Black currant: planting and care, pruning, reproduction, description of varieties, photos
Fruit and berry plants
Black currant (Latin Ribes nigrum) - a species of the monotypic genus Currant of the Gooseberry family, which is a deciduous berry shrub. In the wild, black currant today grows throughout Europe, in the Urals, in Siberia to the Yenisei and Baikal, in Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China. It is also widespread in North America.
In culture, it is grown throughout the world in amateur gardening and on an industrial scale. In Kievan Rus, it appeared in the 10th century - they began to grow it in the monastery gardens, and only then did the black currant begin to conquer Europe.
Planting and caring for black currants
- Landing: in early autumn or early spring.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: non-acidic, well-drained and fertilized.
- Watering: on average, once every five days with a consumption of 20-30 liters of water for each 1 m² of the plot: the soil should be soaked to a depth of 30-35 cm.
- Cropping: in the spring - sanitary cleaning, in the period of leaf fall - the main pruning.
- Top dressing: if fertilizers were applied to the soil before planting the currants, fertilizing begins in the third year: nitrogen is applied in early spring, three foliar dressings are carried out in June-July, in the fall the soil is dug up with compost, manure or chicken droppings, as well as with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
- Reproduction: layering, lignified and green cuttings, rooting of two-year-old shoots.
- Pests: shoot, gall and red-gall aphids, moths, pale-footed, fruit and yellow sawflies, biennial leafworms, spider and kidney mites, moths, glass moths, gall midges.
- Diseases: white spot (septoria), gray rot, goblet and columnar rust, anthracnose, terry, shoot and branch necrosis, powdery mildew, striped mosaic, necrotic necrosis.
Read more about growing black currant below.
The fibrous root system of black currant is located at a depth of 20-30 cm. The height of the black currant bush reaches 1 m. Young shoots of currants are pale and pubescent, adults are brown. Black currant leaves are 3 to 12 cm long and wide with three to five wide-triangular lobes, the middle of which is often elongated, have jagged edges and golden glands along the veins, which give off a well-known aroma. The upper side of the leaf plate is dark green, dull, the lower side is pubescent along the veins. Drooping racemose inflorescences, consisting of 5-10 pinkish-gray or lavender bell-shaped flowers, often densely pubescent on the outside, bloom in May or June. Blackcurrant fruits are glossy blue-black fragrant berries up to 1 cm in diameter.
Black currant is one of the most popular horticultural crops in the middle lane, which is grown by hobbyists as often as raspberries, gooseberries and strawberries, and much more often than blackberries, strawberries and blueberries. This culture has earned such popularity not only due to its taste and bright aroma, but also due to the large amount of vitamins, acids, micro- and macroelements necessary for a person, which contain black currant berries.
We will tell you about how planting and caring for black currant is carried out, in what ways it reproduces, how to cut black currant, how to feed it, we will give a description of the varieties of black currant, the most productive and easy to care for, we will describe what pests and diseases of black currant can complicate its cultivation - you will find answers to all your questions in our article.
Planting black currant
When to plant
Currants bear fruit for 12-15 years, and the richest yields are given in the sixth-seventh year of growth. Almost all black currant varieties are self-fertile - they do not need pollinators, but the largest and sweetest black currant is obtained when several varieties of this crop are pollinated in one area.
You can plant black currants throughout the growing season, but it is best to do this in late September or early October - before winter, black currant seedlings will root well, and in early spring they will start growing together. If you decide to plant currants in the spring, then try to do it before sap flow and bud swelling.
Soil for currants should be fertile, slightly acidic or neutral - pH 5.0-5.5. Most of all, the culture likes loams. Black currants are planted from the south or southwest side, in a well-lit area, protected from the wind. Groundwater should be no higher than 1.5 m.
Planting in spring
A site for black currant should be prepared in the fall: the soil is dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet, adding 7-10 kg of humus, 1 liter of wood ash and 80-100 g of superphosphate to each m².
The planting density of black currant bushes depends on the type of culture. For example, low-spreading or straight-growing varieties are planted at a distance of 100-130 cm from each other, keeping row spacings up to one and a half meters wide. The planting hole is dug about 50x50x50 cm in size, half a bucket of water is poured into it, the seedling is placed in it at an angle of 45 º, 4-6 cm deeper than it grew in the mother liquor - this method of planting stimulates the intensive formation of roots and shoots.
