does not grow until mid-summer. Farmers with experience know that in the first half of summer a squash bed can be used for other crops, which are characterized by early maturity. Consider neighboring plants that can get along next to zucchini:
- to save space, you can plant zucchini next to winter garlic or onions
- before the melon goes into effect, you can have time to get a harvest of dill, radish, lettuce, parsley
- next to the zucchini, you can plant peas or beans, which will rise up the trellis and will not interfere with the growth and development of the culture in question
- on the beds adjacent to the zucchini, you can plant turnips, radishes, beets, onions
- good neighbors are tall crops: corn and sunflowers, which will protect melons from the wind
- black radish is an excellent neighbor for zucchini, as it repels spider mites with its phytoncides
- calendula and nasturtium will be a decoration and protection for zucchini beds.
When planning a site for planting zucchini, you need to take into account neighboring plants (in the photo, early cabbage and zucchini)
However, there are plants that are recommended to be planted away from zucchini:
- cucumbers planted nearby feel depressing
- you should not plant squash and pumpkin next to it, because due to possible cross-pollination, hybrids that are not very pleasant to taste will grow.
All this indicates the need for preliminary planning of the site so that garden crops do not interfere with each other.
Zucchini can be successfully grown both in the open field and in greenhouse conditions. In the latter case, the harvest can be obtained much earlier. If your site does not have large dimensions, then you can resort to non-standard methods of planting and subsequent cultivation of this melon crop.