Pandanus - Pandanaceae Family - How to care for, grow and flower Pandanus plants
HOW TO GROW AND CARE FOR OUR PLANTS
The species belonging to the genus Pandanus they are very numerous and all originate from the tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Oceania.
Species: see the paragraph on "Main species"
The genre Pandanus of thefamily of Pandanaceaeit includes about 600 species of evergreen plants native to the tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Being a very rich genus of species, the types of plants that we can find are very heterogeneous: specimens that do not exceed one meter in height and plants that are real trees that even reach 20 m in their places of origin.
The stem it is characteristic as it develops into a ring where the scars left by the falling leaves remain.
A peculiarity of the genre is that they are all slow growing but which adapt well enough to be grown even in Mediterranean climates, both indoors and in the garden to form delightful borders.
The leaves are thin, with the margins in most of the species serrated, leathery, ensiform, arched, of variable color depending on the species, up to a couple of meters long which are arranged to form a tuft at the top of the woody stem along which spiral arrangement.
THE flowers male and female are produced on different plants as they are dioecious plants, that is to say that there are plants that bear only female flowers and plants that bear only male flowers. The male flowers are fragrant, 2-3 cm wide and surrounded by whitish bracts while the female flowers are slightly larger.
The fruit (photo on the side) recalls the pineapple, globose, 10-20 cm in diameter which turns orange-red when ripe and in different species they are edible and hardly formed in our climates.
The genus includes about 600 species among which we remember:PANDANUS VEITCHII (PANDANUS TECTORIUS OR P. ODORATISSIMUS)
There Pandanus veitchii (Pandanus tectoriusor Pandanus odoratissimus) is native to Indonesia with leaves starting from a woody central stem, even 8-10 cm wide and up to 60 cm long with serrated edges.
The leaves are covered in all their length by white-cream streaks. It has the particularity of developing aerial roots near the basal leaves.
It is very well known, especially in Central America and in particular in the Hawaiian islands (where it is the only species of the genus present) and the female trees produce very large fruits of about 20 cm in diameter, fragrant, reminiscent of the pineapple than in Hawai They are called hinano.
It is widely used to obtain textile fibers for the production of baskets, mats and veils for boats.
There are numerous varieties and among them we remember: Pandanus veitchii bulbosuswith much fleshy and larger fruits like plants; Pandanus veitchiilaevis with leaves without thorns.
It is very well known in the countries of southern Asia as the leaves are used as food and to obtain textile fibers for the manufacture of various tools.
One of its peculiarities is that it blooms very rarely so it propagates by lateral shoots.
The species Pandanus sanderidevelops very long leaves up to 1 m of a delicate pale green color with longitudinal streaks or white or reddish dots.
PANDANUS UTILIS (PANDANUS ELEGANTISSIMUS)
This species develops very long leaves, even 2 m which are used to obtain textile fibers; they are of an intense green color with the margins provided with small red colored thorns, very characteristic.
It can reach considerable dimensions and its fruits are edible even if not particularly tasty vacoa.
There Pandanus it is a plant that is not particularly difficult to grow in Mediterranean climates if one takes into account that it is a plant of tropical origin for which its worst enemy is the cold.
It can be raised both indoors and outdoors.
The optimal cultivation temperatures are between 27-30 ° C in summer and in winter they must not fall below 15-16 ° C. In winter, therefore, if it is kept in the garden or on the balcony and if the temperatures drop below these limits, it is good to take the plant indoors or in a protected place.
It should be placed in a bright place but not in direct sun.
They are plants that love the air so ensure a good exchange but beware of cold air currents that are in no way welcome.
They are slow growing.
The plant should not be watered much. It is necessary to wait for the soil to dry between one watering and the other and being very careful not to leave water in the saucer as water stagnation is in no way tolerated.
