Skarb potatoes: a description of the most popular Belarusian variety and the secrets of a good harvest
A vegetable like potatoes is very popular in our latitudes. There are many varieties that differ in color, taste, and ripening time. Particularly noteworthy is the Scarb potato variety (pictured), as its description promises stable large yields in any climatic conditions in Russia.
Description of the Scarb variety and photos of tubers and bushes
The word "belongings" in the Ukrainian and Belarusian languages refers to property, treasure, wealth, treasure. The Scarb variety largely corresponds to these concepts: it is characterized by a stable yield in any summer, amazing keeping quality and resistance to various rot, and in the cut it is bright yellow. The potato was bred by Belarusian breeders in 2002. Scientists, vegetable growers and gardeners immediately appreciated the variety as very promising for growing in personal plots.
Scarb is the "golden mean" among potato varieties. The peel has a golden hue, the flesh is yellow. Everything in this medium-sized plant: dark green leaves, white flowers, the bush itself. The variety is mid-season: 80–90 days pass from germination to technical ripeness. The starch content in tubers is 12–17%. Crumbles, but only with prolonged cooking. The rest of the indicators are beyond praise. So, the yield of Scarb: 10-14 tubers from one bush, each weighing 150-250 g. With good care, 500 kg of potatoes can be harvested from one hundred square meters of fertile land.
Scarb - a productive variety, tubers are oval, smooth, with small eyes
The tubers of this variety are very even, smooth, oval. The eyes are small, evenly distributed over the surface. Washing and peeling potatoes is easy and simple. Scarb has one unique feature - an extended rest period, so its keeping quality is excellent.... The tubers are not flabby and retain good taste until next fall. But there is a minus in this: it is impossible to throw the seeds into the hole, having just taken them out of the cellar, you need to give them at least 2-3 weeks to lie in a warm place.
Gardeners argue about the taste of Skarba, evaluate it differently. Experts say: the taste is satisfactory and good.
Scarb bushes of medium height, medium-sized leaves, dark green
Description of the Scarb variety: advantages and disadvantages - table
|High yield||Afraid of spring waterlogging|
|Excellent keeping quality||Pre-germination is mandatory|
|Low bushes and large tubers||Seedlings are irregular, flowering is nonuniform|
|Disease resistance: black leg, wet rot, rhizoctonia, nematode||Possible diseases: late blight, scab, leaf rolling|
Planting and leaving
To obtain a good harvest, it is necessary to observe the planting dates and ensure proper plant care.
Scarb gives the largest yields on sandy and sandy loam soils. The variety does not tolerate spring stagnation of water, therefore it cannot be grown in lowlands, as well as on heavy clay soils. Seed material will be wasted. In addition, a sunny area should be allocated for potatoes, protected from cold northerly and easterly winds, for example, by shrubs or a forest belt. The site should be flat or with a slight slope to the south and southwest.
The potato field begins to be prepared in the fall. Scarb loves air-permeable soil, so the soil is dug onto the bayonet of a shovel and the formation is turned over. Before that, 5-10 kg of manure or humus and 1 glass of wood ash are evenly scattered on each square meter. If it is not possible to buy a lot of organic matter, then in order to save it, it is brought into the holes in the spring (a handful of humus and a spoonful of ash per plant). In the spring, as soon as the earth dries up, the site needs to be loosened with a rake.
Video: A Modern Look at Autumn Soil Preparation
Seed tubers preparation
Due to the long dormancy period, the Scarb potato tubers need to be transferred from the cellar to the warmth earlier than other varieties, 3-4 weeks before planting. For seeds in the fall, small and medium-sized potatoes are selected from the most productive bushes, which can be planted whole. Cutting large is undesirable - the appearance of sprouts is greatly slowed down.
Each potato is examined, with signs of scab, late blight, rot - discarded. The rest of the seeds for prevention are treated with drugs: Hom (40 g per 10 l of water), Prestige (diluted with water 1:20), copper sulfate (1 tsp per bucket of water). Seed tubers are laid out in 1-2 layers in boxes, baskets, scattered on the floor. The room should be bright, the temperature should be within +18 ... + 25 ° C. Once a week, the potatoes are turned sideways and sprayed with clean water to prevent the tubers from flabbling.
