Black currant, red currant (white), golden and blood-red currant
Currant - a culture of triple use - for obtaining tasty fruits, garden decoration and for medicinal purposes
Currant is the most widespread berry crop in Russia. From time immemorial, the local population in natural conditions collected berries and vegetative parts of currants for use in food and medical purposes.
In the 11th century, currants were already cultivated in the monastery gardens. At present, by the number of varieties presented in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation, currants are noticeably superior to other berry crops.
Genus currant (Ribes L.) belongs to the family of gooseberries (Grossulariaceae) and includes about 150 species growing in the cold and temperate zones of Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America. In culture, only a few of them are represented, however, previously unused species are gradually included in the breeding process.
Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) - the most widespread and widely known type of currant in the culture. Its leaves have a characteristic odor, and the black-colored fruits have a characteristic taste. Through the efforts of domestic and foreign breeders, numerous varieties of black currants have been obtained, differing in the height and shape of the bush, resistance to diseases and pests, yield, size, taste, biochemical composition of fruits, etc. Here are some of them: Altai early, Bagira, Biryulevskaya, Grape, Vologda, Remembrance, Dobrynya, Dobrynya, Green haze, Little prince, Heiress, Nymph, Oryol serenade, Otradnaya, Memory Michurin, Perun, Primorsky champion, Constellation, Sofia, Tamerlane , Tatyana's day, Fairy of the night, Enchantress, Black pearl, Minx, Exotic, Elevesta, Vigorous, Yakut ...
Recently, when creating new varieties of black currant, it is often crossed with closely related species - American currant (R. americanum Mill.), Sprouts currant (R. dikuscha Fisch.), Little-flowered currant (R. pauciflorum Turcz.) And others.
The obtained by T.V. Zhidekhina at the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture named after V.I. I.V. Michurina (Michurinsk) green-fruited varieties of black currant (Gold of the Incas, Emerald necklace, Tear of Isis). The fruits of these varieties lack pigments, which determines the unusual color of the berries and their hypoallergenic properties. The consistency of the pulp and the taste of ripe berries of green-fruited currant varieties are practically indistinguishable from dark-colored black currant berries.
Red currants (Ribes rubrum L.) along with common currants (Ribes vulgare Lam.) Is a group of red currants, inferior in prevalence to black currants. The fruits of the plants of this group are usually red-colored, which is reflected in its name. There are many varieties of red currants: Viksne, Gollandskaya krasnaya, Dar Orla, Jonker van Tets, Kievskaya, Konstantinovskaya, Krasnaya Kuzmina, Dream, Natalie, Ogni Urala, Svetlana, Schedraia, Yaroslavna, etc.
Grown in gardens white currant from a biological point of view, it is a type of red currant, in the fruits of which there are no pigments. There are significantly fewer varieties of white currants than varieties of black and red currants - Belaya Potapenko, Belaya Smolyaninova (Smolyaninovskaya), Versailleskaya white, Snezhana, etc.
The varieties of red currants with pink fruits look very unusual - Dutch pink, Lyubava, Pink Champagne, Rossoshanskaya, Rose Chare, etc.
Homeland golden currant (Ribes aureum Pursh) are the Rocky Mountains of North America located in the western United States and Canada.
Its plants are weakly branched shrubs up to 2 (less often up to 2.5-3) meters high. The leaves are small, three-lobed, glossy, similar in shape and size to gooseberry leaves. They do not have a characteristic currant smell and are beautifully colored in purple tones in autumn. The flowers are small, tubular, golden yellow with a strong spicy aroma, reminiscent of the smell of cinnamon. Blooms in May for 10-20 days. Flowers are collected in dense drooping racemose inflorescences. Fruits are round, from small to large, with a persisting long dry perianth. Coloring of fruits in different specimens can be yellow, orange, brown, black. The fruits ripen in August. Ripening occurs unevenly, but ripe fruits do not crumble for a long time. The berries are suitable for consumption both fresh and processed. Their taste is peculiar, pleasant, refreshing.