The roots of the seedling are carefully straightened, covered with soil, compacted, after which another half a bucket of water is poured under the seedling. In order to avoid rapid evaporation of moisture from the soil, the site is mulched with peat, humus, dry soil or sawdust.
Pits for autumn planting of blackcurrant seedlings are prepared in two to three weeks. A top layer of soil is poured into them, mixed with two tablespoons of double superphosphate, a large handful of ash and 5 kg of rotted compost, filling the hole two-thirds. Before planting, the soil in the pit should settle and compact. The planting procedure is carried out according to the same rules as in the spring. After planting, all the shoots are cut off from the seedlings, leaving no more than 2-3 buds on each.
Black currant care
How to groom in spring
Black currants wake up very early in spring, so you need to have time to cut off broken or diseased branches before the buds swell, and also remove buds damaged by a tick. If there are too many buds in which the mites have settled, cut the entire bush to the base. In the spring, in addition to sanitary, formative pruning of bushes is carried out. If you huddled bushes for the winter, shake off the soil from them.
The soil around the bush is dug up and mulched with a layer of humus or manure 5-10 cm thick, trying to spread it at a distance of 20 cm from the branches of the bush. As soon as weeds begin to sprout, remove them immediately.
Since black currants are moisture-loving, do not forget to water them, especially if the winter was without snow, and the spring was without rain. After watering, it is advisable to weed the site, as well as feeding the black currant with nitrogen fertilizers, followed by loosening the soil with the embedding of granules to a depth of 6-8 cm. Loosening is carried out on average 2-3 times a week, but if you mulched the site, it will be possible to do this through mulch and much less often.
Since black currant enters the stage of active growth very early, its expanding buds can damage recurrent frosts, so be prepared to protect the bushes from a sudden cold snap with smoke or plastic wrap.
In May, when the flowering of currants begins, inspect the bushes and cut out branches affected by terry (reversion) - those on which flowers from bell-shaped ones have changed into two-petalled ones. If the currants need supports, install them.
In June, black currant bushes are watered, weeded and loosened the area around them, and also feed the currants at the root with organic fertilizers. The culture also reacts well to foliar dressing - spraying on the leaves with solutions of micronutrients.
If a moth butterfly appears, it is necessary to destroy its nests, and if some berries turn brown and deform prematurely, this is a sure sign of sawfly activity, so be prepared to process black currant and from it.
In July and August, red and black currants ripen. The fruits of the black currant are harvested selectively, with separate berries, and not like red currants - with whole brushes. The best utensils for picking berries are trays, boxes or boxes in which the fruits will not wrinkle.
After harvesting, currants require abundant watering, and as soon as the soil dries out, it will be necessary to loosen the soil on the site.
In late September or early October, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied under the currant bushes, after which the site is watered, and then dug into the soil to incorporate fertilizers.
An important point of caring for black currants in the fall is sanitary pruning of bushes. As a result of the removal of thickening branches, you may have planting material, which is high time to root in the fall. Layers dug in in the spring for rooting are separated from the mother bushes and planted in a permanent place.
If the autumn will be without rain, carry out water charging. That's all the autumn work with black currant.
In early spring, the treatment of black currant bushes begins with scalding the bushes from a garden watering can with water heated to 80 ºC. You can replace the hot shower by dusting the bushes and surrounding land with wood ash.
To combat some insects, as well as to feed the currants with nitrogen, the bushes are treated with a 7% urea solution, but this must be done before the buds on the branches begin to bloom.
As soon as the first leaf begins to appear from the buds, the currants are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate from diseases such as anthracnose, rust and septoria.
If last season you noticed moths on the site of butterflies, process the black currant before flowering with Karbofos, Agravertin, Fitoverm, Iskra-bio in accordance with the instructions, and in addition to this measure, cover the site with foil so that the butterflies cannot get out of the ground. As soon as the currants bloom, the film will need to be removed so that beneficial insects can get out to the surface.
At the same time (before flowering), the currant should be sprayed with Karbocin, Iskra or Inta-CM from gall midges, aphids, sawflies and leaf rollers, but since one treatment will not be enough, you will have to spray the currants with these preparations twice more - immediately after flowering and after harvesting ...
