Platycerium, or "Staghorn", or Flathorn is an unusual fern from the Centipede family. Due to its unusual leaf shape, it was jokingly called by people "deer horn" or "flathorn". In nature, the fern grows in the tropical forests of Africa and Eurasia. Despite the original appearance and unpretentiousness in care, for some reason, flower growers rarely cultivate Platycerium.
Description of the platiserium
Fern Platizerium has two types of frond: spore-bearing and sterile. The latter fill the lower part of the bush, and in the fall they have a green color, and by the onset of spring they turn yellow and dry out. Sterile fronds act as the main source of nutrition for the root system, so experts categorically prohibit cutting them. To efficiently fulfill its key task, spore-bearing leaf plates take a long time to ripen (about 5 years). On these fronds, white threads are visible, which perform the functions of retaining moisture and protecting from strong light.
Deer Horn Platiserium Bifurkatum, home fern
Platizerium care at home
Location and lighting
Shaded areas are not suitable for growing Platycerium. He needs access to bright light, and the latter needs to be made diffused. The processes of spore formation and bush growth will stop if the flower stands in the shade. However, direct sunlight should also be avoided, otherwise all foliage will be covered with burns. When choosing a suitable place for the location of the "deer antler", pay attention to how wide its fronds are. If they are wide, it will need much less sunlight than a fern with narrow fronds.
"Ploskorog" tolerates both high and low air temperatures equally well. For example, in winter, it perfectly withstands a drop in temperature down to zero degrees (provided that it does not last long). In the summer, the plant will be comfortable even at 37 degrees. But if the temperature in the room has risen even higher, you will need to water the fern more often and more abundantly than usual.
The plant needs fairly humid air: the optimal level is 50 percent. To achieve this level of humidity, you will often need to spray the bush with a spray bottle. Professionals even advise spraying water not on the flower itself, but around it, avoiding drops on the leaves.
Many growers water the fern too abundantly, which is why a large amount of liquid is retained in the soil. This often leads to the death of the plant. To avoid such a problem, you should let the soil dry in the pot, and then proceed to the next watering. Note that in the event of a shortage of water, the platiterium will stop growing and developing normally.
In the spring and summer, it is best to water the Platitzerium 2 times a week. In the autumn-winter period, water the flower less often, using less water for this. If you have to leave for a long time, and there is no one else to care for the plant, you need to fill a separate container with slightly damp sphagnum moss. Having done this, take the flower pot and place it in this container. A damp cloth is not suitable for cleaning the wai: it can damage the hairs that retain moisture. Use a soft brush to remove dust from leaves.
In order for the Platycerium to grow normally, a slightly acidic soil mixture is required. For the soil, a certain amount of peat, sphagnum and leafy soil is taken, while a small amount of pine bark is added. The bottom of the tank will need to be laid with a rather thick drainage layer.
The fern's root system is not large, so it does not need to be repotted frequently. The transplant should be carried out about 1 time in a couple of years. It also happens that florists use a piece of wood to grow Platycerium, not a pot. They attach moss to the wood and hammer a few nails into the proposed location of the plant. Then the "flathorn" is placed on the sphagnum and its garter is carried out to the nails, using a fishing line. The moss should not dry out, therefore it must be periodically left in a container with water. In case of strong growth of the platycerium, an additional board should be attached to a piece of wood.
Planting the antler tree fern (Platycerium)
Methods of reproduction of the platycerium
Most often, the platycerium fern is propagated with the help of grown offspring. They must have at least 3 leaf plates. The offspring separated from the bush must have formed roots and a bud. You need to plant it in a pot filled with loose soil.
This method is problematic due to the long maturation of the spores. You will need to collect spores from a grown bush that is more than 5 years old, and then sow them in a bowl filled with a disinfected and wet mixture of peat and sphagnum. After that, the container should be covered with a film and left on the windowsill, having previously protected the seedlings from direct sunlight. The soil will need to be systematically ventilated and moistened using a sprayer. The appearance of the first seedlings should be expected no earlier than 2-6 weeks after planting. The cover from the bowl can be removed only when the sprouts are well rooted and sufficient growth is achieved.
Diseases and pests
A scale insect can settle on the platycerium, affecting both the seamy and the front surface of the leaf. Aphids and spider mites do great harm to the flower.
Sometimes the fern is affected by powdery mildew. If the bush is constantly waterlogged, it can get sick with a fungal infection - if it is present, the leaf plates of the plant are covered with dark spots. Brown spots indicate sunburn. If the foliage on the "flathorn" wilted, it must be watered urgently. Lack of nutrients can be easily identified by faded fronds. In case of slow growth of the bush, it should be transplanted into a larger pot.
Types of platiterium with a photo
Now there are more than 15 species of platycerium fern. They all grow in warm regions of Africa and India. A description of the most popular of these species will be presented here.
This variety is the most popular among flower growers. Its habitat is Australia. Sterile leaf plates have a rounded shape, their width is about 10 cm. It happens that spore-bearing fronds reach a length of more than half a meter. Each of them is divided into lobes that are approximately 4 cm wide.
Australia is also the homeland of this species. The sterile leaf plate is large and reaches a width of about 60 cm. Sterile fronds may not dry out for a long time. The leaves are cut up to half and consist of long segments.