The first domestic varieties of golden currant were obtained by I.V. Michurin (Purple, Ondine, Saffron). Later, Russian scientists created the varieties Venus, Druzhba, Ermak, Isabella, Laysan, Muscat, Salut, Shafak, etc.
Blood red currant
Homeland blood red currants (Ribes sanguineum Pursh) - western part of North America. Under natural conditions, it is a shrub up to 2-3 m high (in the central part of Russia, as a rule, it does not exceed 1.5 m). Leaves 3-5-lobed, dark green, white-tomentose below. The leaf petioles are pubescent, glandular. It blooms in May for 3-4 weeks. The flowers are fragrant, five-membered, usually red (there are forms with white, pink, purple, double flowers). The fruits are black, covered with an abundant waxy coating, which makes them look bluish. Fruits ripen in August.
In culture, there are few varieties of foreign selection (King Edward VII, Pulborough Scarlet and some others).
Currant as a culture is an unpretentious shrub, however, for the maximum decorative effect and good yields, it needs to create optimal conditions. She prefers medium in structure, fertile, normally provided with moisture, soils with a slightly acidic reaction. On heavy clay soils, in lowlands with stagnant water, currants develop poorly. Its development is also oppressed by closely located groundwater (1-1.5 m from the earth's surface). When placing currants on the site, preference should be given to places well-lit by the sun throughout the day. Currants can also tolerate shading, but this happens to the detriment of flowering and fruiting. To obtain good yields on the site, at least three different varieties of currants of the same type should be planted. This is due to the fact that most of its varieties are self-fertile. Currant is a fairly drought-resistant crop (the most heat- and drought-resistant type is golden currant), however, if there is a prolonged absence of precipitation, it is advisable to irrigate it. Currants are responsive to fertilization, top dressing, mulching, shallow soil loosening, and weed removal. Currant bushes need regular pruning (the optimal time for this procedure is late autumn or early spring). At the same time, shoots older than 5-6 years are removed (they bloom and bear fruit poorly), as well as thickening, weak, damaged, disturbing the shape of the bush.
When planting in biennial blackcurrant seedlings, all available shoots are cut to a height of 15 cm, leaving 2-4 well-developed buds on each and planted in a permanent place with an inclination of 45o, deepening their root collar to a depth of 6-8 cm.Other types of currants are planted without tilting and shortening the shoots.
Black, red and golden currants are highly winter-hardy and perfectly tolerate frosty winters without shelter both in the European part of Russia and in the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East. The blood-red currant is characterized by low winter hardiness, and it is advisable to bend (pin) to the ground and cover its shoots for the winter, but the subsequent beautiful abundant flowering will pay handsomely for such work.
Black and red currants can be affected by a number of pests and diseases (anthracnose, septoria, powdery mildew, terry, kidney mites, glass, aphids, etc.), therefore, measures are needed to prevent their appearance and development. Golden and blood-red currants are practically not affected by diseases and pests. Currants are propagated by dividing bushes, root suckers, layering, green and lignified cuttings, tissue culture. For decorative purposes, golden and blood-red currants can be propagated by sowing seeds.
Usually currants are used exclusively as a berry plant, however, it is also suitable for use in ornamental gardening. Especially decorative are golden currants and blood-red currants during the flowering period. In the flowers of black and red currants, green tones dominate, and against the background of foliage, their inflorescences are poorly visible. All types of currants decorate ripening berries. Black currant has several decorative forms: f. heterophylla (varifolia), f. marmorata (with marble-spotted leaves), f. variegata (variegated). Interesting forms of blood-red currant with white, pink, red, purple, double flowers. Currants can be used both in single and group plantings. It can be used to form hedges and curbs of various heights. It can be included in the ridges, mixborders, tree and shrub groups.
Standard forms of currants look very interesting. In this case, a straight trunk of golden currant is used as a strainer, onto which, by means of improved copulation in spring (during the period of active sap flow), a currant stalk is grafted at a height of 50-100 cm (gooseberry is also possible). Due to the high winter hardiness of the stock and scion (if it is not a blood-red currant), such a standard plant does not need to bend to the ground and shelter, unlike the standard forms of roses or Japanese quince.
