Water drainage system at the site: device of surface and deep options
Most often, a person does not choose a plot for a dacha himself, but is content with what he will be offered in the architectural department. And in the process of using the summer cottage, it turns out that the earth was caught with a high level of humidity. Therefore, trees do not want to grow, and garden crops begin to hurt. And the worst thing is that nearby groundwater can wash away the walls of the foundation, cause shrinkage of the dacha and outbuildings, and the basement will suffer from flooding every spring. Moreover, an excess of moisture in winter raises the soil, makes it heave, which is why the blind area, paths and other elements of the site's design will begin to crack at the seams. The owner has only one thing to do - to equip the drainage of the site with his own hands. This procedure is simple and takes a couple of weeks. But you will avoid many serious troubles and keep your garden and buildings healthy.
Depending on the reason for the flooding of the site, drainage of open or closed types is done. If the site is dominated by clay soil, which retains precipitation and melted snow on the surface, it means that to put the site in order it is enough to create an open drainage system through which excess water will leave the soil surface.
The second reason for stagnant moisture is closely passing groundwater. It is they who flood the basement in the spring, erode the foundation, heave the soil, and the problem can only be eliminated with a solid closed drainage system. Consider how to make drainage on the site in the simplest ways.
Construction # 1 - open (surface) drainage
An open drainage network is created without drawing up a preliminary scheme or with it. The simplest option is local drainage, in some places. It is created if the problem of flooding concerns only individual points of the site, and even then during periods of large amounts of precipitation.
Water intakes are placed in places of the greatest accumulation of water (near drains, along the edge of paths, etc.), digging an airtight container or drainage wells into the ground
In this case, they first notice the places where water stagnates most often, and they dig in water intakes or closed containers there, from which it will later be possible to take liquid for watering the garden. Typically, most water remains:
- at the end of the cottage drain;
- flat areas - near the porch and terrace;
- in the depressions of the earth with uneven relief.
If the place of accumulation of water is located near the border of the site, then with the help of a trench, drains are diverted outside of it. And at distant positions, water intakes are dug into the ground.
The second drainage option, which is most beneficial for clayey soil, is the laying of ditches throughout the site. First, they sketch out a plan on paper, where they mark the entire network of ditches and the place of the drainage well, where water will be collected.
The depth of the drainage ditch is made about half a meter, and the frequency of the location is determined by the level of swampiness of the site (the wetter the ground, the more ditches need to be dug)
In order for the open drainage system to work efficiently, the ditches must be made with a slope towards the future water intake. If the surface of the earth is uneven, then they dig down along the relief, and if it is even, then it will be necessary to create a slope artificially, otherwise the water will stagnate in the drainage networks.
The number of ditches is determined by the degree of soil moisture. The more clayey it is, the more often drainage networks are laid. The depth of the trenches is made at least half a meter, and the width is determined by the degree of proximity to the drainage well. The widest trench is made, which collects water from all the others and sends it to the well.
It is necessary to check the quality of the runoff in ditches that have not yet had time to improve, otherwise, additional efforts will have to be spent on dismantling the design
After the entire drainage system at the site has been dug, it is necessary to check it for the quality of the drain. To do this, with the help of ordinary watering hoses, a strong stream of water is allowed through the ditches (preferably from several points at once) and it is observed how quickly the flow goes into the drainage well. If in some areas the runoff is too slow, then a larger slope must be made.
After checking the functioning of the system, they begin to come up with ways to decorate it. Few people like the look of dug ditches in their area, so they try to cover them somehow. The easiest way to do this is with crushed stone of different fractions. The bottom is filled with large pebbles, and the top is laid out with smaller ones. The final layer can even be finished with marble chips or blue-tinted decorative gravel, thus creating the appearance of dry streams. It remains to decorate their shores with green plants, and the drainage system will turn into a unique design element. Ditches around the perimeter of the cottage can be closed with decorative gratings.
If you leave the ditches open, then it is better to shape them into a water source, creating something like a stream. But this option will have to be periodically cleaned of debris.
Important! Backfilling the ditches with gravel prevents the walls from collapsing and thus extends the life of your drainage system!
Construction # 2 - closed (deep) drainage
If the problem of waterlogging is caused not by clay, but by nearby groundwater, then it is better to create deep drainage on the site. It is carried out in the following order:
1. Determine the depth of pipe laying. The denser the earth, the shallower the pipes are laid. So, for sandy soil, trenches of at least a meter are needed, for loams - 80 cm, for clay soil - 70-75 cm. In this case, do not forget to take into account the depth of soil freezing in your area. It is better if the pipes are below this level. Then in winter they will not be deformed by the remnants of moisture and expanding soil.
