Alyonushka is a popular early ripe variety of Chinese plum
Alyonushka is an attractive variety of Chinese plum that does not lose its popularity. Planting and growing it is associated with some difficulties due to the characteristics of the variety. We will familiarize the gardener with them in detail and give the necessary instructions for planting and care.
Description of plum variety Alyonushka
Alyonushka is a fairly young variety of Chinese (willow) plum. It was received in the Oryol region by breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops (VNIISPK) at the end of the last century. In 2001 he was registered in the State Register for the Central Black Earth Region.
Alyonushka's tree does not grow high - usually its growth ranges from two to two and a half meters. Straight shoots with a smooth brown bark depart from the trunk at an angle of 30-40 °. Overgrowing branches of medium density form a raised pyramidal crown. Flower buds are laid on fruit twigs. They bloom in the first decade of May, and the fruits ripen in the second half of August.
The fruit twig is an annual fruit formation with a flower bud at the top.
Plum Alyonushka bears fruit on fruit twigs
The tree has an average winter hardiness of wood and increased frost resistance of flower buds. It does not differ in drought resistance, therefore it needs regular watering. The variety is susceptible to heating of the bark at the base of the stem as a result of water accumulation during periodic thaws. Possesses average immunity to moniliosis and clasterosporium. Strongly affected by aphids, especially in the first half of the growing season, when the leaves and young shoots are very tender.
The variety is self-fertile, so the presence of pollinators is mandatory. In their quality, the Skoroplodnaya plum is best suited, as well as other varieties of Chinese and home plums, the flowering of which coincides in timing. Alyonushka has a high early maturity - the first berries can be tasted already in the third year after planting, and the maximum productivity of the plum reaches the age of 7-8 years. The yield is high and regular. On average, 147 centners are received from one hectare, and the maximum recorded yield was recorded at 199.8 centners / ha.
Rounded fruits are uniform in size with an average weight of 35 grams. The orange juicy pulp has a gristly structure and an excellent sweet and sour taste. The stone is small, it separates from the pulp poorly. The tasting score, depending on the place of cultivation, ranges from 4.2 to 4.8 points. Resistance to cracking and good separation of the fruit from the stalk determine high transportability. The purpose of the fruit is a table. The variety is widely used both in home gardening and industrial cultivation.
Alyonushka plum has dark red rounded fruits
Advantages and disadvantages of the Alyonushka plum variety
Summing up the description of the variety, we will briefly list its positive and negative properties. So, on the merits:
- High early maturity.
- A compact, low tree with a thin crown.
- Good winter hardiness, including fruit buds.
- Regular and abundant fruiting.
- Great taste.
- High commercial quality of fruits.
The most significant disadvantage of the variety is its strong aphid attack. The second drawback is the tendency to podperevaya root collar.
Taking into account the tendency of the Alyonushka plum to pre-warming the stem, when planting it, preference should be given to seedlings grafted onto stable rootstocks of local varieties or wild wild. The height of the graft above ground level should not be lower than the snow level typical for local winters. If, nevertheless, a self-rooted seedling is used for planting, it will have to be planted on a hill. When choosing a planting site, you need to remember that Alyonushka will not grow on acidic soils - neutral or slightly alkaline ones are suitable for her. The permissible groundwater level should not be less than two meters. The distance between trees in a row for a group planting should be within 2-3 meters, and the row spacing should be 4 meters. In the Central Black Earth Region, it is better to plant plums in early spring (before the buds swell). In general, the planting process does not have any peculiarities inherent in this particular variety, and is typical. Let's briefly list the main stages step by step:
- In the fall, prepare a landing pit 0.8 m deep and the same diameter.
- If the soil is heavy, then a drainage layer 10-15 cm thick is laid on the bottom.
If the soil is heavy, then a drainage layer 10-15 cm thick is laid on the bottom of the planting pit.
- The pit is filled with fertile loose soil with the addition of organic matter (2-3 buckets per seedling) and superphosphate (80-100 grams per planting pit).