The options for using currants for medicinal and food purposes can be found in the specialized literature. Currant berries are valuable because they contain many biologically active substances: vitamins A, B1, IN2, IN6, C, K, P, PP, pectin substances, sugars, organic acids, macro- and microelements, etc.
As a triple-use culture, currants deserve a worthy place in personal plots.
Researcher GNU VNIIS them. Michurin Russian Agricultural Academy,
Scientific Secretary of ANIRR,
member of the All-Russian Society of Geneticists and Breeders
We will briefly list good varieties of black currant and analyze in more detail several popular varieties:
- "Leningrad giant"
- "Tatyana's Day"
- "Black Pearl"
The list is endless, breeders are constantly releasing new yielding varieties on the market. Let's take a closer look at several popular types of shrubs. The best 21 blackcurrant varieties are described here.
Mid-ripening currants, bushes with medium spreading of branches. Shoots are straight, medium length. The bark of young stems is light green; as it grows, it turns yellow and turns brown on older branches. The kidney is medium in size, elongated, ovoid. Each
A large berry weighs 1.5 grams. It grows elongated, with a sweet and sour taste.
The variety has passed all tests and is included in the State Register in 1998. Zoned for planting in Siberia and the Urals. Medium-sized bushes with spreading branches of medium density with a light green cover of shoots, without significant pubescence.
After flowering, large berries grow, the average weight of which is 1.4 g. With normal care and optimal climatic conditions, berries can weigh up to 2 g. In shape, they are round, with a shiny black surface and an average number of seeds in the middle.
The variety is included in the State Register of Plant Varieties after testing in 2000. Landing area - North - West of the country, Central and Volgo - Vyatka regions. The bushes are vigorous, slightly spreading, with an average density of shoots.
Large berries can reach a mass of up to 3.2 g. The shape is round, with a shiny black surface. Taste - sweet and sour, average density of berries. Winter hardy, resistant to late frosts and long dry periods. Not susceptible to powdery mildew, anthracnose, rust and spider mites.
Early ripening. The variety was bred by Siberian breeders. After testing in 2004, it was entered in the State Register. Zoned for the conditions of the North - West and Volga - Vyatka regions. Bushes are undersized with an average level of spreading. The surface of the shoots is shiny, green.
The berries weigh up to 2 g. They are colored dark blue, the skin is thin and tender. Berries with a delicate taste and a bright currant aroma. Frost-resistant, not susceptible to powdery mildew and spider mites. With late frosts, the bushes will have to be wrapped in covering material or fresh grass should be burned in a fire and the plant should be protected with heated thick smoke.
Since 2004, the variety has been approved for planting in the Central region and in the North-West of the country. The bushes are medium-sized with compactly spaced shoots. Shoots are finely pubescent, colored with an olive-violet tint. Shoot thickness is medium.
The weight of one berry can reach 6 g. Black, with a shiny delicate skin, the fruits have an oval shape and a bright sweet and sour taste. Early fruiting, intense. Resistant to low temperatures in winter and late spring frosts.
The average level of resistance to fungal diseases.
Regardless of the variety, species, region, the maximum productive period lasts for 7-9 years. After that, the bushes need to be divided and planted in new prepared holes. If this rule is not followed, the gardener receives a decrease in the level of yield, the berry becomes smaller.
To obtain a bountiful harvest during the active period, you will need to constantly perform sanitary cutting of old or infected shoots and perform all plant care operations.
Types and varieties of currants
The most famous of all types of currants are undoubtedly Black Currants and Red Currants.
Currant is a genus of plants of the Gooseberry family. The common gooseberry, previously considered as a separate genus of the family, was also included in the same genus. Many types of currant are known as melliferous plants.
In height, this type of currant reaches 1-2 m. Young shoots are pale, adults are brown. Black currant berries are approximately 1 cm in diameter, have glossy skin and black or greenish color. Black currant blooms from May to June and bears fruit in July-August.