After flowering, if you find anthracnose, septoria or powdery mildew on black currants, you need to treat the bushes with Strobi, Vectra or Cumulus preparations, and Topaz, Tiovit Jet or colloidal sulfur will cope with American powdery mildew (provided that the air temperature in the garden will be at least 18 ºC). After harvesting, you need to re-process the currants from American powdery mildew.
After leaf fall and autumn pruning of bushes, it is necessary to collect and destroy plant residues, after which currant prophylaxis should be carried out against diseases with one percent solutions of Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate.
Growing black currants requires maintaining a loose soil in the currant, which can be achieved with frequent and abundant watering, provided that it is not excessive. Lack of moisture slows down the growth of branches and shoots, and during the formation and pouring of currant berries, poor or irregular moistening of the soil can cause them to grind and shatter.
It is especially important to water the black currant in early June, in the stage of intensive growth of bushes and the formation of ovaries, it is also necessary in late June and early July, during the period of fruit filling. At this time, the soil must be moistened to the depth of the entire root layer - about 35-45 cm. The approximate water consumption is 20-30 liters per m² of the plot. Water should be poured into specially made grooves along the row spacing or into grooves 10-15 cm deep, dug around each bush at a distance of 30-40 cm from its base.
After watering, the soil is loosened as soon as it dries slightly. If the plot is mulched, you will have to water, and loosen, and weed the plot much less often.
In the year of planting, if you applied fertilizer to the pit in accordance with our recommendation, black currants will not need additional fertilizing. From the second year of life in the spring, it will be enough to distribute 40-50 g of urea under each bush or treat the bushes with a 7% solution before the start of sap flow. Bushes over 4 years old are fed with urea in smaller quantities, consuming only 25-40 g of nitrogen fertilizer per bush, and applied in two doses.
In the fall, black currants are fed with organic matter once every two years - compost, manure or bird droppings at the rate of 10-15 kg per bush. And from mineral fertilizers, 10-20 g of potassium sulfate and 50 g of superphosphate are applied for each plant. If in the spring you mulched the site with a thick layer of organic fertilizer, then in the fall you can not add organic matter to the soil, and if you brought humus into the soil in the fall, then next spring you can skip feeding the currants with nitrogen.
Black currant pruning
When to trim
We already wrote that it is best to carry out sanitary and formative pruning of black currants in the spring, at the end of March. But the problem is that the culture begins to grow very early, and pruning must be done before the buds swell. If you managed to meet the deadline in the spring, then in the fall, before the onset of the dormant period, carry out only sanitary pruning.
As we already wrote, on newly planted seedlings, all branches are shortened, leaving no more than 2-3 buds on each.
On the bushes of the second year of life, during spring pruning, from 3 to 5 of the most developed zero shoots are left - they will become the first skeletal branches of a currant bush. The rest of the shoots are removed. In the middle of summer, skeletal shoots are shortened by pinching into two buds - this manipulation contributes to the intensive formation of fruit branches and the growth of new zero shoots. Thus, the bush is formed correctly and the crop grows.
In the third and fourth years of life, from the growing zero shoots, from 3 to 6 of the most promising are left, and the rest are cut out. The tops of last year's shoots are shortened. On each branch of the skeletal branches, 2-4 buds are left. By the end of the fourth year, the black currant bush can be considered formed.
In the fifth and sixth years old branches appear on the black currant, and the bush needs rejuvenating pruning, in which five to six-year-old branches are cut off at the very surface. For the rest, when pruning, they adhere to the same scheme:
- branches of the second, third and fourth years are shortened along all the branches, leaving no more than 4 buds at each end;
- the top of last year's shoots is shortened;
- from zero shoots of the current year, from 3 to 5 of the strongest and most developed are left, the rest are cut out.
Pruning in the fall
If you managed to carry out a full-fledged pruning in the spring, in the fall you will only have to cut dry, broken, diseased and abnormally growing branches and shoots, that is, to carry out thinning and sanitary pruning. If you didn't manage to put the bush in order in the spring, do it in the fall, after all the leaves have fallen from the currant.
Dry branches can be removed from the bush at any time of the year. Pinching the tops is best in mid-July.