Video: seed preparation
Scheme and landing time
You can start planting Scarb in mid-May, when the soil warms up to + 15 ° C. On peat soils, which do not retain moisture well, the seeds are planted deeper (10-15 cm), on clay soils, they prepare furrows 25-30 cm high in a week and plant potatoes in them, to a depth of 6-8 cm. On sandy soils, they are planted on a flat a place without ridges and furrows to a depth of 8–10 cm. The distance between the holes is 22–25 cm for medium tubers and 20 cm for small ones. The row spacing is 60–80 cm.
Tubers are laid out in holes or grooves at a distance of 20-30 cm, depending on their size
If shoots have appeared, but there are still frosts in the mornings, then the sprouts that have hatched are spudded, covered completely with earth. Such help will also be beneficial because additional roots are formed in the plant, the harvest will be richer.
Watering and hilling
Scarb is resistant to spring drought, does not tolerate waterlogging, besides, immediately after planting, there is still a sufficient supply of melt water in the ground. For these reasons, young seedlings do not need to be watered. At first, care consists in weeding and loosening the row spacing after rains. As soon as the bushes grow up to 10-15 cm, the first hilling is carried out, filling it with soil from the rows to the very tops. When the tops increase by another 10 cm in height, they huddle a second time. If the bushes have grown by the next 10-15 cm, and the tops in the aisles have not yet closed, you can paddle the soil for the third time. Hilling is carried out after rain or watering. Covering the stems with dry hot soil means harming the plant, reducing its yield. In a drought, without the possibility of watering, the topsoil is loosened to prevent the formation of deep cracks through which the last moisture will escape.
Video: loosening and hilling potatoes with a motor cultivator
Potatoes are most demanding on water during flowering and after it, when the tubers are poured.
Potato watering rates - table
|Watering time||In the budding phase||Immediately after flowering||14 days before harvest|
|Watering rate for 1 bush||2-3 liters||3-4 liters||3-4 liters|
Potatoes are watered into the furrow using a hose or buckets. Sprinkling Scarb potatoes is not recommended, since high humidity is a favorable environment for the development of fungal diseases. After each watering, the furrows must be loosened, preferably mulched with straw or cut grass.
Top dressing of potatoes
Root dressing of potatoes is combined with watering, so it is advisable to make them during the budding period and after flowering. And at the beginning of summer, if the seedlings grow poorly, slowly gain green mass, foliar top dressing with urea can be carried out.
Terms and rates of fertilization for potatoes - table
|Terms of introduction||What and how to fertilize|
|Young (10-15 cm tall) weakly developing bushes||50 g of urea per 10 l of water - spray the entire aboveground part with the solution, consumption: bucket per 100 m²|
|Budding phase||3 tbsp. tablespoons of ash and 1 tbsp. a spoonful of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water - stir and pour (0.5 liters under a bush)|
|After flowering||2 tbsp. superphosphate and 1 tbsp. Dissolve potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water, consumption: 1 liter under a bush|
Foliar dressing is carried out in the evening so that the solution does not dry out under the sun, but is absorbed. Superphosphate for root dressing is very poorly soluble, so it is first boiled for 30 minutes in a small amount of water, and then brought to the required volume.