There are about 3330 berries in 1 kg of black currant, and the juice of this type of berry is used to prepare natural food colors. Also, various syrups and liqueurs are made from blackcurrant juice.
It is important to start picking black currants as the berries ripen, and since it is uneven, when the upper berries are immaturity in the brush, the lower ones may already begin to crumble. The leaves of this type of currant completely fall off only in winter. They are often used for preserving vegetables, which, thanks to them, become more elastic and do not soften.
The leaves of the most famous currant species are similar: with jagged edges and triangular lobes, the middle of which is often elongated. However, the front side of black currant leaves is fluffier than the leaves of other species.
Popular varieties Black currant – Sorceress, Cherry, Vigorous, Pygmy, Dobrynya, Bagira, Selechenskaya, Leningrad, Black pearl, Lazy, Enchantress, Gulliver, Vologda.
In everyday life, red currants are called porechka. According to one version, the berry received such a "popular" name because it often grows on the banks of rivers.
The red currant bush has the same height as the black currant bush - 1-2 m. The shoots are gray or yellowish in color. This type of currant blooms in May. Red berries grow up to 12 mm in diameter, forming clusters. Unlike black currants, red currants are more acidic because they contain less sugar and more free acids.
Popular varieties Red currant – Sugar, Natalie, Ural beauty, red Dutch, Darling, Jonker van tets, Red cross.
From Red currant numerous varieties of this berry have been obtained, including white, pink and striped varieties, which are not included in the official classification as independent species.
Is a variety Red currantobtained as a result of selection. The most famous white varieties Red currant – Versailles, White Fairy, Belyana, Potapenko, Viksne, Smolyaninovskaya, Dessert.
Another subspecies Red currant... The berries of the varieties of this subspecies do not have such a rich color as the fruits of red currants, but they do not taste as sour. Some varieties are distinguished by the sweet taste of the fruit.
The largest number of wild currant species is found in Eastern Siberia.
All varieties of pink currant are obtained by selection. The most popular of these are Dutch Pink, Pearl Pink, Champagne Pink and Muscat Pink.
Golden currant, photo from fs.fed.us, author - Al Schneider
It is known as an independent species of this plant. It grows in bunches, like currants, but the leaves look more like a gooseberry.
In some regions of Russia, as well as in Central Asia, this type of currant is popularly called "crandal": this was the name of the variety that grew in the USSR.
Popular varieties of Golden currant - Venus, Laysan and Siberian sun.
Those interested in breeding this berry also know its less popular types. These are, for example, Alpine currant, Highest currant (black acid), Bract currant, Wax currant, Sweet currant, Meyer's currant, Palchevsky currant, Moss currant, or Lying currant, Sakhalin currant and many others.
The first place in the world in the cultivation of currants is Russia.
The berries of some types of currants are widely used for breeding. This is, for example, the wild grouse currant or, as it is also called, the Aldan grape. With its help, more productive and resistant to diseases and frost varieties of currants are brought out.
Some species are also bred as decorative flowering plants.
Share your experience of growing currants: what types and varieties of it grow in your garden?
Planting red currants
Red and white currants love sandy loam and loamy soils, but they may well grow on others. More photophilous than black, but not so demanding on humidity. It can be propagated by dividing the bush and layering, green and lignified cuttings (cuttings for red and white currants are less effective).
Planting red currants is best done in early autumn, in September. The hole is dug in advance so that the soil settles. The diameter of the planting pit is 50 cm, the depth is 40 cm. Leave gaps of up to 1.5 m between the plants when planting.
After planting, the ground must be well tamped so that there are no voids, and poured with a bucket of water. Saplings must be cut off strongly, leaving 10-15 cm from the ground with 2-3 buds, and it is good to mulch the soil around.
Caring for red and white currants
Caring for red and white currants consists of watering, feeding and removing weeds.
Watering is especially important during dry periods. Currants also consume a lot of moisture during the beginning of the formation of berries and their ripening.
