Chamomile: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open field, photo
Plant chamomile (lat.Matricaria) - a genus of herbaceous flowering perennials of the Asteraceae family, or Asteraceae, combining about twenty species of low fragrant herbs that bloom in the first year. In nature, chamomile grows in Eurasia, the Americas, South Africa and Australia. It is curious that daisies also grew in Central Africa, but were destroyed by local tribes due to the fact that they allegedly attract evil spirits.
The most famous species of the genus is chamomile, which has long been widely used for cosmetic and medicinal purposes. The Latin name of the genus is derived from the word that means "uterus" - this is due to the fact that chamomile was used in the treatment of gynecological diseases. Pliny the Elder described chamomile in his multivolume Natural History under the title Chamaemellon, formed from two words meaning "low" (apparently referring to the low growth of chamomile) and "apple" (the smell of chamomile resembled the scent of apples). The Russian name for the plant comes from the Polish language and it is derived from the word romana, which means "Roman".
Chamomile is often confused with such plants of the Astrov family as gerbera, aster, pyrethrum, chrysanthemum and daisy, which is called garden chamomile. Actually, our story will be about a garden chamomile, that is, about a daisy, especially since planting and caring for daisies is no different from growing a daisy, which we will call chamomile in the article for convenience.
Planting and caring for chamomile
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - at the end of May, sowing seeds for seedlings - in March, planting seedlings in the garden - in May.
- Bloom: from early July to September.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: slightly alkaline or neutral, in an area with deep groundwater.
- Watering: during the rooting period, seedlings are often watered, but then watering is required only during a prolonged drought.
- Top dressing: annually, humus, peat and compost are introduced into the soil, and in the middle of spring, ammonium nitrate is scattered over the site at the rate of 20 g of fertilizer per m². After this, the area does not need to be watered.
- Reproduction: seeds and dividing the bush.
- Pests: aphids, thrips, star-winged flies and wireworms.
- Diseases: are affected by powdery mildew, gray rot, rust and fusarium.
Read more about growing chamomile below.
Garden chamomile, or nivyanik, or popovnik (lat.Leucanthemum vulgare), is a herbaceous plant from 15 to 60 cm high with a short root, erect, slightly faceted stem, spatulate, crenate basal leaves on long petioles and oblong stem leaves unevenly serrated along the edges, two of which, located in the upper part of the stem, are greatly reduced in size compared to the rest.
Chamomile flowers are hemispherical inflorescences-baskets with a diameter of 2.5 to 6 cm, combined into shields. Baskets consist of middle yellow tubular bisexual flowers and long marginal false-lingual sterile flowers, usually white, but sometimes yellow. The fruit of the garden chamomile is the achene.
There are about two dozen species in the genus Nivyanik.
Growing chamomile from seeds
Cultivation of chamomile is possible in a seedling and non-seedling way. You can sow garden chamomile seeds simply in the ground, but it is safer to use the seedling method.
Chamomile seeds are sown for seedlings in March. The trays with cells are filled with a moist, light, air-permeable substrate consisting of peat and sand in equal parts, placed in each cell 2-3 seeds, sprinkled on top with a thin layer of substrate, cover the container with a transparent film and placed near the window, but not on windowsill, because the light passing through the glass is too intense and can damage the germination process. Monitor the condition of the soil, and as soon as it dries, moisten it with a spray bottle.
How to sow seeds
When seedlings begin to appear, and at normal room temperature this will happen in one and a half to two weeks, remove the film and place the container as close to a sunny window as possible, protecting the seedlings from drafts. If this is not possible for any reason, place a fluorescent lamp over the container, which should work at least 14 hours a day. As soon as the chamomile seedlings reach a height of 5 cm, leave in each cell only one, the most developed seedling.
Do not pull out unnecessary seedlings, but carefully pinch them off the surface of the soil, because you risk damaging the root system of the remaining seedling. In order for the chamomile to bush, pinch it over 3-4 leaves.
Planting chamomile in open ground
When to plant
Seedlings are planted in the ground at the age of 4-6 weeks, when all possible frosts have passed. Garden chamomile loves sunny areas with calcareous or neutral soil and deep groundwater.