Scarb potato diseases - table
|Disease||Symptoms||Prevention and treatment methods|
|Late blight||The leaves and stems are covered with dark spots, over time, the entire aerial part turns black and dries up. On the tubers, brown, rough spots grow inward, the potatoes become unsuitable for food. The disease actively spreads in rainy and warm weather or with artificial sprinkling.|
|Scab||The disease manifests itself on tubers in the form of ulcers, which grow and can cover the entire surface. There are no visible changes in the pulp, but its taste deteriorates, the starch content decreases. Infected potatoes during winter storage are affected by dry and wet rot.|
|Rolling the leaves||The lower leaves curl become rigid, the upper ones are deformed. The plant looks depressed. On the section of the tuber, net necrosis is visible. Seeds germinate for a long time, sprouts are thin. The yield drops to 50%. The virus is spread by aphids.|
Photo gallery: Scarb potato diseases
Potato pests - table
|Pest||Description||Ways to fight|
|Aphid||Small green or black insects settle in large colonies on the back of the leaves. During the summer, 5–15 generations are born. Representatives of one of the generations are winged, they fly from infected to healthy bushes. They do not cause much visible harm to potatoes, however, they carry viruses with saliva, damage seed production, and interfere with the growth of healthy planting material.|
|Spider mite||An omnivorous microscopic pest settles on the back of the leaves, feeds on plant sap, and braids its habitat with a cobweb. In potatoes, the process of photosynthesis is disrupted, yield decreases.||Treat with one of the preparations: colloidal sulfur (1%), Fitoverm (0.1%), Karbofos (0.02%).|
|Colorado beetle||The beetle is colored orange and black, the larvae are bright orange. Pests very quickly eat up all the foliage, leaving streaks and trunks. If you do not take action, you can be left without a crop. Insects are highly resistant to poisons and develop immunity to them. Females often hibernate fertilized and begin to lay eggs in the spring, immediately after the soil thaws and wakes up.|
|Wireworm||Larvae of large (3 cm) black click beetle gnaw potato tubers, live in them and feed on pulp. The pest has a rigid body 1–4 cm long. Damaged potatoes are poorly stored, injured flesh is affected by rot.|
|Medvedka||A brown-black burrowing insect 5–8 cm in size builds burrows under the ground, gnawing at the roots of potatoes and eating tunnels in the tubers. The pest feels especially well near rivers, in places where groundwater is close, in moist soil.|
Photo gallery: potato pests
Scarb potatoes are ready for harvesting 80–90 days after germination. By this time, the tops begin to turn yellow and lie down, and if you dig out a potato and rub its surface with your finger, then the skin does not lag behind. So it's time to harvest. For this, choose dry weather. Not only large and beautiful potatoes need to be removed from the ground, but also all the others: small, crooked, diseased, mechanically damaged, rotten.
Tubers that are being stored need to be held for 1-2 hours in the open air, and then transferred under a shed or in a shed for 1 week. This period is called sanitary... Diseases can still manifest themselves. After that, all the tubers are examined again, only whole and healthy ones are sent to the cellar. Damaged during digging with a shovel or pitchfork should be used immediately, small and gnarled potatoes are processed into starch or given to livestock feed.
In the process of cooking, Scarb does not boil over for a long time and does not turn black, therefore it is suitable for making salads, soups, chips, potato pancakes.
Description of the potato variety Scarb in the reviews of gardeners
Scarb is interesting for yellow potato lovers. However, the tubers crumble only with prolonged cooking. Strengths of the variety: high yield, large and smooth tubers, excellent keeping quality. The most noticeable drawback is that it is affected by late blight and scab.
Description of the potato variety Nevsky, photos, reviews of vegetable growers
The level of potato yield is largely influenced by the correct choice of variety. Some varieties give an excellent harvest only against a high agricultural background, others give a decent harvest in any year, regardless of the prevailing weather conditions and the quality of care. One of these is the Nevsky potato, a description of the variety, a photo, reviews of which, characteristics and descriptions are presented in this article.
"Gala" is a medium-early ripening table variety. The growing season before the onset of technical ripeness is 70-80 days. Young tubers reach a size sufficient for human consumption by the 40th day after germination.
Plant of medium height, semi-erect, flower corollas are white in color
Potato bushes are medium-sized, semi-erect. Stems of medium thickness, leaves are large, green, dull, with moderate waviness at the edges. The inflorescences are small, with few white flowers. Anthocyanin coloration on the inner side of the flower, stems and leaf veins is absent or very weak.
Plants show amicable and even germination. The tops grow moderately, but close in rows quickly enough.