In the fall, 100-120 g of superphosphate and 30-40 g of potassium chloride are introduced under each bush. In early spring, 40-50 g of nitrogen fertilizers are applied. This is followed by a monthly mulching with a mixture of rotted manure and peat. This mulching not only fertilizes, but also helps to retain moisture and inhibits the growth of weeds.
Red and white currants bear fruit poorly when the bush thickens.
Fruit buds of red and white currants are mainly formed at the base of annual shoots, as well as on ringlets - small (2-3 cm) perennial fruit branches. Therefore, their older branches are also fruitful, i.e. The red currant bush does not require such frequent rejuvenating pruning as the black currant.
Bushes form from 16-20 branches of different ages. 3-4 well-developed zero shoots are left annually. Weak old branches that have reached 7-8 years of age are cut out. Annual growths are not shortened; flower buds are located on their tops.
Pruning begins by removing branches that grow too far or too low, or intersect with others, interfering with their growth. We must try not to damage the ringlets - short (2-3 cm) twigs with buds: in the spring flower brushes will bloom from them.
It is necessary to shorten about half the young shoots on the main branches. Trim the shoots at the bud pointing up and out of the bush. Sections with a diameter over 8 mm should be covered with pitch.
The easiest way to propagate such a currant is to pin the lignified branch to the ground, sprinkling it a little with earth. Over the summer, a large number of roots grow and young shoots grow.
At the end of September, you need to cut off the pinned branches from the mother bush and carefully dig them out, trying to damage the root system of the cuttings as little as possible. Next, the branch needs to be divided into as many parts as there are shoots formed and rooted on it. Well-developed layers are immediately planted in a permanent place, and weak ones are grown for another year.
Currant is a well-studied plant and has been described by botanists, breeders and amateur gardeners. From the point of view of science, it is a berry shrub from the genus Currant (Ribes) of the Gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae).
Reference! Gooseberries and various types of currants belong to the same genus.
More than 190 species of this plant are known. The most popular, growing in almost all summer cottages and in almost every village courtyard, are black and red currants.
Even children know what black currant looks like. A sprawling bush of medium size reaches a height of 1.5–2 m. Soon after the spring snowmelt, it is covered with delicate emerald greenery. By the beginning of summer, the leaves darken slightly, acquire a rich green tint, become smooth to the touch on the top and slightly fluffy on the bottom.
The shrub blooms in May - early June. Grayish-pink flowers, shaped like bells, are collected in clusters-inflorescences up to 5-10 cm long.
Harvesting begins in early July, when most of the fruits turn black and slightly soften. Berries with a sweet and sour taste and a peculiar smell reach 1.5 cm in diameter, their surface is matte or glossy, depending on the variety. The blue-black color of the fruit is given by coloring pigments - anthocyanins.
Attention! 2 weeks after ripening, black currant berries lose up to 70% of their vitamin C.
Garden, or red, currant is a less common plant. The bush up to 2 m high is covered with dark green toothed leaves. Inconspicuous small yellow-green or reddish-brown flowers are collected in a brush. Bright red juicy berries with a diameter of 8–12 mm, forming clusters, are smaller and more acidic than black ones.
With proper care, the currant bush bears fruit for at least 10-15 seasons in a row. Young plants for the first few years will delight summer residents with large berries without unnecessary labor.
Gooseberry family (according to other sources - Stonefragment).
As already mentioned (see Black currant), red and white currants are two different species (in fact, even more, since the modern varietal red currant itself was created on the basis of three different species), but as a culture they are always considered together. since they differ from each other mainly in the color of the berries.
Unlike black currant, the culture of red currant originated in Europe (it was first cultivated in Holland - in the 5th century), and there it is spread much more widely than black currant, although in general the USA is leading in the cultivation of this culture today. It is interesting that when the red currant was just introduced into the culture, it was considered not a fruit and berry plant, but an ornamental plant. White currant appeared in culture much later. Even at the beginning of the 20th century, it was often considered as a red currant variety with an atypical color. In exactly the same way, today another completely separate species is often ranked among the culture of red and white currants - golden currant, a plant of North American origin from more southern latitudes with markedly different natural habits.