Reproduction of black currant
Blackcurrant propagates vegetatively - by layering, green and lignified cuttings, as well as by dividing the bush. Seed propagation of black currant is also possible, but the offspring may not completely inherit the characteristics of the variety, and besides, vegetative methods give faster and more reliable results.
Propagation by cuttings
This is the most common way. Cuttings of currants are harvested from annual basal shoots or shoots of the first branching order. The thickness of the cuttings should be at least 7mm, and the length - 15-20 cm. With a sterile pruner or knife, the cuttings are cut 1-1.5 higher than the bud. It is better to do this in late September or early November, when the bush has already passed into a dormant period. In the same autumn, blackcurrant cuttings are planted in the ground, but if the planting is postponed until spring, the ends of the cuttings are dipped in liquid paraffin or garden var, after which the planting material is tied, wrapped in wet paper, then in polyethylene and buried in the snow or put in the refrigerator until spring. Before planting, the lower end with paraffin is carefully cut obliquely.
In spring, cuttings are planted as early as possible, as soon as the ground warms up to 8-9 ºC. They are placed in the ground at an angle of 45 º, deepening so that only 1-2 buds remain above the surface. After planting, the cuttings are watered, and the site is mulched with humus, peat or sawdust. Arcs up to half a meter high are installed above the bed and polyethylene is thrown over them, which is removed as soon as the first leaves appear. The cuttings that have taken root and released the first leaves begin to be watered regularly, in no case allowing even a short-term drying out of the soil.
In the summer, a bed with cuttings is weeded, fertilized with a solution of a mullein with ash and superphosphate, and in the fall, provided that the seedlings grow up to 30-50 cm in height, and they develop 1-2 shoots, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Black currants can also be propagated by green cuttings, but this is a more complex method, carried out only if there is a greenhouse or greenhouse with a fogging function.
Reproduction by layering
This is the simplest and most reliable of vegetative propagation methods, since it allows you to get seedlings with a well-developed root system in one year. In early spring, select a healthy two-year-old branch growing obliquely at the periphery of the bush, bend it to the ground, and place its middle part in a pre-dug groove 10-12 cm deep so that the top 20-30 cm long remains on the surface.
Secure the cuttings in the groove with wire, cover the furrow with soil and water regularly during the growing season. By autumn, the cuttings will develop a powerful root system, give 2-3 thick branches, and it can be cut off from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
Dividing the bush
It is necessary to divide the currant bush in spring or autumn when transplanting. The bush is dug out, carefully releasing the roots from the ground, and divided with an ax or a saw into several parts, after sterilizing the tool. Each section should have well-developed shoots and roots. Cut out old, diseased branches and roots, and shorten the young branches to 20-30 cm, then process the cuts with charcoal and plant parts of the bush in the prepared pits in the way that we described to you earlier.
After planting, seedlings require abundant watering. Delenka will yield a harvest only after a year, since the root system injured by division takes time to recover from the shock.
From diseases, currants can be affected by fungal diseases anthracnose, white spot, goblet or columnar rust, European powdery mildew, gray rot, drying out of shoots and necrotic drying of shoots.
But viral diseases for which there is no cure are much more dangerous for black currant. These include black mosaic and terry, or reversion.
Harmful insects that can affect black currants include currant glass, blackcurrant fruit, pale-footed and yellow gooseberry sawflies, biennial leafworm, gooseberry moth, gooseberry shoot and leaf gall aphid, gooseberry moth and mite currant, spiderweed
As you probably already noticed, black currants and gooseberries have the same insect pests, and they also have common diseases. That is why we have devoted a separate article entitled "Diseases and pests of gooseberries" to the description of these enemies, as well as ways to get rid of them.
Black currant varieties
Today, more than two hundred varieties of black currant have been bred in the culture, and it is very difficult to find among them two or three exactly those that you need. We will try to divide the varieties into groups, in accordance with the requests of our readers, so that it is easier for you to make your choice.
Large-fruited varieties of black currants are those whose berries exceed 1.5 g in weight. The most famous varieties of large-fruited currants are:
- Vigorous - black currant of this variety has fruits, the weight of which reaches 8 g. The skin of the fruit is dense, the pulp is fleshy, sweet, juicy. The ripening period is medium late - in the third decade of July. The disadvantage of the variety is that it reproduces poorly, is unstable to powdery mildew, and needs to be rejuvenated often;
- Dobrynya - a large black currant, the weight of the berries of which reaches 7 g. The average ripening period is the second half of July. Dobrynya is distinguished by winter hardiness, early maturity and resistance to powdery mildew;
- Selechenskaya-2 - a fruitful, winter-hardy and resistant to powdery mildew early ripening variety with berries weighing up to 6 g of sweet-sour taste.