The tuber is medium in size, at the stage of technical ripeness has a mass of about 70-120 g. It is elongated or round-oval in shape, the ratio of length to diameter (shape index): 1 / 1.1-1.29. The peel is yellow, rather dense, with a smooth or slightly flaky (smooth-mesh) surface. The eyes are small, small, and lie at a depth of 1-1.3 mm. The light sprout is distinguished by its ovoid shape and red-violet coloration at the base, weak or medium density of pubescence.
Gala potato tubers (pictured) are round-oval in shape, with yellow skin and small eyes
Due to their small eyes, even shape and low susceptibility to black spot, the tubers are ideal for mechanical peeling. The pulp is dark yellow in color with a slight tendency to darkening when raw. Gala potatoes have a tasting score of 5 points in terms of taste characteristics. After cooking and other types of heat treatment, the tubers practically do not change color and do not crumble, retaining a predominantly hard texture (type of digestibility A / B).
The nutritional value
The yellow color of the tubers indicates a large amount of carotene (provitamin A). The average content of nutrients in fruits is as follows:
|Nutrients and useful substances||Content|
After cooking, tubers practically do not change color and do not crumble, maintaining a dense, delicate texture
Due to the high taste and preservation of the fiber structure, the purpose of the tubers is universal: they are used for all types of processing. And due to the small amount of starch and the presence of vitamins, Gala potatoes are even recommended as a dietary food product.
The variety is considered a high-yielding variety, it is distinguished by a large number of tubers in one nest (10-16 pieces, and according to some sources up to 25) and their leveled size.
According to vegetable growers' reviews, Gala potatoes are capable of forming up to 25 tubers in one nest, on average 10-16 tubers of uniform size and attractive presentation are obtained from one plant
Marketable yield of young Gala potatoes on the 40th day after entry is about 150-170 c / ha, and at the stage of technical ripeness at the end of the growing season is:
- in Russia, average - 220-263 c / ha (at the level of the Nevsky variety standard), maximum - 390 c / ha (in the Vologda region)
- in Belarus average - 337 c / ha, maximum - 568 c / ha (obtained in 2008 at the State Agricultural Institution "Molodechno Variety Testing Station").
The variety provides the output of marketable products at the level of 71-94% of the total harvest. The keeping quality is high - 89-96%, which ensures the reliability of transportation and the duration of storage without loss of external and taste qualities.
The variety is resistant to mechanical damage to tubers, invasions of the Colorado potato beetle and a whole range of viral, fungal and bacterial diseases:
|Degree of stability||Diseases|
|High||Golden and pale nematodes (Ro1, Ro4) Rhizoctonia potato cancer (D1) virus Y late blight of tubers black leg glandular spot common scab|
|Average||Late blight foliage leaf roll virus|
This variety is resistant to invasions of the Colorado potato beetle (but you still need to take preventive measures)
In order for the marketability and taste of potatoes to be at a high level, experienced gardeners advise not to plant the remnants of their crops from year to year, but to purchase planting material from reputable proven producers who carefully sort, disinfect and control it.
Packages with "Gala" potato planting material from various manufacturers
If you prefer to use your own potatoes for planting, select only healthy and whole small tubers. Better germination and additional antibacterial effect can be achieved by warming them up before planting for 2-3 days in the sun. It is advisable to treat seed potatoes with special formulations from pests and growth stimulants.
Planting seed potatoes is advised to be carried out at the end of April, burying it into the soil by 10-15 cm and leaving a distance of 70-75 cm between the holes. To increase the yield, young shoots are covered with earth, and then the stems are spud during growth, applying fertilizers. Plants require regular watering and preventive treatments against pests and diseases with organic or chemical preparations. An important agricultural technique is considered to be cutting the tops 10-12 days before harvesting, which can significantly increase the period of subsequent storage of tubers.
In order for the bushes to form a powerful root system, it is recommended to cover young shoots with earth.