How to plant
Planting daisies in the ground is carried out after the preparation of the site - complex fertilizer for flowers must be applied to the soil for digging. Dig holes 20-30 cm deep at a distance of 20 to 40 cm from each other - the distance between the bushes and the depth of the holes depend on the variety of chamomile. Remove the seedlings from the cells along with the earthen clod, plant them in the holes, apply the soil around the stems and water the seedlings. Chamomile seeds will bloom next year.
Caring for daisies in the garden
Until the chamomile seedlings settle in the ground and start growing, they need to be watered often, but after rooting, the flowers require watering only in dry weather. To keep moisture in the soil longer, mulch the surface around the plant with peat. For the rest, caring for daisies consists in loosening the soil, weeding the site, feeding and preparing perennial plants for winter.
As fertilizers, humus, peat and compost are annually introduced into the soil. In the middle of spring, ammonium nitrate is scattered in the aisles at the rate of 20 g per m² without subsequent irrigation. During the budding period, it is advisable to add a urea solution under plants with faded stems and leaves. Slaked lime or dolomite flour is added to the soil with an acid reaction in the fall.
Garden daisies reproduce by dividing the bush and by seed. Despite the fact that perennial daisies can grow in one place for five years, after 2-3 years the bushes become too thick, shoots die off in the middle of the bush, the size of the inflorescences decreases, and the plant loses its attractiveness. This can be avoided by timely planting young strong shoots from the bush. In late September or early October, on a cloudy cool day, separate a part from the bush and plant it in a prepared hole spilled with settled water, and fill the resulting void with fertile soil.
Next time, dig up and transplant part of the bush from the opposite side. Thus, varietal and terry daisies are propagated. If you want to achieve the largest flowers on powerful stems, you need to divide the daisy bushes annually.
Garden chamomile also propagates by seeds. We have described the cultivation of chamomile seedlings for you, but you can sow seeds before winter directly into the ground. In cold soil, they will undergo natural stratification and germinate in unison in spring, and all you have to do is thin out the seedlings.
Pests and diseases
With insufficient or irregular care, chamomile has a chance to get sick with powdery mildew, gray rot, rust and fusarium.
Powdery mildew manifests itself in the form of a whitish coating on the ground parts of the plant, which gradually turns brown.
Rust looks like auburn spots on the upper side of the leaves, and on the lower it forms pads with fungal spores.
Fusarium also a fungal disease, in which the roots and root collar begin to rot in young plants, the tissues acquire a brown color, the stem becomes thinner, the leaves turn yellow.
Gray rot manifests itself as rapidly increasing in size brown necrotic spots on shoots and leaves. At high air humidity, the spots are covered with a gray mycelium fluff.
To prevent infestation of flowers with a fungal infection, do not allow excess moisture in the soil, remove weeds in a timely manner and loosen the soil. A specimen with gray rot is best removed immediately so that the disease does not spread to neighboring plants.
They destroy the fungal microflora with fungicides - Fundazol, Topaz, Cuproxat, Oxykhom and other drugs of a similar effect. The treatment is carried out two or three times with an interval of 7-10 days.
Of the pests, garden chamomile is affected by aphids, thrips, star-winged fly and wireworms.
Star-winged front sight so called because of the small star-shaped spot on the wing. Its larvae damage the garden chamomile, accumulating at the base of the median flowers. You can protect the planting of daisies from the appearance of this pest by regularly destroying weeds on the site.
Thrips and aphid - sucking insects, feeding on the cell sap of the terrestrial parts of the plant. Discolored or yellow spots, streaks and stripes appear on the leaves, damaged tissues die off, leaves wither, fall off, flowers are deformed and lose their decorative effect. In the fight against aphids and thrips, insectoacaricides are used - Karbofos, Agravertin or Actellik.
Wireworms are the larvae of the click beetle. They live in soil for up to four years and feed on underground parts of plants. To get rid of them, traps are arranged in the soil: they dig holes where they put pieces of potatoes, carrots or beets. From above, the traps are covered with a board or a piece of metal. After 2-3 days, the traps are opened and the wireworms that have accumulated in them are destroyed. This should be done regularly. Most often, wireworms appear if an area with potatoes is located nearby.
Perennial chamomile after flowering
How and when to collect seeds
If you want to collect seeds, wait for several large flowers to dry, and only then cut them off, dry them in a dry room with good ventilation and peel the seeds from the middle tubular flowers on paper. They will need to be winded, poured into a paper bag and stored in a dry, dark place. The germination capacity of the daisy seeds remain for 2-3 years. However, remember that during seed propagation, varietal and terry daisies do not inherit the traits of their parents.