This variety is similar to the platycerium large, so it can be difficult to distinguish between them. The difference is that the large boom has two spore areas, and the superboom has one.
This species has a characteristic difference from its counterparts. Spore-bearing frond on it are not fingerlike, their surface has orange pubescence.
Platitzerium - gardening
Family of polypodiaceae. This epiphytic fern has an appearance that is so unusual for ferns that it stands out sharply against their general background. This fern growing on pieces of bark or hanging baskets resembles sprawling antlers in appearance (hence the name). This fern has two types of fronds: some are in the form of deer antlers, these are spore-bearing fronds, others are sterile fronds that support the plant on branches and trunks of trees. In addition, barren wai are food gatherers for the fern. Rotten leaves, moss, dead insects, etc. fall into a trap. Over time, all this rotted and forms the soil from which this fern feeds.
Temperature: Platycerium is a thermophilic fern kept at 18-25 ° C in summer and at least 15 ° C in winter. Does not tolerate drafts.
Lighting: If your bathroom has a window that gives enough light, then Platitzerium will decorate it with dignity. This fern is placed in a semi-shaded place. In winter, it is a brighter place, but protected from direct sunlight.
Watering: Platizerium requires regular watering. Watering is best done by lowering the pot with the plant in a container of water - the roots should never dry out. Water for irrigation should be well-separated, at room temperature and not hard.
Fertilizer: From April to August, every two weeks, they are fed with a complex fertilizer for decorative deciduous indoor plants. The dose is taken half as much as indicated in the instructions.
Air humidity: Platizerium requires high indoor humidity. Sometimes you can spray the leaves, but in no case wipe it, because the leaves of this fern are covered with tiny velvet hairs that trap moisture from the air. The general humidity in the room or near the plant must be maintained in other ways - for example, by placing the Platycerium in a hanging basket or pots, in the immediate vicinity above an open aquarium. When spraying, use a very fine spray and do not let the moisture remain on the leaves in drops.
Transfer: This plant needs soil, more precisely a substrate consisting of coarse fibrous peat, sphagnum moss and leafy soil. If the platycerium does not rest on a piece of bark, then it is advisable to add decayed deciduous trees taken from the forest to the soil. It is best to use a commercially available orchid potting mix, it works well for growing Platycerium.
Reproduction: Propagated by spores and germinal buds developing at the roots. However, the reproduction of this fern can only be done by a very skillful grower.
Which greenhouse to choose
Nowadays, you can not only build a greenhouse with your own hands from scrap materials, but also buy a ready-made one in specialized stores. In either case, it will be useful for gardeners to learn a few rules that will help you choose a model that is suitable for the conditions of their garden plots. Decide what you need a greenhouse for: to obtain bountiful crops of nightshade and pumpkin, or to grow seedlings, early greens and radishes. In the latter case, for example, you can get by with a small greenhouse. Decide what varieties you are going to grow.
Rules for pruning roses
In our climatic conditions, roses are covered for the winter, for this reason, pruning of roses should be done at least twice a year, before sheltering in the fall and before budding in the spring. If the spring pruning of roses is done later, this will significantly weaken their growth. In the summer, only wilted flowers are cut on roses. Pruning must be done over the first real leaf, which has five leaf blades. General rules for pruning roses. Pruning rose shoots should be carried out only with a sharpened tool, otherwise wed.
Avicenna ranked him among aphrodisiac plants and wrote that calamus increases lust and arouses passion. Now preparations of calamus root are prescribed for diseases of the kidneys, bladder, hepatitis and cholecystitis, malaria and rickets. They are used for atherosclerosis, neuroses, to improve cerebral circulation, headaches, sinusitis, arthritis, epilepsy, deafness. Traditional healers advise taking an infusion of calamus rhizomes for gastritis, colitis, stomach and intestinal colic. Prepare it as follows. Two teaspoons of rhizomes h.
The use of cranberries in medical practice
Cranberries also have other names among the people - vernacular, cranes, snowdrop, forest grapes, northern lemon and many other names for this berry. Its dark red sweet and sour fruits ripen in September-November, and are harvested in spring or after the first frost. Guess what kind of berry we are talking about? Of course, about cranberries! Due to the fact that cranberries can be stored (in the refrigerator) for a whole year without losing their nutritional and healing properties, they are popular in winter and summer, but they are especially useful in winter and spring, when all fruits and vegetables ...
The greenhouse effect has its own pros and cons for the gardener. A plus is the temperature, which allows you to create subtropics in an ordinary garden bed in any region. The downside is that the plants are still not located in the fresh air. To create natural conditions, regular ventilation of greenhouses is required. This simple procedure will help prevent the spread of diseases and pests, and will not allow air to stagnate. It is also useful for hardening young plants. Hardened plants are more resistant to fluctuations in temp.
Flaxseed in folk medicine
Nowadays, it is known for certain that flax seed is rich in vegetable fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6, which have a beneficial effect on almost all vital processes of the human body. In addition, it contains a significant amount of protein, vitamins (A, B, E, P) and other biologically active substances.As a result, the use of flaxseed normalizes liver function, lowers high blood pressure and cholesterol levels in the blood, becomes less likely to form blood clots and danger.