According to the reviews of numerous gardeners, the potato variety "Gala" is quite easy to care for, provides high yields in different soil and climatic conditions, is distinguished by early ripening and storage duration. It is called one of the most successful varieties, optimally suited for cultivation in the middle lane.
Description of planting and care
Like any potato, it is preferable to grow the Scarb variety in sunny areas with light fertile soils. When shaded, the tops are strongly stretched, which is why the potatoes tie a limited number of tubers, since the juices go into the green mass. The acidity of the soil should be close to neutral.
Site selection, soil preparation and planting material
All weeds are removed from the plot, organic fertilizers are applied (at the rate of 5–6 kg per 1 m 2). Before persistent frosts, the soil is plowed or dug up to at least the depth of a shovel bayonet: this will greatly reduce the number of pests in the soil. In the spring, loosening of the soil is carried out, the marking of future ridges.
The introduction of wood ash into planting ridges or holes has a very good effect on the quality and quantity of the crop: it serves as an excellent mineral fertilizing and at the same time has a detrimental effect on overwintered pests. However, it is undesirable to overdo it with the introduction of organic matter: in potatoes, due to an excess of nitrogen in the soil, the growing season is extended, the ripening period of the crop is postponed, and there is also a threat of accumulation of an increased amount of nitrates in the tubers.
Seed tubers require germination before planting:
- Seed potatoes are cooked 20-25 days before the planned planting date. The planting material selected in the fall is carefully examined in order to reject damaged and diseased tubers.
- Seed potatoes are laid out in one or two layers on a flat surface or in wooden boxes. The latter option is preferable, since the boxes can be stacked on top of each other in order to save space.
- Every other day, sprouting sprouting potatoes with plain water is carried out to prevent them from drying out.
- At first, the temperature in the room is maintained within the range of 18–22 ° С, and then it can be reduced to 10–14 ° С.
- A day or two before planting, the tubers are treated with a joint weak solution of potassium permanganate and copper sulfate to improve potato resistance to infectious agents.
- Tubers are considered ready for planting if they have strong green shoots one to two centimeters long.
It must be remembered that the most productive in terms of yield are the first shoots. If such a sprout is accidentally damaged, after a while it will be replaced by a "spare" bud. A sprout that has grown instead of a broken off will be less productive.
If the tubers for planting are taken directly from the cellar and immediately embedded in the soil, the eyes will begin to germinate only after 10-12 days, and after another two weeks, shoots will appear. Therefore, the potatoes must be germinated before planting. Thanks to germination, the growing season for plants is much longer, they make better and fuller use of the May and June sun, which is rich in ultraviolet rays, and suffer less from summer heat and drought.
V. SHAIKIN, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
Feature of the Scarb variety: categorically does not tolerate cutting the tuber into parts (in order to increase the amount of planting material) - the eyes stop growing together.
Schemes and timing of planting potatoes
When choosing the distance between the ridges and the planting density in the rows, they are primarily guided by the size of the tubers and the composition of the soil. The smaller the planting material, the smaller the distance between the holes, the more fertile the soil, the less frequent the planting pattern. So, for planting material with an average weight of 50-60 grams, depending on the soil, the following schemes and planting depth will be optimal:
- light soils with an average humus content - 60 × 25/60 × 30 cm to a depth of 10–12 cm
- loams and heavy fertile soils - 65 × 30/60 × 35 cm to a depth of 8-10 cm
- clay soils - 70 × 30/70 × 35 cm to a depth of 4–5 cm.
The main criteria when choosing the timing of planting potatoes are weather conditions and soil temperature. The land should warm up to 7–8 ° С with a depth of the arable layer of 10–12 cm, and the average daily temperature should not fall below 8 ° С.