2. Pick up pipes. Most drainage pipes today are made from perforated plastic. It is cheaper than ceramics and safer than asbestos cement. But the pipe should be additionally protected from the penetration of small particles of earth and sand, otherwise, over time, it will clog and cease to perform drainage functions. For this, geotextiles are used, which are wrapped around each pipe, taking into account the type of soil.
The sand and gravel cushion plays the role of a shock absorber and an additional filter for drainage pipes, not letting in large particles of earth and debris that bring groundwater
If the earth is clay, then geotextiles can be omitted, but the pipes should be laid on a gravel bed (20 cm). On loams, no crushed stone bedding is carried out, but the pipes are wrapped in a filter cloth. On sandy soils, it is necessary to wrap with geotextiles and backfill pipes with gravel from above and below.
Ready-made drainage pipes are made of perforated corrugated plastic, which is already wrapped in a filter cloth, therefore does not require additional work during installation
3. Preparing places for the water intake. Before starting excavation work, you need to decide where your water will flow. This may simply be the exit of the pipe outside the site, where it will then enter the ditch. But it's better to make a sinkhole. He will help out in a dry year, because this water can be used for garden needs. And it is not always possible to bring the drainage system out of the site.
4. Earthwork. Ditches are dug at a slope to the place of the water intake. Approximately - there should be a 7 cm slope per meter of the ditch. Be sure to check the slope with a building level. The best trench layout is a herringbone, in which all the side branches flow into one central one, created from a wider pipe. And from it, water enters the well.
5. Preparing the bottom of the trenches for pipe-laying. Once the network of trenches has been dug, the bottom must be prepared for pipe-laying. There should be no drops on it, because in the places of kinks, the plastic will begin to break under the weight of the soil. The most convenient way is to create a cushion. To do this, 10 cm of coarse sand is poured onto the bottom, and the same layer of gravel is placed on top. And already pipes are being laid on it. If backfilling cannot be done for some reason, then the entire ditch is additionally lined with geotextiles to prevent the pipes from silting up.
Important! Choose a low density filter cloth, otherwise water will not be able to quickly break through its walls.
6. Laying the drainage system. All pipes are laid out in trenches and assembled into a single network using tees and crosses.
To connect drainage pipes into a single network, such additional elements as crosses and tees are used, selecting them according to the size of the pipe diameter
Next, the system is covered with a layer of sand on top, and then - with crushed stone (10-15 cm for each layer). The remaining space is clogged with ordinary earth, forming rollers above the soil level. Over time, the layers will settle, and the mounds will be leveled with the surface of the ground.
After the drainage on the site is done, it is advisable not to ride on it with heavy equipment so as not to crush the system. It is better to complete all complex construction work before creating a drainage network, because it is more difficult to restore it than to create a new one.
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What kind of water is drained away
Drainage of a plot is a costly and laborious undertaking that requires a large amount of land work. The best time for construction is the process of planning and arranging the site. Later deadlines lead to a lot of confusion, which is not everyone's joy. Nevertheless, if there is water on the site, you have to go for it.
There are several types of water on the site that bothers us and that needs to be diverted. They are of a different nature and require different measures.
They are formed during snow melting and heavy precipitation, during work on the site (watering, washing paths), water discharge from a reservoir, etc. What all phenomena have in common is their singularity: surface waters appear after certain events. A more reasonable way to drain them is a storm sewer device. She copes with the task perfectly, and the cost of the arrangement is much lower.
Stormwater drainage is responsible for the discharge of surface water.
For the removal of surface water, mainly open channels are installed, water intake - point under storm pipes or linear along the entire roof overhang. From these receivers, water is taken with solid plastic (asbestos-cement) pipes into a sewer or a river or lake is dumped into a ravine. Sometimes it is permissible to take to the ground
Those underground waters that have a seasonal level (higher in spring after a flood, lower in winter) have a feeding zone (where they come from) and an outflow zone (where they leave) are called groundwater. Usually, groundwater is present on sandy, sandy loam soils, less often in loams with a small amount of clay.
The presence of groundwater can be determined using self-dug pits or several wells drilled with a hand drill. During drilling, a dynamic level is noted (when water appeared during drilling) and a steady level (some time after its appearance, its level stabilizes).
If we talk about the drainage of water from the building, then the drainage system is arranged if the groundwater level (GWL) is only 0.5 m below the foundation.If the groundwater level is high - above the freezing depth - then the foundation is a monolithic slab with the measures taken to drain water. At a lower level, other options are possible, but a thorough and multi-layer waterproofing is required. The need for foundation drainage should be assessed by a specialist.