The defeat of potato tubers by rhizoctonia
Rhizoctonia develops on tubers, rudimentary shoots, stems, stolons and roots. The disease manifests itself in the form of black scab of tubers, rotting of eyes and shoots, death of roots and stolons, as well as a white coating of "white leg" on the lower part of potato stems. The fungus forms brown or black sclerotia ranging in size from 1 to 20 mm, which are attached with the help of hyphae to the surface of the tubers. Symptoms of the disease also appear in the form of necrosis, cracks and a thin sclerocial mesh covering part of the tuber or its entire surface.
God's tree is one of the many types of wormwood, which botanists call medicinal wormwood, or abrotan. Wormwood grows not in the form of a tree, but as a perennial shrub with straight woody shoots covered with delicate bluish-green very beautiful leaves. Abrotan blooms, as a rule, in the second half of summer and until the very frosts pleases with small yellow flowers, collected in small baskets on the brushes of long paniculate inflorescences. In the garden plot, the god tree develops beautifully in a sunny place in any fertile soil. Not .
Landscaping of a garden plot
Now most of the landscapes are of artificial origin, i.e. created by human hands. When creating a landscape design for a garden plot, it is important to observe the laws of color, perspective and composition of space. Composition means the creation of a harmonious unity of different forms located in space. In other words, the placement of plants and structures should give an eye-pleasing appearance that creates harmony. If a small garden is being formed, then it is better to use some kind of planar shape. Beauty and harmony are created by simplicity and repetition.
Composting the soil
Composting is an opportunity to create high-quality fertilizer from biological waste. This in no way means that a fruit-bearing garden must inevitably be littered with heaps of compost. Through annual mulching and harmonious plants - sederats, additional biological fertilizer is possible. Anyone who works with compost can simply lay an unconventional, extensively used compost heap. Two parallel ridges are superimposed vertically, at an angle of 60 ° -70 ° to the surface of the earth, close to each other, so that between.
Soil contamination by marching
Marshantia is one of the most well-known and widespread types of liver mosses, or liverworts. The vegetative body of the marshantia is flat, the thallus creeping along the surface, on the ventral side of which there are rhizoids (replacing roots). Spores develop on special supports towering over the thallus. The male coasters of the marchion are rounded, the female coasters are star-shaped. Often, brood baskets are noticeable on the thallus, inside which multicellular brood bodies develop, which, when germinating, give rise to new ones.
Where to start for a novice gardener
Decide what you want from your garden. If this is a golf course, plant plain lawn grass. If you want to make a garden out of your plot, pay attention to seedlings. Think about which fruits will delight you - an apple tree, a plum, a cherry, a cherry, or maybe a peach or apricot. If you want to collect not only fruits, but also vegetables from your site, it is advisable for you to divide it in half. The first is for trees, the second is for vegetables. I do not recommend mixing both in one area, because the shade from the trees will not give in.
A popular plant that blooms in winter is Blossfeld's Kalanchoe from the Fat family. Tubular flowers of a wide variety of colors are collected in paniculate inflorescences. The plant winters well at + 13-16 degrees. Water it periodically to prevent leaf shedding. When pulling, rejuvenate - cuttings root well at any time of the year.
From May to July, you can admire the magnificent drooping panicles of the magnificent medinilla from the Melastomaceae family if you lower the temperature of the content to + 15-16 degrees, from November to February, when flower buds are laid for future flowering.
Otherwise, the capricious beauty will not bloom.
The soil for planting should be loose and moist, with a large amount of natural natural ingredients in the composition:
- leaf humus
- rotten branches.
The pot for planting does not need a deep one, since its root system is small. As you grow, you can transplant the flowerpot, every 1.5-2 years. In winter, it is better not to touch it, this is a period of rest. Early March is a good time for planting or transplanting.
After planting, you need to keep the fern in a dark place for several days so that it takes root. At this time, it is only watered, top dressing is applied only after 2 weeks, when the root system is strengthened.
What flowers love acidic soil in the garden list
Beautiful garden on acidic soils
Continuing the theme of a low-maintenance garden, today we will talk about acidic soils, or rather about creating a garden on acidic soils. When creating a natural small-care garden, we must adapt to the existing conditions in order to avoid the necessary measures to change the composition and acidity of the soil in the future. Of course, it will not be possible to completely avoid this if we need to plant plants that cannot tolerate acidic soils, but in fact, most often, not the entire plot has such soil. The point is that if we have a small area with such soil, then we need to try to plant on it something that will grow naturally and without unnecessary hassle. There is such a plot in my garden. I think that it is due to the presence of a large spruce on the border of the site, which constantly drops needles, acidifying the soil. In addition, it creates shade, so the site is not entirely safe from the point of view of growing many plants. Once upon a time there was a vegetable garden, strawberries grew, but the spruce, growing over the years, increasingly influences this area. Therefore, I gradually removed everything from there and now I am trying to select ornamental plants specifically for acidic soils. Here I have an old apple tree planted by my mother, and it bears fruit well. But the cherry did not survive and had to be cut down. White lilacs also grow in the neighborhood; in the spring time of flowering, a completely picturesque area is obtained. Recently, I planted a white tree in a company with them.
What plants like acidic soils?