- In the spring on the day of planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked for several hours in water with the addition of Heteroauxin, Zircon or another root-forming agent. Dosage - according to the instructions.
- A part of the soil is removed from the planting pit so that a hole is formed in the center with a volume sufficient to accommodate the root system of the seedling in it.
- In the middle of the hole, you need to form a small mound on which the heel of the seedling root is supported, and the roots are straightened along the slopes.
In the middle of the hole, you need to form a small mound on which the heel of the seedling root is supported, and the roots are straightened along the slopes
- They fill up the hole and compact the soil around the plant well. In this case, you need to ensure that the root collar does not turn out to be buried - it is better to first raise it above the ground by 5-7 cm, and after the soil settles, it will drop to the required level.
- A near-trunk circle is formed along the diameter of the landing pit.
- Water the seedling abundantly with water until the trunk circle is completely filled. After absorbing water, watering is repeated two more times.
- After 2-3 days, the soil is loosened and mulched with humus, peat, hay or other suitable material.
- The central conductor is cut to a height of 0.8-1.2 m, if there are branches, they are shortened by 50%.
In the case of planting a self-rooted seedling, a hill of fertile soil 0.5-0.6 m high and 1.2-1.5 m in diameter is poured over the prepared planting pit. The planting hole is dug in the center of the hill and otherwise act as this is described above.
Own-rooted seedlings should be planted on a loose or natural hill
Features of growing and subtleties of care
Plum Alyonushka is rather unpretentious in care. It is grown according to the same rules as other varieties of plum and cherry plum. But there are several important points to pay close attention to.
This variety is best given a cupped, compact crown shape that is easy to care for and harvest. Formation begins at the time of planting, as indicated above, and is carried out during the first 4-5 years.
Since the variety is not drought tolerant, it needs to be watered fairly regularly. Watering is especially important at the end of April before the flowering of the plum, in mid-May after the flowers have fallen, and also in the summer with an interval of 1-2 weeks. With the onset of August and until the end of the harvest, watering is stopped so as not to provoke cracking of the fruits. In October - November, according to the usual rules, water-charging irrigation is carried out.
Prevention of fading of the stem base
For these purposes, at the end of winter, it is necessary to remove snow from the boles of own-rooted plants and form grooves to drain melt water. The same applies to grafted seedlings, the grafting sites of which are located below the snow level. If the region is characterized by winter thaws followed by frosts, then the stamp area should be cleared of snow regularly during the season.
Diseases and pests: the main types and solutions to the problem
Since the variety has an average resistance to the main fungal diseases, we will not dwell on them in detail. In most cases, typical preventive measures are quite enough, the list and composition of which, for convenience, will be summarized in a table.
Table: preventive measures to prevent diseases and pests of plums
Fungicides are a group of chemical and biological preparations for the treatment and prevention of fungal diseases.
Insecticides are a group of chemical and biological preparations for the control of harmful insects.
Plum aphid control
Since aphids are the main problem of the Alyonushka plum, we will dwell on this issue in more detail.
Signs of aphid damage to plums and methods of struggle
The first thing that should alert the gardener is the appearance of leaves rolled into a tube on the plum. You should tear off such a sheet and unfold it. If there are large numbers of small insects inside, then this is aphid. It feeds on the sap of young leaves and shoots, causing significant damage to the plant. When there are a lot of aphids on the plum (and it multiplies quite quickly), then it will already be not only in the folded leaves, but will also cover the surface of many shoots with a continuous carpet.
The first sign of aphids on a plum is folded leaves.
Usually, preventive measures can significantly reduce the population of insects and even completely eliminate their presence. But in the case of Alyonushka, this may not be enough. The fact is that, even if in the spring it is possible to get rid of aphids completely, then soon ants can bring it to the crown and settle it on leaves and shoots. They do this in order to be able to feed on the sweetish secretions of aphids, called honeydew, in the future. Therefore, for a more successful fight against aphids, it is also necessary to fight ants. The simplest thing that can be done is to install a trapping belt on the plum stem 30-40 cm from the ground. And also a fresh whitewashing with a solution of slaked lime with the addition of 3% copper sulfate stops the ants.