It loves to have a humid microclimate around it therefore, in addition to regularly nebulizing the foliage, preferably early in the morning (especially in summer or even in winter if the house temperatures are particularly high) so that in the evening the leaves are dry, arrange the pot on a saucer full of pebbles and then fill it with water, making sure that the bottom of the pot is not in contact with the water as in this way the soil would become saturated with water, causing the roots to rot. This system allows, when it is hot, to evaporate the water in the saucer which consequently moistens the surrounding air. Remember to fill the saucer whenever the water has evaporated.
TYPE OF SOIL - REPOT
They are repotted in spring every 2-3 years using gradually larger pots and a good fertile soil is used, possibly mixed with a little coarse sand to favor the drainage of irrigation water.
Personally, I always recommend using terracotta pots as in consideration of the fact that terracotta is a porous material, it allows the earth to breathe.
As they are slow growing, they do not need large amounts of fertilizer. It is sufficient to fertilize every 2 weeks starting from spring and throughout the summer with a good liquid fertilizer to be diluted in the irrigation water. During the other periods once a month is more than enough.
A well balanced fertilizer is used, that is to say that it contains both the macroelements such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) also contain the so-called microelements, i.e. those compounds that the plant needs in minimal quantity (but has still needed) such as magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), all important for a correct and balanced growth of the plant.
Whatever type of fertilizer you use, remember to halve the doses compared to what is stated in the package.
It is a plant that does not bloom in our latitudes.
Usually it is not pruned, the leaves are simply removed and they gradually dry up or become damaged to prevent them from becoming a vehicle for parasitic diseases.
Be careful to clean and disinfect (preferably with a flame or with alcohol or bleach) the tools you use to avoid infecting the tissues.
It propagates by basal shoots or by seed.
When choosing how to propagate it, it must be borne in mind that multiplication by seed does not allow plants to be perfectly identical to the mother plant as genetic variability takes over, therefore, if you want to obtain a precise specimen or are not sure of the quality of the seed, multiply by cuttings
MULTIPLICATION FOR BASAL SPROUTS
At the base of the plant some basal shoots are formed that can be taken and planted in single 10 cm jars using a compost as indicated in the paragraph "Type of soil and repotting". During this period, keep the pots at a temperature of 24 ° C and keep the compote constantly moist. The pot should be placed in a shady place.When the first sprouts begin to appear it means that the plant has rooted so treat it as if it were an adult.
MULTIPLICATION BY SEEDS
The seeds must be sown in a mixture formed by a part of fertile soil and a part of coarse sand or perlite. Since the seeds are not particularly large for light burial, push them under the potting soil using a flat piece of wood or you can pour new soil on top. To prevent any fungal infections, also administer a broad spectrum fungicide with the irrigation water.
The tray that contains the seeds, place it in the shade, at a temperature of around 27-30 ° C and keep it constantly moist (moisten with a sprayer that will guarantee more uniform watering) until the moment of germination.
The tray should be covered with a clear plastic sheet that will ensure a good temperature and prevent the soil from drying out too quickly.After about 6-8 weeks, the seeds will germinate. At that point, remove the plastic and as the plants grow, increase the amount of light (never direct sun) and ensure good ventilation. Among all the plants born, remove the less vigorous ones in order to guarantee more space for the more robust plants.When they are large enough to be handled, transplant them being very careful not to damage any part of the plant (use a fork as a "shovel") and plant them in soil as indicated for adult specimens and treat them as such.
PARASITES AND DISEASES
Leaves that wither and fall
This symptom indicates either that the plant has been exposed to drafts or that it has been watered too much and the water has stagnated in the saucer.
Remedies: eliminate the damaged leaves and act accordingly.
Leaves that lose their luster
This symptom indicates low light.
Remedies: move it to a brighter place.
Leaves that tend to fade, with burnt parts
This symptom indicates too much light.
Remedies: move it to a less bright place.