They are heathers, ideal plants for acidic soils that can transform any area. Only in our northern conditions, not all heathers will grow. They love the sun, so an open space is good for them.
Treelike hydrangea is a shrub with gorgeous flowering, rather unpretentious, growing even in the shade. Treelike hydrangea can grow on acidic soils, and panicle hydrangea prefers only acidic ones. Moreover, the color of the inflorescences depends on the level of acidity - with an increase in acidity, the color changes to blue.
Ferns also thrive on acidic soils and in shady areas. The unpretentious aquilegia will decorate the site with its beautiful openwork leaves, and its delicate flowers of various shades will revive it during the flowering period, which occurs at the beginning of summer. There are many varieties with a wide variety of colors, and if you wish, you can collect a good collection of this unpretentious plant.
Fan maples will feel great on acidic soils - beautiful trees with various foliage colors and a beautiful crown. They also have a beautiful bark that will stand out in the garden even in winter.
Of herbaceous perennials, lupine is favorable to acidic soils. An unpretentious plant with beautiful candles of inflorescences of various colors and no less beautiful leaves is decorative at any time. The only requirement is that lupine prefers sunny places. In the shade, it will bloom, but worse and later.
For shade or partial shade, an excellent plant is heart-leaved incense. An amazing perennial with large leathery wintering leaves and early flowering. Blooms one of the first pink inflorescences. Very hardy. In autumn, the leaves turn reddish, which also adds to the attractiveness of this ornamental plant.
Different varieties of astilbe feel good on acidic and slightly acidic soils. Their varied colors of panicles and beautiful foliage will be an excellent decoration for the garden. White, pink, crimson fluffy panicles will be a bright accent in the garden, transforming even the most shady area. And even after flowering, they can decorate the garden for a long time.
Of the shrubs for acidic soils, irga, dogwood, honeysuckle, and cinquefoil are suitable.
Ground cover plants that feel great on such soils are creeping tenacious and herbal carnation. The carnation needs sunlight, so we choose bright open areas for it. And the tenacious can grow well in partial shade, under trees. Growing rapidly, it can fill the near-trunk areas with its beautiful foliage and prevent weeds from growing.
Willow loosestrife is also able to adapt to acidic soils and blooms well for quite a long time. It can tolerate flooding and grow in very damp and wetlands. Phloxes will also grow on such soils. The variety of colors of this amazingly beautiful flower will not allow the garden on acidic soils to be boring. A cloud of white or pale pink flowers and their amazing scent make the garden especially attractive when they bloom.
As we can see, it is possible not to fight the increased acidity of the soil at all, but simply to select the necessary plants for the existing conditions. This is not a complete list of plants for acidic soils. A beautiful and at the same time low-maintenance garden is possible without constant efforts to change the composition and characteristics of the soil.
More articles on the topic:
What plants like what kind of soil Flower Forum
Very often we ask ourselves the question: in which soil is it better to plant a particular plant - acidic, slightly acidic or neutral? Many years ago, I dug up this list of plants on the Internet with an indication of the soil suitable for them.
I would be glad if this list is useful to someone else when drawing up substrates or when buying ready-made soil for indoor plants.
Plants are listed alphabetically.
Abelia - slightly acidic
Abutilon - neutral or slightly acidic
Aglaonema - rich in humus (pH about 5.5)
Adenium - alkaline
Azalea - acidic soil pH 4.5-5.5
Akalifa - slightly acidic
Allamanda - neutral
Alocasia - slightly acidic
Aloe - neutral
Albicia - neutral
Alstroemeria - slightly acidic
Alternantera - neutral
Amaranth - neutral
Amaryllis - slightly acidic
Ampelopsis - neutral
Pineapple - sour 4.0-5.0
Anthurium - slightly acidic
Aralia - slightly acidic (5.5-6.5)
Araucaria - slightly acidic
Ardisia - neutral
Asparagus - neutral and alkaline, ph 6.5-7.5
Asparagus - slightly acidic or neutral, pH 5.5-7 (R. McCallister).