A hunting belt can be crafted from scrap materials
Various chemical and biological preparations are also used to combat aphids. Preference should be given to systemic drugs, since contact, most likely, will not be able to penetrate into the folded leaves.
Table: some preparations for the fight against aphids
Table: folk methods against aphids
Video: how to recognize aphids on a drain and what to do
Plum Alyonushka is a proven and promising variety. Despite some disadvantages that can be successfully overcome, the variety can definitely be recommended for growing not only in private households, but also in farm gardens.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Plum "Alyonushka" - description of the variety. Photos and reviews
The plum variety "Alyonushka" refers to the type of so-called Chinese plums, which appeared in Russia relatively recently and differ from the well-known home plums. "Alenushka" was obtained at the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection of Fruit Crops from crossing such varieties as Kitayanka and Krasny Shar. This wonderful variety was zoned in 2001 in all the Central Black Earth regions of Russia. The authors of the variety are G.B. Zhdanov and A.F. Kolesnikov.
Plum "Alyonushka": variety description
"Alyonushka" is not tall - no more than 2.5 meters. The crown of the plum is pyramidal and not very densely leafy. Its shoots are strong, straight, reddish-brown in color.
Leaves are dull, light green in color with some jagged edges. The leaves are long and sharp in shape.
"Alyonushka" blooms luxuriantly and profusely with large white, very beautiful flowers. Flowers are collected in inflorescences of three, so the plum is also called "three-flowered plum". Flowering occurs on May 4-8.
The fruits of "Alenushka" are large, weighing 35-40 grams and round in shape. They look like reddish or dark pink balls with a noticeable waxy coating on the surface and are very attractive in appearance. The flesh of "Alyonushka" is orange, of medium density, juicy, gristly with colorless juice. It is tender, sweet and sour, of very good taste: the tasting rating of fresh fruits is 4.6 points on a five-point scale, and 4.8 points in appearance. The stone is oval, and it is poorly separated from the pulp. But the plum itself is well separated from the stalk. The fruits contain 8.77% sugars.
The tree begins to bear fruit in the 3rd year after planting. "Alyonushka" is a self-fertile, but early variety. Fruit ripening occurs in mid-August. The yield of the tree is low, but stable. But frost resistance is beyond praise. "Alyonushka" can withstand very severe frosts, down to -37 and even -40C, but warm winters are destructive for it, because the bark of the tree is warming up in the lower part of the trunk.
The advantages of the variety include very attractive and very tasty fruits, good frost resistance, and early maturity. Disadvantages - average winter hardiness and aphids, which are very fond of attacking young shoots of "Alyonushka", which sharply reduces the yield of the tree.
Plum "Alyonushka": planting and care
Experts advise planting "Alenushka" in the fall in sunny, open and slightly elevated areas. The soil is preferably fertile, neutral, loose, light. Planting pits are prepared a month before planting. They are made small - about half a meter deep and the same width. Add 2 buckets of well-rotted manure, half a bucket of dolomite flour, some ash and 200 grams of superphosphate and potassium sulfate to the pit.
When planting "Alenushka" do not forget that the variety is self-fertile. The best pollinator for him is the Skoroplodnaya plum variety. In the absence of such a variety, you can plant Chinese plums "Orlovskaya Dream", "Ksenia" on the site. If they are not there, then feel free to plant cherry plum next to it.
After planting, the root collar of "Alyonushka" should be deepened by 2-3 centimeters. For better survival, the seedling is often watered in the first month after planting. In the first winter, the trunk is tied with spruce branches to prevent the bark from drying out.
In the spring, the plum is fed with nitrogen fertilizers and formative pruning is made to it. In addition, in the spring, plums are necessarily treated with special preparations to protect against diseases and pests.
In the summer, "Alenushka" is fertilized twice with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers with the addition of a small amount of wood ash.