Presence of flaky formations on the plant
The flocky formations that can often be found are indicative of the presence of small insects and precisely of the cochineal and in particular of the floury or cottony cochineal. To recognize them, help yourself with a magnifying glass and compare them with the photo on the side and if you try to scratch them off, they can be removed without any resistance.
Remedies: remove them with a cotton swab soaked in alcohol or you can also wash the plant with water and neutral soap by rubbing very gently with a sponge to remove the parasites (be careful not to let the soap go into the earth) then rinse the plant very well to remove the soap. If it is large and planted outdoors, use a specific pesticide.
The order of Pandanales to which this group belongs is the most archaic of the monocotyledons. In fact, it includes specimens that, despite having some characters that bring them closer to Spadiciflorae (the order that precedes them), they differ from it for having simple and linear leaves and for having a smaller perianth (the parts that surround the fertile parts of the flower, calyx and corolla when they are distinct) and flowers that are always unisexual.
The leaves of this genus in Asian cultures are used for food purposes and used like our vegetables.Note
1. Image taken from the Botanical Blessings blog
What are the best houseplants?
The indoor plants, in addition to retaining moisture and embellishing the rooms with their splendid colors and graceful shapes, they also manage to purify the air. Let's find out more and how to cure them.
Many of us don't have an outdoor green space to dedicate to greenery, but don't worry! There are so many indoor plants. To take care of them in the right way and ensure a beautiful flowering, sometimes it is useful to have the right advice.
With luxuriant foliage, the fern of Boston is easy to care for, as long as a good degree of humidity is maintained, it is not exposed to direct sunlight and water often. It has a rather fast growth.
Native to rainforests, it resists up to 7 ° and prefers a mixture of heather and compost over a layer of gravel. Fern of the Nephrolepis variety
Regular watering is necessary, even in winter, and daily sprays of the foliage using, if possible, non-calcareous water. The ideal temperature must remain between 15 ° -20 °. It is good to remove dry dead leaves.
There Nephrolepis it is one of the most sensitive houseplants to insect attacks, especially the cochineal, but also the lack or excess of water.
How to do it right?
For the collection to give the desired result, it is necessary to carry out this event very carefully. Let's consider in more detail what it consists of.
What do you need
For this event, you will need:
- disposable cups or other containers
- prepared soil (prepared independently or purchased in a specialized store)
- sprayer and clean water.
All necessary materials must be prepared in advance, so as not to be distracted from their research.
Harvesting petunia is a kind of care for the plant, which includes the following stages:
- in the prepared containers (cups) it is worth pouring the soil
- then the earth is pressed - this is necessary for its compaction
- the ground is sprinkled with water
- with the help of a toothpick, small impressions are made in the ground - the depth should be 1.5 cm, width - 2 cm
- flower buds are well planted in pits
- the holes are covered with earth.
The process itself is not particularly difficult, but it requires special attention and accuracy.
Other interesting houseplants, some of the real surprises, are:
- Abutilon (Abutilon megapotanicum), with an unmistakable red bloom with yellow edges.
- Aloe vera, a plant with incredible cosmetic as well as decorative virtues
- Alocasia, the plant with huge leaves, also called "elephant ear"
- Amaryllis (Hippeastrum), a bulb with a splendid winter flowering
- Anigozanthos, also known as kangaroo paw due to the shape of the flower, it is the emblem of Western Australia
- Anthurium(Anthurium andreanum), tropical indoor plant
- Asparagine (Asparagus plumosus), the decorative asparagus used by florists to enrich the bouquet
- Aspidistra (Aspidistra elatior), the plant that adapts to everything
- Avocado (American Persea), in addition to fruits, it is a pleasant indoor plant
- Pandano (Pandanus), the candlestick or screwpine tree, due to the spiral insertion of the leaves on the trunk
- Beaucarnea (Beaucarnea recurvata) also called 'smoke-eating plant' for its ability to absorb harmful gases and fumes and not suffer any consequences
- Brassaia or Schefflera, Also called the 'umbrella tree', it grows up to 2 meters even indoors!