All the main biological features, which are of fundamental importance for its cultivation, coincide in red and white currants. Their main differences from black currant, with which this culture also has a lot in common, are primarily associated with the specifics of growth and fruiting. Red and white currants form much fewer zero-order shoots, which leads to less thickening of the bush and a longer life (15-20 years of active fruiting, in some varieties the bush lives for more than 30 years).
Flower buds of red and white currants are laid on bouquet twigs and ringlets, the lifespan of which is 2-3 times longer than that of fruit formations of black currant. The berries themselves are more evenly distributed throughout the bush, and the yield does not shift with age to the periphery of the crown.
Red and white currants bear fruit regularly and abundantly.
Red and white currants surpass even black currants in winter hardiness and are more resistant to many fungal diseases.
Golden currant differs from both traditional currant crops in less winter hardiness (although high enough to be grown in the central regions of Russia), greater drought resistance and almost unique heat tolerance - it can withstand the heat of 42 ° C without harm to itself. Unfortunately, along with this, it is also distinguished by the low taste of berries (although, according to the assurances of many, jam from them is almost better than from ordinary currants), which is why it can be considered primarily as an ornamental culture, and only later - like fruit. By the way, it got its name for the color not of berries, but of flowers - the fruits of its varieties can be yellowish ("white"), orange, purple and even black.
The value of culture
In general, you can use the fruits of red and white currants in exactly the same way as the fruits of black. White currant differs from red currant in a sweeter and richer taste.
Red and white currants contain slightly less vitamins than black currants, but they are safer for people prone to allergies. Jellies, compotes and jams exclusively from white currants are ugly colorless. If you have to process it, then as part of some assortment - with black currants, raspberries, cherries or other darker berries. But from red currants, it is believed that the best jelly is obtained (in addition, it does not deteriorate for a very long time).
The juice of red and white currant berries very well quenches thirst, lowers the temperature in case of febrile diseases, eliminates the feeling of nausea, suppresses vomiting and stimulates intestinal peristalsis, increases the secretion of sweat and urine and causes increased excretion of salts in the urine. It also has a weak choleretic, laxative, anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effect.
Berries and juice are great for improving appetite and normalizing the activity of the stomach and intestines. It is used in folk medicine and berry infusion.
There are few varieties in red, and even more so in white currants (there are only 4 of them in the State Register of the Russian Federation), compared to black ones, but in practice more of them are cultivated than are listed in the registers.
The most winter-hardy and suitable for cultivation in the northern regions are Versailles white, Vystavchnaya krasnaya, Gollandskaya krasnaya, Houton's Castle, Zarya Zapolyarya, Zvezda Severa, Svetlana, Foya fertile and Erstling Aus Vierlanden.
Varshchevich. The variety was bred at the Pavlovsk experimental station of the VIR by selection from seedlings. Self-fertile variety. Bushes are vigorous, spreading. Berries are medium-sized and large, cherry, sour. Differs in a high content of vitamin C (up to 57 mg%). The yield is high. Winter-hardy variety. Resistant to fungal diseases.
Versailles red. Early ripening variety, most widespread in the Baltics. The bush is undersized, the leaves are large-lobed, wrinkled. The fruits are large, slightly acidic. The yield is high.
Victoria. Early ripening variety. Sprawling bush. Leaves are dull, grayish. Fruits are medium-sized, dark red, sour-sweet.
Dutch red. Differs in rare undemanding to conditions. Long-lived variety (bushes bear fruit for up to 30 years), but average yield.
Houghton Castle. A variety of medium ripening. The bush is vigorous, the shoots are brown, the leaves are on long petioles, with a deep notch at the base. Fruits of medium size, sweet and sour. Very winter hardy variety.
Star of the North. A variety of medium ripening. The bush is tall, compressed. The leaves are small, densely pubescent below. Fruits are small, round, dark red, sweet, sweet and sour. Very winter hardy variety.