What is a sharafuga?
This hybrid has as many as three thermophilic "parents" - peach, apricot and plum. But, unlike them, the plant itself is frost-resistant and grows in cooler conditions. It is grown both in the south and in temperate climates.
Outwardly, the tree looks like an ordinary plum - with the same leaves and thorns. The shape and size of the fruit was inherited from the apricot, when, like a stone, it has a peculiar pattern from a peach, it is easily separated from the pulp.
The taste of the fruit depends on maturity. Unripe specimens resemble plum flavor, while mature specimens resemble apricot, the flesh is sweet or sour, juicy and pleasant.
Plum "Opal" - description of the variety. Photos and reviews
Plum variety "Opal" is a valuable dessert variety, distinguished by its high taste and early maturity. This is a Swedish selection, bred in 1926 by crossing the varieties "Renclode Ullensa" and "Rivers Early".
Plum "Opal": description of the variety
The tree of the "Opal" variety grows of medium height: a plum at the age of ten has dimensions of up to 3 meters in height and 3.3 meters in diameter. The crown is compact, rounded, dense, easily formed using thinning pruning.
The variety begins to bear fruit 3-4 years after planting. The flowering of "Opal" is average. The tree blooms in the second half of May.Opal is a partially self-fertile variety. In the absence of pollinators and free pollination, no more than 20% of its fruits are tied.
The yield is good: by the age of 8-10, it gives an average of 20 kilograms of plums from one tree. But yields are unstable, good yields usually come in a year.
The fruits ripen in late July - early August. They are one-dimensional, very attractive, round and medium in size: on average 23 grams, maximum 32 grams. The color of the fruit is orange, close to red. The peel of the plums is thin, poorly separated from the pulp. The pulp is yellow, dense, juicy. The taste of the "Opal" fruits is very good, sweet and sour. The tasting score on a five-point scale is 4.5 points. The fruits contain 11.5% sugars. The stone is freely separated from the pulp and accounts for 4.7% of the fruit weight.
The advantages of the variety include tasty, juicy fruits, disease resistance. The disadvantages are unstable yields, weak frost resistance: in the central and southern regions of the Non-Black Earth Region, it is recommended to grow Opal in the form of grafts in the crowns of winter-hardy plum trees or as a rooted crop. In general, it can be noted that the variety is picky about climatic conditions and promising for cultivation in the southern regions.
Plum "Opal": planting and care
Plum requires a sunny, well-lit place for good development. Otherwise, a decrease in the sugar content of the fruits and a general decrease in yield are possible.
It is recommended to plant a seedling next to summer cottages, for example, between a barn and a bathhouse, a house and a fence. It is better if the tree is closed on the north side with a brick wall, which, when heated, will not only protect from cold winds, but also heat the drain.
"Opal" does not tolerate stagnation of water, otherwise the tree will have poor development or even its death is possible. The groundwater level should be at least 1.5-2 m. The soil should be light - sandy loam or loamy. On heavy clay or sandy soil, the drain will not develop well, so it will need a good planting hole.
Planting seedlings with a bare root system is best done in the spring. When planting, you cannot cut the roots: the more of them a young tree has, the faster it will take root. But pruning of branches can be done.
Opal is a partially self-fertile variety, so make sure there are pollinating plums nearby. The best pollinators for Opal are Claymen and Renclode Altana. If there are no such varieties, then you can plant cherry plum next to it.
When planting plums, either organic fertilizer is placed in the planting pit - compost, humus, as well as potassium sulfate - 80 grams, superphosphate 200 grams. You can add some wood ash.
In subsequent years, the plum is fertilized before flowering in the spring - urea and potassium sulfate, 30-40 grams each. The second time - while pouring berries - urea and nitrophoska, 30 grams each. As soon as the tree has matured, potassium sulfate and superphosphate are added, 30 grams each. In addition, in late autumn, organic fertilizers are applied under the plum. If the soil on the site is fertile, then organic matter can be applied once every 2-3 years, on poor soils - annually.