Preparing for winter
Planting and caring for perennial daisies is no different from growing annual daisies, except for one moment - they need to be covered for the winter. Before the onset of cold weather, the stems of perennial garden daisies are cut at surface level, after which the site is covered with dry foliage, sawdust, or covered with non-woven material.
Types and varieties
In addition to the common daisy, or meadow chamomile, there are other types of daisy grown in culture.
Meadow chamomile (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Or daisy, grows in Western Europe, Ukraine, the European part of Russia, in the south of Siberia. It is a perennial up to 90 cm high with single inflorescences-baskets with a diameter of 6-7 cm with white ligulate flowers and yellow tubular. In culture, the species has been since 1500. The best garden forms of the species are:
- Sanssouci - daisy up to 1 m in height with inflorescences up to 12 cm in diameter. White ligulate flowers are arranged in 6-8 rows, the few middle flowers are yellow;
- May Queen - very popular in amateur gardens, traditional chamomile up to 50 cm high with bright, shiny, dark green leaves forming the ground cover;
- Maxima Koenig - a plant up to 1 m high with inflorescences up to 12 cm in diameter with dark yellow median flowers and two rows of white ligulate flowers.
Kuril daisy (Leucanthemum kurilense)
Late-flowering rocky chamomile with dissected leaves, growing in the Kuril Islands and on the Japanese island of Hokkaido. The rhizome of this species is fleshy, thickened. The plant reaches a height of only 20 cm, while its few single baskets have a diameter of 5 to 8 cm. The marginal flowers are white. The Kurilian sycamore has a species of arcticum, which differs in the shape of its leaves.
Marsh leopard (Leucanthemum paludosum)
He marsh chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum paludosum) originally from the south of Portugal and Spain. This is a short, but very bushy plant up to 25 cm high with sessile spatulate alternate leaves of bright green color and crenate along the edge. Inflorescences - numerous baskets up to 3 cm in diameter with short white ligulate flowers and a large yellow center of tubular flowers.
In nature, it grows in the Pyrenees and is a perennial from 50 to 100 cm in height with a short ground rhizome, spatulate sessile leaves with a crenate edge and inflorescences-baskets with a diameter of 10-12 cm.In simple inflorescences, white marginal flowers are located in two rows, median, tubular yellow. Terry inflorescences consist of numerous rows of white ligulate flowers, and in the tubular median ones there is also a white corolla. Terry inflorescences of this type of daisy are very similar to chrysanthemum. The daisy is grown as a maximum of a biennial plant. In culture, the species has been since 1816. The best varieties:
- Alaska - variety with baskets up to 10 cm in diameter with one row of white reed flowers;
- Beethoven - lush blooming daisies with simple inflorescences up to half a meter high;
- Stern von Antwerp - variety up to 1 m high with inflorescences up to 10 cm in diameter. Reed flowers are white, tubular - yellow;
- Schwabengrub - variety up to 80 cm high with snow-white terry inflorescences;
- Little Princesses - graceful chamomile up to only 20 cm high with large bright white inflorescences.
In addition to nivyanik, other flowers of the Astrov family are also grown as garden chamomile - matricaria, pyrethrum, umbilicals, erigeron and odorless chamomile.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Asteraceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Compositae (Asteraceae) Plants on P
Growing doronicum from seeds
Doronicum seeds can be sown directly into open ground in spring or autumn, but the seedling method of growing is considered the most effective and reliable. To obtain high-quality seedlings, it is recommended to use seeds harvested in the coming season, although they retain good germination for two years after collection.
Sowing of seeds begins not earlier than the second half of April. The most suitable seeding container would be a cell tray. Each cell must be filled with prepared moist soil mixture and buried in 2-3 seeds. The substrate should consist of equal proportions of coarse river sand and peat. It is recommended to cover the entire container with plastic wrap or glass.
The covered planting boxes should be kept in a warm and bright room with diffused lighting without direct sunlight. After about 1-2 weeks, the first shoots should appear, after which it is necessary to immediately remove the glass or film from the tray.