Aspidistra - slightly acidic (pH about 6)
Asplenium - slightly acidic
Aucuba - slightly acidic
Afelandra - neutral or slightly acidic
Banana - neutral or slightly acidic
deciduous - slightly acidic
Gloire de Lorrain - slightly acidic
Euonymus - neutral or slightly alkaline
Bilbergia - strongly acidic pH 3.5-4
Brunfelsia - slightly acidic or neutral pH 5.5 - 6.8
Bromeliads - very acidic, ph 4.0-4.5
Washingtonia - neutral or slightly acidic
Heather - sour and strongly acidic, ph 3.5-4.5
Gardenia - acidic (pH 5-5.5)
Gerbera - neutral, ph 6.5-7.5
Gerbera - slightly acidic, pH 5.5 - 6 ("Beautiful flowering indoor plants", V.V. Vorontsov)
Carnation - neutral (6.5-6.8)
Hibiscus - neutral
Hymenokallis - slightly acidic pH 5.8-6
Hippeastrum - slightly acidic and neutral, ph 5.5-7.0
Gloxinia - slightly acidic, ph 5.0-6.5
Hydrangea - very acidic - slightly acidic, ph 4.0-6.5
blue - sour
pink-blue - slightly acidic
Dizygoteka - neutral or slightly acidic
Dieffenbachia - slightly acidic
Dracaena - slightly acidic
Zamioculcas - neutral
Zebrina - acidic pH 5 - 5.5
Zephyranthes - slightly acidic pH 5.8 - 6
Jasmine - slightly acidic pH 5.8 - 6.5
Figs - slightly alkaline pH 7.5 - 8
Kalanchoe - neutral or slightly acidic
Calathea - slightly acidic
Calamondin (citrofortunella) - neutral or slightly acidic
Calla - acidic pH 5 - 5.5
Calceolaria - slightly acidic
Camellia - sour
Campanula - slightly acidic
Cariota - neutral or slightly acidic
Castanospermum - neutral
Cypress - slightly acidic
Clerodendron - slightly acidic
Clivia - slightly acidic
Coconut - neutral or slightly acidic
Coleus - neutral or slightly acidic
Cordilina - slightly acidic
Coffee - slightly acidic
Croton - slightly acidic, ph 5.5
Ktenanta - slightly acidic
Turmeric - slightly acidic
Laurel - NON-acidic
Levkoi - neutral (pH 6.5-7)
Livistona - neutral or slightly acidic
Likuala - neutral or slightly acidic
Lemon - neutral 5.8-6.5
Snapdragon - slightly acidic
Arrowroot - slightly acidic
Medinilla - slightly acidic
Myrtle - neutral and slightly alkaline, ph 6.0-8.0
Monstera - slightly acidic and neutral, ph 5.9-6.8
Milkweed - neutral, ph 6.0-7.0
Narcissus - slightly alkaline
Nephrolepis - slightly acidic
Ferns - slightly acidic
Nightshade - neutral or slightly acidic
Passionflower - neutral or slightly acidic
Pakhira - slightly acidic
Pachypodium - neutral
Pachistachis - slightly acidic 5.5 -7.0
Pelargonium - slightly acidic and neutral
Pelargonium "grows well in both alkaline and acidic soil" (V.V. Vorontsov)
Peperomia - slightly acidic
Platizerium - slightly acidic
Polisias - slightly acidic
Primrose - slightly acidic
Poinsettia - slightly acidic
Rapis - neutral or slightly acidic
Rose - neutral
Saxifraga - neutral
Boxwood - slightly acidic, pH 5.0 - 6.0
Sansevieria - neutral
Sarracenia - sour
Sedum - neutral or slightly acidic
Selaginella - slightly acidic
Saintpaulia (violet) - slightly acidic (pH 5.5-6.5)
Syngonium - neutral or slightly acidic
Sinningia - slightly acidic
Spathiphyllum - slightly acidic (pH 5-6.5)
Stefanotis - slightly acidic
Strelitzia - neutral
Stromant - slightly acidic
Scindapsus - neutral or slightly acidic
Tabernemontana - slightly acidic
Tradescantia - slightly acidic
Fatsia - slightly acidic and neutral, ph 6.0-7.0
Feijoa - slightly acidic
Date - neutral or slightly acidic
Ficuses - slightly acidic and neutral, ph 5.5-7.0
Ficus pumila - slightly alkaline
Philodendron - neutral and slightly acidic (pH 5.5-7)
Fuchsia - slightly acidic, ph 5.5-6.5
Hamedorea - slightly acidic
Hebe - slightly acidic
Chlorophytum - neutral
Hoya - neutral
Chrysalidocarpus - slightly acidic
Chrysanthemum - neutral, with a note that sour is unacceptable
Tsikas - slightly acidic
Cyclamen - slightly acidic, ph 5.5-6.5
Cineraria - neutral
Cyperus - slightly acidic
Cissus - neutral or slightly acidic
Thea sinensis tea - sour, pH 4.5-5.5
Schefflera - slightly acidic, closer to neutral, ph 6
Schlumberger - slightly acidic
Eucalyptus - neutral or slightly alkaline (applies to all eucalyptus, including lemon)
Ekzakum - slightly acidic, pH 5.5 - 6
Eonium - neutral
Episation - slightly acidic
Eschinanthus - neutral or slightly acidic
Eucharis - slightly acidic
Ehmeya - slightly acidic
I will also add from myself that, as a rule, succulent plants (except for cacti) need neutral soil.
The best ornamental plants for acidic soils
Acidic soils are a real headache for their owners, because traditional garden plants rarely take root in such a place. Many believe that in those "problem" areas where the soil contains little lime and, accordingly, is acidic, you will not break flower beds and plant your favorite shrubs and woody ones, which means that acidic soils should be fought. But if the soil on your site is acidic, do not rush to be upset and look for ways to change its characteristics: in fact, many plants feel better on soils with high acidity. Most of the colorful and impressive collection of various "acid-loving" plants have a very spectacular appearance and will become the pride of your garden collection. With their help, you can get unique ensembles and exclusive compositions.
Acidic soils are very common in northern latitudes: they are formed where there used to be swamps and marshy soils or conifers grew. Ate and pines, shedding their needles, gradually "acidify" the soil precisely in the process of decomposition of the needles. Of course, the process of changing the characteristics of the soil lasts more than one year, but even if only one coniferous tree grows on your site, then gradually the soil under it will begin to oxidize and you will have to take into account such changes when laying out flower beds and planting deciduous tree crops. The acidity of the soil is determined - from pH 5 and below - thanks to soil analysis and special litmus tests, but some signs can be noticed without scientific methods. The fact that the soil is acidic can be told by indicator plants that adore the soil of former peatlands (black and loose): bitter spring, field violet and meadow sivets.