If high-standing groundwater (GWL above 2.5 meters) interferes with the growth of plants, drainage of the site is required. This is a system of canals or special drainage pipes laid in the ground at a certain level (below the hot water level by 20-30 cm). The depth of the pipes or ditches is below the ground level so that the water flows down to lower places. Thus, the adjacent soil areas are drained.
This groundwater occurs on soils in high-lying water-resistant strata, but is often the result of construction errors. Usually this is water, which, being absorbed into the soil, meets strata with a low ability to absorb moisture on its way. Most often it is clay.
If, after the rain, puddles stand on the site and do not leave for a long time, this is a breeder. If water accumulates in the dug ditches, this is also a top water. If a few years after the construction of a house on clay soils or loams in the basement the walls begin to "cry" - this is also a top water. Water accumulated in crushed stone pockets under the foundation, in the blind area, etc.
To avoid such a situation, drainage of the site is required
The easiest way to remove the top water is with the help of ditches, but it is better to prevent its appearance - to backfill the foundation not with crushed stone and sand, but with clay or native soil, carefully tamping it in layers. The main task is to exclude the presence of pockets in which water will accumulate. After such a backfill, it is required to make a blind area, which is wider than the backfill in width and an obligatory stroke is the drainage of storm water.
If the site has a slope, consider installing terraces and retaining walls, with the obligatory arrangement of drainage ditches along the retaining wall. The most difficult thing is to deal with verkhvodka in low areas, which are lower in level than the neighboring ones. Here, a reasonable solution is to add earth, since there is usually nowhere to dump water. Another possible option is the output of the drain through neighboring areas or along the road to the point of possible discharge. It is necessary to decide on the spot, based on the existing conditions.
PLASTIC OR STONE?
The surface drainage system consists of trays with lattice covers, storm inlets, sand traps and drain pipes. There are concrete and plastic products on the market. Let's mark the pros and cons of both. Plastic systems (mostly low-density polyethylene) are the most popular. They are lightweight, frost-resistant, fit reliably and are designed for at least 15 years of operation.
For pedestrian areas, products of load resistance class A15 (according to the European standard ENU33) are suitable, for car entrances - classes B125 and C250. Plastic trays on any soil require a reliable base (reinforced concrete tape), without which they often float, crack and even break under load. The price of the product starts from 380 rubles. for 1 running. m (with a hydraulic section of 100 mm).
The trays are covered with plastic or steel grates. The best option is stainless steel covers, the service life of which exceeds 30 years. Galvanized ones are less durable (10-15 years), and plastic ones, although they do not rust, are not suitable for car entrances and even in pedestrian areas are often damaged when cleaning ice and snow. Prefabricated concrete elements are strong and durable. They are made by vibropressing trays designed for high loads, moreover, they are reinforced with a steel or plastic bar.
A significant mass (1 running meter - on average 50-120 kg) is both a plus and a minus of concrete parts: on the one hand, it complicates installation (often you have to use equipment), on the other hand, it provides a reliable landing in the ground. Concrete trays are joined, sealing the joints with cement glue or rubber sealant, and covered with steel or cast iron gratings, the service life of the structure is at least 50 years.
The price of concrete parts is not very high (a tray with a hydraulic section of 100 mm and a length of 1 m costs about 650 rubles), however, taking into account delivery and installation, the costs turn out to be 1.5-2 times higher than for a plastic system.
Composite (polymer concrete) trays and storm water inlets are made from a cement-polymer mixture with various fillers (most often, glass or ceramic fiber). Such products are lighter than concrete ones, stronger and more durable than plastic ones and, despite the relatively high price (from 1250 rubles per 1 running meter), they are increasingly used in private construction.
As for the organization of underground drainage, PVC sewer pipes with a diameter of 100-150 mm, with walls from 3 mm thick, are suitable for this purpose.
Plastic trays are covered with gratings made of the same material or steel. It is not worth painting metal products on your own: the coating will quickly be erased
Polymer concrete products can be equipped with stainless steel mesh grates that can support the weight of a truck
SURFACE DRAINAGE DEVICE
Drainage of the suburban area
If the summer cottage is located in a lowland, then during the rainy season it can turn into a real headache! After all, none of us likes to splash in puddles. It is all the more hopeless to try to plant something in the slushy soil. But waterlogged or swampy land in the country is not a sentence at all. You can verify this by reading the article Wetland Problems and Solutions.