Young plants require moist soil, so it should be regularly moistened with a fine spray bottle. The substrate should not dry out. Condensation accumulating on the cover must be removed at all times with a paper or light cloth.For the full development of seedlings, do not forget about airing the crops.
After the emergence of seedlings, the level of illumination of the room must be increased, while continuing to protect young crops from direct sunlight. If there is a lack of natural light, you can use fluorescent lamps or other sources. The devices should be placed above the plants at a height of at least 25 cm. Conventional lamps cannot be used for these purposes, since they negatively affect the doronicum seedlings when overheated.
Pruning of weak plants is carried out when they reach a height of more than 4 cm. Now only one, the strongest and strongest specimen should remain in each cell. The rest of the seedlings are recommended to be carefully cut to the level of the soil. To stimulate tillering, when three or four full-fledged leaves appear, pinching the top is carried out.
Hardening procedures begin approximately 2 weeks before planting in open ground. Every day, planting trays with seedlings should be taken out into the open air and left for several hours, not forgetting to build protection from cold drafts, sharp gusts of wind and natural precipitation. The duration of the walk should be increased daily.
Reproduction and cultivation of nasturtium from seeds is usually carried out.
Weight, germination of seed
Nasturtium seeds are large and fleshy, so one flower does not set too many of them. The appearance of the seeds is slightly reminiscent of peanuts - they are oval, slightly elongated, the surface is striped.
- immature - pale green
- mature - brown, wrinkled.
The seeds can be harvested by yourself or purchased. They are quite heavy, large, so there are not many of them in one package. Immediately after purchasing the seeds, you need to check whether they are healthy, dry.
|Weight of 1000 seeds||65-200 g|
|1 g contains||5-16 seeds|
|1 flower contains||1-3 seeds|
Seed germination depends on the cultivated species:
- beautiful nasturtium seeds (T. speciosum) are sown in autumn, left in a cold place until germination for about a month
- Large (T. majus) and Canary nasturtium (T. peregrinum) can be sown in pots kept indoors or directly outdoors (sowing only if the temperature does not drop below 9 ° C at night).
- at home - 10-20 days,
- outdoors - 2-3 weeks.
Collection and storage of seeds
These small plants produce abundant seeds. Many people wonder which seeds to pick - green or wait until they turn brown. There are several ways to collect, it all depends on how you intend to use the resulting seeds.
The seeds ripen unevenly from July to October. They remain viable for 4 years. Since the seeds have a tendency to self-sowing, material can be spread around the plants on which to collect them after they fall from the flower. If the seeds are supposed to be used for culinary purposes (as a substitute for capers), they are harvested green. Because they are large and grow singly on stems, they are easy to pick. Mature seeds fall out without problems. The dried brown seeds are suitable for sowing for new flowers.
The collected seeds should be laid out, dried until completely dry. In an amateur setting, it is recommended to lay them out on paper or fabric. When they have lost moisture, you can put them in bags made of paper and sign them. The seeds should then be placed in a dry, cool, ventilated area. You can store seeds for 4 years.
Nasturtium seeds are frost-resistant but germinate quickly. Therefore, seedlings can be planted in open ground when the risk of even slight frosts has passed - in mid-May. However, late sowing leads to a shift in flowering - flowers appear only at the turn of July-August. To speed up flowering, you can sow the seeds a little earlier under the film.
You can sow seeds at home for seedlings earlier, but the plant does not like transplants. Therefore, seedlings are grown in cups so that there are no injuries when planting in the ground.
Sometimes the flower is scattered by self-sowing, and in the next season you can find it in different places on the site. Tuberous nasturtium is propagated in spring, baby bulbs are separated and planted separately.
- Seed germination begins in 10-14 days. To speed up the germination process a little, the seeds are immersed in warm water for several hours before sowing.
- Nasturtium does not like competition, therefore a distance of 20-30 cm should be left between plants. In the case of lush varieties with climbing shoots giving numerous lateral branches, a greater distance should be observed.
- When planting climbing varieties, it is imperative to install supports, trellises on which the plant can grow. Shoots do not need to be tied up - the vine will quickly braid the support.
- Do not sow the seeds too deep, the optimum depth is 1.5 cm. Darkness is necessary to start the growth process, so you need to make sure that the seeds are not sown too shallow.
- Seedlings need moisture during the germination period, you must remember to regularly water the seedlings.