There are quite a few magnificent plants that will happily settle even on the most acidic soils. The most famous lover of "sour" is the legendary rhododendon, which simply does not grow on other soils. But limiting yourself to an unimaginable variety of rhododendron varieties is not at all necessary.Among the tall shrubs, almost all varieties of the fan maple will happily settle on such soil, which has a beautiful crown with carved dark red, variegated or yellow-green leaves and an amazing "winter" outfit with bright bark. Representatives of evergreen shrubs, whose height usually does not exceed 3 meters, can also boast of unusual decorativeness. Calmia, cherry laurel, pieris, Japanese crenate holly take root very well on soils with low pH. All of them have insufficient winter hardiness for growing outdoors in a harsh winter, therefore they are grown only in warm regions or as a tub plant, removed for the winter indoors. Lower gorse, broom and cinquefoil feel very good on acidic soils, if you provide them with sufficient lighting, but in partial shade it is better to plant a lush pastel hydrangea. These plants will not exceed one and a half meters in height. But among the more "grassy" species, all ferns can boast of their love not only for acidic soils, but also for shady places under the crown of shrubs and trees. In the bright sun, imposing erika and heather compete with them, covering the soil with variegated rugs with various colors until December. Heather flaunts with lush yellow textures, but Erica has a very similar white and pink texture of openwork greenery. In addition, ivy and rogers do well in specific conditions.
But the list of plants that can grow in acidic soils does not end there. Let's take a closer look at 9 of the best decorative species for acidic soils.
The most unusual shrub that can settle in acidic soil is flowering calicant, better known as a spicy bush. It is famous for its unique tart and strong aroma, very graceful crown of densely spaced strong branches. Calicant blooms in April and May, covered with muted reddish bizarre large flowers. It grows two - or three-meter shrubs, both in the sun and in dense shade.
Much lower shrubs (up to 80 cm in total) are David's viburnum and Fothergilla Gardena. Viburnum David is a shade-loving evergreen with a pretty and long-lasting pink bloom in June and July. Viburnum leaves are not at all similar to the traditional representatives of this genus - elliptical, leathery, with deep parallel veins. Kalina needs a reliable cover with spruce branches and non-woven material for the winter. But Fothergilla is a very fragrant shrub that prefers sun or light partial shade with amazingly beautiful autumn decoration. Fothergilla blooms in April and May, covered with very decorative, fluffy, creamy white flowers. Both shrubs grow very slowly.
The two main herbaceous perennials for acidic soils can boast of a similar height - multiforme and lupine. The mnogoryadnik thorny is a fern up to 80 cm high, the frond of which is collected from leathery, dense, bare leaves on top. The multiforme grows not only in the shade, but also in the bright sun, but it needs constant high humidity and soil and air. But the multi-leaved lupine, unlike the mnogoryadnik, does not live for 20 years, but it spreads very well by self-seeding. Its dense, long racemose inflorescences of moth flowers can be painted in a wide variety of shades. Lupine prefers bright sun.
Dogwood is another lover of acidic soils. This evergreen, unpretentious ground cover (actually a creeping shrub) prefers partial shade or deep shade, does not exceed 20 cm in height, is distinguished by snow-white and very beautiful summer flowering and surprisingly large bracts. Approximately the same in height and Tenacious creeping - a plant with a completely different character. This ground cover grows surprisingly quickly, at the end of spring it is covered with beautiful candle-shaped pyramidal ultramarine inflorescences. It grows either in full sun or in partial shade. All red-leaved varieties look the most attractive. The Carnation herb with pink or white color of numerous flowers that appear all summer long on a dense turf resembling an ordinary grass lawn can also be attributed to the group of ground covers for acidic soils. This type of carnation grows only in sunny areas and needs regular division.
One of the most beautiful "acid-loving" plants is badan. The amazing winter-green Badan heart-leaved is a low (up to 40 cm), very hardy perennial with uniquely large and strong leaves, beautiful spring dark pink flowering. Badan grows only in partial shade or shade and takes root well even on the most acidic soils. By autumn, berry leaves, usually bright green, begin to turn red and change the shade of greenery.
Changing the acidity values, if you do not want to select special plants that initially grow well on acidic soils, is not so difficult. For this, a liming procedure is carried out, which raises the pH values up to 7, which significantly increases the possible range of plant selection. But liming is a complex and largely unpredictable procedure. The most effective liming is carried out in general before laying out the garden, and to correct the composition of the soil before planting herbaceous crops, lime should be applied several years before planting in the form of a powder. In order to correctly calculate the dosage, a thorough analysis of the soil on the site should be carried out and all risks should be weighed.
Acidic soil what to do
Most plants require a neutral soil response for good growth and development. On acidic and even slightly acidic soils, they are more likely to get sick, the yield decreases, it happens that plants completely die (except, of course, those who like "sour" ones, say, rhododendrons, heathers, cranberries, blueberries) ... from hunger.