Properly executed drainage of the site will greatly facilitate the life of a summer resident
There are many ways to do drainage with your own hands or to involve specialists in this matter. It all depends on the scale of the work and the location of your site. Many savvy summer residents make various drainage systems on their own, rather successfully draining their waterlogged (or even swampy) area. I take off my hat to those who are capable of doing such work on their own)).
But if it were that simple, the drainage specialists would be sitting around. After all, the classic scheme of the correct drainage system includes:
- network of canals and perforated pipes, buried 1.8-2 m
- a system of inspection wells, through which (after 15-20 years) you will have to clean the channels with a jet of water supplied under high pressure
- installation of special receiving boxes with so-called "sand traps", which must be regularly cleaned of various small debris.
And the perforated pipes themselves are laid in the trench according to a certain technology: first, pebbles or crushed stone are poured onto the bottom of the channel, then pipes are laid, mounting inspection wells every 15-17 m. Then the channels with pipes are covered with crushed stone or gravel, and a soil layer is poured on top. Moreover, the slope of the pipes should be 3-4 cm per meter, and the pipes themselves are usually packed in a special film or placed in gutters with a fine mesh, pre-sprinkled with pebbles or gravel.
Experts will draw up a site plan, determine the places for inspection wells and the height of burial pipes
Before these (truly grandiose) works, a geodetic plan of the site is preliminarily drawn up, where the highest and lowest points of the relief are marked. And the drainage of the site is done according to the plan: from the highest point to the lowest.
Quite often, the drainage system of the site is complex, because the terrain can be anything you like. It happens that the site is located on a flat surface that does not have a slope. In this case, to divert the main canal, a deep well is dug, the bottom and walls of which are reinforced with special supports and concreted.
And if the outlet of the main drainage pipe is located below the level of the collection well, then another well is being dug - an intermediate one. As the main collection well is filled, water is pumped out of it with a pump.
Inspection wells are arranged every 15-17 m
In our market, which brings together large online stores, you can choose a pump for your summer cottage. Take a look at the selection of Drainage Pumps.
In order to save money, some summer residents do not use purchased perforated pipes for drainage, but old metal ones, drilling small holes in them and laying them in the ditches with the holes up. If the site is not very swampy, you can carry out drainage ditches without laying pipes - just filling them with rubble or pebbles.
My husband and I ourselves made a simple drainage, when we got such a neglected and swampy area that during the rainy season it was simply impossible to walk through it without rubber boots.
From the old owners there was a small country house with several flower beds, a semblance of a children's town and a lot of all kinds of garbage that had to be put somewhere, as well as a large uncultivated wasteland (room for imagination). So we thought that before improving the site, we must first make drainage ditches and fill them with all sorts of "unnecessary".
For the laying of drainage pipes, narrow trenches with a depth of more than 1 m are dug
We checked the slope of the site in the old old-fashioned way: in those places where (in our opinion) the surface went downhill, we first dug small grooves, filled them through the water hose and looked in which direction the water flows. And you know, we were wrong quite a bit.
We slightly corrected the directions of the bends and dug trenches about 1 m deep at the designated places with an outlet into a deep (2.5 m) well. For such work, we had to hire people, they also helped us uproot the numerous stumps left over from the previous owners (for a certain fee, of course).
Ditches with pipes are covered with rubble, and soil is poured on top
We filled the trenches with old stumps, twigs, remnants of building materials and all the garbage available in the country, up to clothes and old children's toys. The excavated soil was leveled along the soil layer, due to which it became slightly higher than the trench (later we planted honeysuckle, currants there and broke several beds). Then the trenches were filled up with rubble, sand and carefully tamped.
Above the ditches were covered with wooden flooring, and paving slabs were laid on top of it. This is how we got comfortable garden paths. Now, even in the heaviest showers, you can walk along our paths in shoes without getting your feet wet.
It is not at all easy to carry out proper drainage on the site without the involvement of specialists.
But we did not immediately think about how to strengthen the sides of the paths, and they began to crumble. Without thinking twice, we fixed them with the bricks left over from the renovation of the house: we made the masonry in two layers. It turned out solidly, but not very beautiful, and I planted an unpretentious saxifrage along the rough brickwork - it turned out very great! This is how my husband and I made drainage at our summer cottage, and at the same time cute garden paths.
As you can see, there are a lot of nuances and subtleties in this difficult matter. My husband and I managed on our own and got along with "little blood", inviting people from outside to help in the most difficult work (digging and filling ditches, uprooting stumps). But if you want to make a really reliable, high-quality drainage system for the site, then it's still better to use the help of professionals.