Natalie. A variety of medium late ripening. A very productive variety.
Laturnais. A variety of medium early ripening. The bush is tall, the leaves are large. Fruits are larger than average, oval, light red, sourish.
Firstborn. German variety of medium early ripening. The bush is powerful, moderately spreading. The yield is high. Anthracnose resistant. The berries are large, bright red, with a good sweet and sour taste. Ripe berries can hang for a long time. Differs in a high content of vitamin C - up to 58 mg%. Good winter hardiness.
Purple. Differs in yield and the fact that it is not affected by fungal diseases.
Early sweet. Differs in early and amicable ripening of berries.
Uzbek large-fruited. Berries ripen at different times (from July to September), a variety of golden currant of Uzbek selection. Recommended for Dzhambul, Chimkent and Kyzyl-Orda regions of Kazakhstan. The bush is tall, semi-spreading, fruiting is concentrated on the growth of the previous year. The berries are large (1.5 g), from dark purple to black. Average taste. The yield is high (up to 9 kg per bush).
Foya is fertile. A variety of medium ripening. Bred in the USA. The bushes are medium-sized, highly spreading. Self-fertility is high enough. The berries are large, red, sweet and sour taste, translucent. The yield is satisfactory. Differs in a high content of vitamin C (up to 62.8 mg%). Winter hardiness is relative. Not resistant to anthracnose.
Chulkovskaya. A variety of folk selection, early ripening. The bush is vigorous, not spreading.Berries of medium size, even, bright red, sweetish-sour. Winter hardiness and productivity are high. Ripens early. Very resistant to anthracnose.
Generous. Variety of early ripening, bred at the Pavlovsk Experimental Station VIR (Fertile Foya + Houghton Castle). The bush is not very tall, moderately spreading, dense. Berries of medium size, light red, thin-skinned, not too sour, tasty, contain up to 35 mg% of vitamin C. The yield is high. Relatively resistant to anthracnose.
White Fairy (Diamond). The bush is medium in size, dense, slightly spreading. The berries are medium-sized, transparent, very tasty. Productivity up to 5 kg of berries from a bush. The variety is resistant to diseases, weakly affected by pests.
Versailles white. A variety of medium late ripening. Medium-sized bush. The berries are medium in size, transparent, yellowish, tasty. Average yield - up to 3 kg per bush. The variety is not very hardy and not resistant to anthracnose.
Dutch white. A variety of medium ripening. Medium-sized bush. Berries are white with a tan, sour. Winter-hardy variety, slightly affected by fungi.
Smolyaninovskaya. A variety of medium ripening. The bush is vigorous, spreading, with a sparse crown. The variety is distinguished by its complex resistance to fungal diseases. The brush is long, the berries are rather large, white, transparent, with a pleasant taste. They remain on the bushes for a long time without losing their taste. Productivity is from 4 to 9 kg of berries from a bush.
Yuterbogskaya. A variety of medium late ripening. Vigorous dense bush. The berries are large, light cream, transparent, tasty. Productivity up to 7-8 kg of berries per bush. A variety of medium winter hardiness (nevertheless, it is successfully grown in the Northern region) and medium resistant to fungal diseases.
Red and white currants prefers loamy and sandy loamy soils, but it can grow on others, it is more light-requiring, but less demanding on moisture than black currants.
This currant is propagated by layering and dividing the bush, as well as lignified and green cuttings (cuttings are less effective).
When planting, a distance of 1 x 1.5 m is left between the plants.The depth of the planting pit is 40 cm, the diameter is 50 cm.
Pruning and care
Leaving is the same as for black currant.
Red and white currants need less pruning than black currants, it is only necessary to periodically remove zero-order shoots (in the first years, occasionally, and from 6-7 years of age - annually). Annual growths of other branching orders cannot be pruned. Before flowering, it is necessary to cut off branches heavily damaged by pests (aphids, mites, gall midges, leaf rollers, etc.).