This happens because in highly acidic soils, a significant part of the applied fertilizers (for example, phosphoric ones) goes into an indigestible state. And bacteria that help plants absorb nutrients do not develop well in an acidic environment.
1. Why is soil acidic?
Acidic soils are typical for areas where there is a fairly large amount of precipitation. Calcium and magnesium are washed out from the soil, and calcium and magnesium ions on soil particles are replaced by hydrogen ions, the soil becomes acidic. The application of mineral fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate or the use of sulfur, can also acidify the soil. And the introduction of 1.5 kg of high peat or 3 kg of manure per 1 sq. m increases the acidity of the soil per unit. It is usually recommended to check the acidity of the soil every 3-5 years and lime it if necessary, and the lighter the soil, the more often.
2. Which plants like acidic soil and which do not
Firstly, it must be said about how the soil is classified depending on its acidity: strongly acidic - pH 3-4, acidic - pH 4-5, slightly acidic - pH 5-6, neutral - pH about 7, slightly alkaline - pH 7- 8, alkaline - pH 8-9, highly alkaline - pH 9-11.
Secondly, let's look at the problem from the reverse side - how plants relate to soil acidity. There is a free (without specific numbers) gradation of the susceptibility of vegetable plants to soil pH. For example, beets, cabbage, onions, garlic, celery, parsnips and spinach cannot stand acidity. Cauliflower, kohlrabi, lettuce, leeks, and cucumber prefer slightly acidic or neutral soil. Carrots, parsley, tomato, radish, zucchini, pumpkin and potatoes agree to put up with slightly acidic soil rather than alkaline, they do not tolerate excess calcium, therefore, lime materials must be embedded under the previous culture. For example, agronomists are well aware that applying lime under potatoes this year leads to a drop in its yield, and the quality of tubers is greatly deteriorating, they are affected by scab.
See also: How to find out the acidity of the soil
3. What is the soil on your site?
The plants themselves can serve as the first indicator of acidity: if cabbage and beets feel great, then the reaction of the soil solution is close to neutral, and if they are weak, but carrots and potatoes give good yields, then the soil is sour.
You can find out about the degree of acidity of the soil by the weeds that live on the site: They grow on acidic soil Horse sorrel, field horsetail, woodlice, pickleberry, plantain, tricolor violet, ivan da marya, sedge, creeping buttercup On slightly acidic and neutral – Bindweed, coltsfoot, creeping wheatgrass, odorless chamomile, thistle, quinoa, nettle, pink clover, sweet clover.
True, this method is very inaccurate, especially in disturbed biocenoses, which are most often garden plots, because many foreign plants are introduced there, which, despite their preferences, successfully grow and develop on different types of soils.
You can determine the acidity of the soil in this folk way. Take 3-4 leaves of black currant or bird cherry, brew them in a glass of boiling water, cool and put a lump of soil in the glass. If the water becomes reddish, then the reaction of the soil is acidic, if greenish is slightly acidic, and if bluish, it is neutral.
There is another simple folk way to determine the acidity of the soil. Pour 2 tablespoons into a narrow-necked bottle. spoons on top of the soil, pour 5 tbsp. spoons of water at room temperature.
Wrap 1 hour in a small (5 × 5 cm) piece of paper, a spoonful of crushed chalk and push it into the bottle. Now release the air from the rubber fingertip and put it on the neck of the bottle. Wrap the bottle with newspaper to keep it cool by hand and shake vigorously for 5 minutes.
If the soil is acidic, then when interacting with the chalk in the bottle, a chemical reaction will begin with the release of carbon dioxide, the pressure will increase, and the rubber fingertip will fully straighten. If the soil is slightly acidic, then the fingertip will straighten by half, if it is neutral, it will not straighten at all. This experiment can be performed several times to confirm the results.
There is also a simple but tricky way: sow beet seeds in different parts of the garden. Where the beets have grown good, everything is in order with acidity, and where the crust is small, underdeveloped, the soil is acidic.
However, it must be said that such methods can only approximately determine the acidity of the soil. A more accurate answer will be given only by an electronic acidity meter (pH meter) or a chemical test (litmus tests familiar to us from school, which are in the store They are called "pH indicator strips" and are issued in "little books" and plastic tubes).
Strongly acidic soil stains the litmus paper in an orange-reddish color, and weakly acidic and alkaline in greenish and blue-green, respectively
Reference by topic: Best acidity for vegetables and flowers
4.How to change the acidity of the soil?
Acidic soil can be neutralized by adding deoxidizing materials. Here are the most commonly used ones.
Quicklime - CaO.
Before use, it must be extinguished - moistened with water until it is crumbly. As a result of the reaction, slaked lime is formed - fluff.
Slaked lime (fluff) - Ca (OH) 2.
Reacts very quickly with soil, about 100 times faster than limestone (calcium carbonate).
Ground limestone (flour) - CaCO3
In addition to calcium, it contains up to 10% magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). The finer the limestone is ground, the better. One of the most suitable materials for soil deoxidation.
Dolomite limestone (flour) - CaCO3 and MgCO3, contains about 13-23% magnesium carbonate. One of the best materials for liming the soil.
Chalk, open-hearth slag and shell rock bring in crushed form.
Marl - muddy material, mainly composed of calcium carbonate. If it has an admixture of earth, then the application rate should be increased.