- Bromeliad (Bromeliad), the plant that dies after flowering
- Calatea (Calathea crocata), with large and beautiful leaves streaked with various shades of green
- Maidenhair(Adiantumcapillus-veneris), a delightful little fern with small, soft green umbrella leaves
- Rubber (Ficus elastica), an anti-pollution gem!
- Clivia (Clivia miniata), a super easy plant, suitable for the inexperienced, whose name of the Duchess Lady Charlotte Clive
- Cyclamen of Persia (Cyclamen persicum), the cyclamen preferred by florists
- Croton (Codiaeum), with long leaves streaked with bright and bright colors
- Dendrobium nobile, the orchid-bamboo
- Dieffenbachia, the toxic plant!
- Dracaena (Dracaena marginata), the air purifying plant
- Falangera (Chlorophytum comosum), the spider plant
- Philodendron (Monstera deliciosa), with a thousand different species
- Ficus ginseng (Ficus microcarpa), the bonsai for incompetent gardeners ...
- Gardenia(Gardenia jasminoide), with splendid white flowers
- Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) a small, elegant, but very easy plant
- Jasmine from Madagascar (Stephanotis), a climber with white fleshy star-shaped flowers characterized by a very intense perfume.
- Guzmania (Guzmaniacardinalis), the cousin of the pineapple, with a large central scarlet flower
- Haworthia (Haworthia reinwardtii), with a strange shape intertwined with dark green leaves streaked with white.
- Kalanchoe, the most common succulent plant
- Kentia (Howea), the palm that purifies the air
- Lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana), similar to bamboo due to the thin and light green stems
- All sorts of orchids
- Pachira (Pachiraaquatica) or Guyana chestnut (or also Malabar chestnut), in the East it is known as "money tree"
- Hawaiian palm (Brighamia insignis), a succulent that looks like a palm tree
- Dwarf palm (Chamaedorea elegans), known as the 'palm of fortune', probably the most widespread as an ornamental house plant
- Peperomia, cat grass, comes from the fact that the fresh plant exerts an 'amazing' attraction on cats
- Pilea peperomioides, among the most photographed plants, also called the coin plant because of the magnificent round leaves
- Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), with star-shaped flowers, is the symbol of Christmas
- Pothos (Scindapsus aureus) a very green and easy to grow indoor plant
- Cape primrose (Streptocarpus saxorum), the plant to hang par excellence
- Desert Rose (Adenium obesum), it looks like a small baobab tree and has beautiful blooms of different colors
- Sanseveria (Sansevieria), called mother-in-law's tongue, was a fashionable plant at the beginning of the twentieth century, now back in the limelight
- Saintpaulia, Cape violet or African violet
- Solanum(Solanumjasminoides), nocturnal jasmine because the flowers give off a sweet scent just at night
- Spathiphyllum(Spathiphyllum), known abroad as 'moon flower' is the typical plant for sale in the supermarket!
- Tamaya (Begonia maculata) the begonia that looks like a bamboo
- Tillandsia, it looks like a green sculpture and the best known member of this family is the pineapple
- Yucca (Yucca elephantipes), to give an exotic touch to the home
- Zamioculcas (Zamioculcas zamiifolia) the double zeta plant also known as the Zanzibar gem
You just have to fill your home with these plants, not only beautiful, but also extraordinarily useful! And maybe they could also interest:
- Medicinal plants for phytotherapy
- Weeds and soil: some plants tell us a lot about the ground
- Plants and herbs: cultivating and harvesting aromatic plants
- Plants that require little light
- Cold-resistant plants: the 5 best plants
- Floating plants: what they are and what care they require
- Flowering succulents: that's what they are!
- Fat plants, how to treat them easily and naturally
- Office plants: the best and easiest to care for
- Fragrant balcony plants
- Pergola plants: which are the best
- Plants against insects and mosquitoes: our guide