Table: cultivation techniques (watering, loosening, top dressing) of Scarb potatoes
|Event||Purpose of the event||Deadlines|
|First watering + application of ammonium nitrate at the rate of 15–20 grams per 1 m 2||Ensure the survival rate of planting material||The day after landing|
|Soil harrowing||Crust breaking, suppression of emerging weeds||After the soil has dried|
|Hilling rows (carried out on a cloudy time of day)||Increase root formation||Plants have reached a height of 14-18 cm|
|Irrigation with the introduction of mineral fertilizers||Maintaining soil moisture, plant feeding||The beginning of flowering potatoes|
|Second hilling rows||Final formation of ridges||Two to three weeks after the first hilling|
|Third watering + enhanced potassium-phosphorus feeding (150 g of potassium monophosphate per 10 liters of water)||Provide normal plant nutrition||After the end of flowering|
Due to the fact that the tubers of the Skarb variety begin to form close to the surface, hilling is carried out high and at least three times per season. This measure will prevent greening of the tubers located at the very surface. If, nevertheless, greening has occurred, then such tubers are used strictly for planting. Such potatoes are not suitable for food or pet food because of the toxic substance solanine formed in them.
To obtain the same seedlings, you must adhere to the same planting depth of tubers, taking into account the type of soil. On heavy loamy soils with a critical level of groundwater, potatoes are planted in ridges. This will reduce the risk of its infection with rhizoctonia and to some extent protect the potato plot in case of its flooding by groundwater. In arid regions, a smooth planting of 8–10 cm is preferable for all types of soils. In this case, much less ground moisture is lost.
Variety Zhukovsky early refers to very early varieties of potatoes. He has a high, stable yield in different climatic zones and different soils. The Zhukovsky variety blooms strongly, with red-purple flowers. Ku st of average height with numerous shoots. Tubers with pink skin, oval shape. Excellent taste (from potatoes it is suitable for making chips).
Large yield of marketable tubers (they are all large, small ones are practically absent). This potato variety is resistant to cancer, potato golden nematode, common scab and some other viruses and diseases. It should be noted that the potential yield of the early Zhukovsky variety is 600 c / ha. This is a very high yield. And the average is 300-400 c / ha.
Potato variety Zhukovsky early
Features of growing and care
In the cultivation of Kiwi potatoes, there is no particular difference with the cultivation of other varieties. They carry out the usual list of activities:
- top dressing.
With strict adherence to the cultivation technology, a high level of yield is always obtained.
During the growing season, it is advisable to water the potatoes well 3-4 times:
- the first watering is carried out before flowering
- the second - after flowering
- the third - after 20 days, during the period of tuberization.
It is advisable to spill soil by at least 30 cm.
Loosening, weed control, hilling
An important agricultural technique is hilling. As a result, additional roots and stolons are formed, the bush is better supplied with food, and many tubers are formed. During the season, 2 hilling is done, simultaneously with the removal of weeds and loosening.
Top dressing is essential for a decent harvest. 3 fertilization should be planned for the season:
- first - at the start of June
- the second feeding is done before flowering
- the third - during the period of filling the tubers.
Important! For top dressing, you should choose fertilizers containing all 3 basic nutrients (phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen). Ash can be used as a potassium fertilizer.
Diseases and pests
Kiwi is immune to the following diseases:
- late blight
- root rot
Kiwi leaves are pubescent, have a rough structure, so the Colorado potato beetle and other pests do not attack the bushes. No need to do during growing season processing.
Kiwi potatoes, despite the secret of their origin, are quite popular among vegetable growers.This variety is not difficult to grow, there is no need to treat the bushes with chemicals. It is one of the most productive varieties currently cultivated. It does not matter that the variety does not differ in early maturity, this is more than compensated for by its high yield and immunity to pests and diseases.
Anna. I like Janka because it is poorly boiled, but everyone has their own preferences. I have been growing the variety recently, and what can I say, the harvest is good, the potatoes are tasty, they lie for a long time. I did not find any signs of disease, but last year there was an invasion of the Colorado potato beetle, which I successfully fought with Aktara.
Yana. I did not know anything about the Yanka variety until 2015, I bought a very tasty potato on the market, found out the name and managed to plant it in the same year. Now I want to say thanks to the breeders of Belarus for the most favorite variety in my collection, before that the Skarb potato was in the lead. Yanka is an undemanding and productive variety with good immunity.