Wood ash in addition to calcium it contains potassium, phosphorus and other elements. Do not use ashes from newspapers - they may contain harmful substances.
But there are two more substances that contain calcium, but the soil does not deoxidize. This is gypsum (calcium sulfate - CaSO4), which, in addition to calcium, contains sulfur. Gypsum is used as a calcium fertilizer on saline (and therefore alkaline) soils with an excess of sodium and a lack of calcium. The second substance is calcium chloride (CaCI), which, in addition to calcium, contains chlorine and therefore also does not alkalize the soil.
Doses depend on acidity, soil texture and crop cultivated. For example, doses of ground limestone can range from 100-150 g / sq. m on sandy and sandy loam soils with a slightly acidic reaction up to 1-1.4 kg / sq. m on clayey strongly acidic soils. It is better to apply liming materials 1-2 years before or before planting, spreading evenly over the entire area. The need for re-liming with the correct doses of lime will arise after 6-8 years.
When choosing a deoxidizing material, its neutralizing ability must be taken into account. In chalk it is taken as 100%, in quicklime - 120%, dolomite flour - 90%. ash - 80% or less, depending on what it is obtained from. Based on these figures, we can say that it is better to use lime on strongly acidic soils, and ash - only on slightly acidic ones, otherwise it will have to be applied in huge doses, which can disrupt the structure of the soil. In addition, ash contains a lot of potassium, as well as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and about 30 different microelements, so it is better to use it as a fertilizer, and not as a deoxidizer.
So, lime is most often used for deoxidation. It is inexpensive and well crushed, so the deoxidation process will go faster. To neutralize acidic medium loamy soils, experts recommend such doses of lime per i sq. m of area: at acidity pH 4.5 - 650 g, pH 5 - 500 g, pH 5.5 - 350 g. However, as mentioned above, the dose depends on the composition of the soil. The lighter the soil, the less lime is required. Therefore, on sandy loams, the indicated doses can be reduced by one third. If chalk or dolomite flour is added instead of lime, it is necessary to recalculate their neutralizing ability - to increase the dose by 20-30%. Dolomite flour is often preferred over lime mainly because dolomite flour contains magnesium and also serves as a fertilizer.
Lime changes the acidity of the soil much faster than, for example, chalk, and if you overdo it, the soil will become alkaline. Dolomite, ground limestone, chalk are carbonates that are dissolved by carbonic acid in the soil, so they do not burn plants, but act gradually and slowly. When the acidity of the soil is about 7 (neutral reaction), the chemical reaction of deoxidation will stop and no further increase in pH will occur. And the deoxidizers will remain in the soil, since they are insoluble in water and are not washed out with it. After a while, when the soil becomes sour again, they will begin to act again.
It can be difficult to deacidify the entire area at once. And gardeners do it in parts, for example, only in the beds. By the way, you need to remember that in different parts of the site, the acidity of the soil may vary. Usually, the acidity has to be adjusted approximately, and the dose of the deoxidizer should be measured by eye, for example with a glass (a glass of lime weighs about 250 g).
The results are assessed using indicator strips (litmus paper) or a pH meter, while remembering that the effect should not be expected instantly, especially if chalk was used as a deoxidizer. dolomite or ground limestone.
The best time for liming is autumn and spring, before digging.And one more small subtlety: on the soil where liming was carried out, when feeding, you need to increase the dose of potassium by about 30%, because calcium, which contains deoxidizing materials, inhibits the flow of potassium into the root hairs.
As a result of scientific work, more specific values of soil acidity were obtained, which are optimal for the growth of fruit, berry and vegetable crops:
Unusual capitate inflorescence "shoots" from May to October Ehmeya striped from the Bromeliad family... It consists of small red flowers with a bluish tinge and pink-red bracts. For a plant, air humidity is more important than watering. Spray ehmeya with settled water and pour it into the axils of the leaves of the outlet. It is better to do this in the morning so that the moisture evaporates in the evening, otherwise the plant will begin to turn yellow and wither.
looks great in bright, warm rooms, offices, winter gardens and floral arrangements
sheet length up to 70 cm (usually up to 40 in rooms)
• as the substrate decays and compresses
• damage to the roots should be avoided as much as possible
• dishes - epiphytic basket or hanging pots
• fern roots: sphagnum (2: 1), with the addition of charcoal
• it is possible to replace fern roots with pieces of pine bark
• from unfavorable conditions (dry air, improper watering), the tips of the leaves can dry out
• may be affected by scabies
in room conditions, forced (from October to February) due to low illumination and humidity
• division during transfer
• sowing spores (except for garden forms)
• grown in suspension (basket or hanging planter)
• regular spraying is desirable
• it is necessary to ensure that the covering leaves do not close over the substrate, stopping the access of water
• leaves of two types: spore-bearing and sterile (covering)
• the covering leaves are rounded, adjacent to the support, in natural conditions they form a "shell" in which leaf litter and other sources of nutrients accumulate, rotate
• spore-bearing leaves are long, branched, in the form of deer (elk) antlers, light green, covered with scales, contain sporangia on the underside of the end lobes
• a variety of garden forms are known in the culture, as well as a close species - Platycerium Hill (P. hillii), characterized by less deeply dissected leaves