In addition to those described, large-fruited varieties Chereshnevaya, Large Litvinova, Comfort, Sanuta, Krasa Lvova have proven themselves well.
The sweetest varieties of black currant are:
- Nina - Stably productive, winter-hardy, self-fertile and sweet black currant of early ripening, resistant to powdery mildew, with large berries up to 13 mm in diameter. Unfortunately, the variety is not resistant to terry and kidney mites;
- Bagheera - resistant to environmental changes, fast-growing and winter-hardy variety with large sweet berries almost completely free of acid, characterized by good gelling. The disadvantage of the variety is the instability to pests and diseases - anthracnose, powdery mildew and kidney mites;
- Green haze Is a fast-growing, winter-hardy and high-yielding medium-ripening variety with aromatic sweet berries. The variety is affected by kidney mites.
Sweet varieties are also Izyumnaya, Otlichnitsa, Perun and Dobrynya.
Early ripening blackcurrant varieties ripen in early July, and since harvesting from these bushes ends before the onset of heat, they are not afraid of most of the diseases and pests from which later varieties suffer. Early currants are represented by the following varieties:
- Dove seedling - a very early variety with small berries weighing from 1 g to 1.5 g, which crack when overripe;
- Little Prince - self-fertile and early fruitful variety, giving from a bush up to 6 kg of juicy, almost black berries of sweet and sour taste;
- Curiosity - winter-hardy, self-fertile fruitful variety, poorly tolerant of drought, but resistant to powdery mildew. The berries are oval, medium in size, with a dense skin, sweet and sour.
Such early ripening varieties as Exotic, Otradnaya, Old Man Minai, Overture, Izyumnaya, Dachnitsa, Mriya Kievskaya, Heiress, Sevchanka, Golubichka, Nika, Sibylla and others have proven themselves well.
Mid-ripening black currant yields a harvest from mid-July. Among the most famous varieties of medium ripening are the following:
- Titania - a variety resistant to powdery mildew with berries of different sizes, sweet and sour taste, strong skin and greenish flesh. The berries do not ripen at the same time, so the harvest may take a long time;
- Black Pearl - consistently productive, self-fertile and very frost-resistant universal variety with one-dimensional berries weighing up to 1.5 g. The variety is not resistant to powdery mildew;
- Bolero - self-fertile, early-growing, high-yielding and frost-resistant variety, resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew, with large, aromatic oval or round berries weighing up to 2.5 g of sweet and sour taste.
The medium-ripening varieties Azhurnaya, Delikates, Odezhbin, Dubrovskaya, Pygmey, Vernosti, Zagadka, Ozherelye, Orloviya and others have also proven themselves well.
Late blackcurrant varieties include those that ripen in August. It is the berries of late-ripening varieties that are best stored frozen and processed. The most famous varieties:
- Vologda - a high-yielding, large-fruited, disease-resistant variety with high self-fertility and winter hardiness, but damaged during spring frosts. Berries are sweet and sour, large, with dry separation, weighing up to 2.2 g;
- Daughter - a high-yielding self-fertile and drought-resistant variety for universal use, resistant to kidney mites. Berries with a dry separation, large, sweet and sour taste, weighing up to 2.5 g;
- Lazy person - self-fertile, winter-hardy, resistant to terry and anthracnose variety with rounded berries of large size and sweet taste. The disadvantages of the variety can be considered a prolonged ripening of fruits and an unstable yield.
The varieties Venus, Natasha, Rusalka, Katyusha, Kipiana and others are also popular.
The best varieties of black currant
The highest marks for taste - above 4.5 points - are given to varieties of black currant, which are considered dessert. The best black currant - varieties Selechenskaya, Selechenskaya-2, Venus, Nadia, Centaur, Perun, Pygmy, Orlov waltz, Slastena, Tisel, Nestor Kozin, Black boomer, Pearl, Legend, Izumnaya, Lazy, Ben-lomond.
Varieties for the Moscow region
When asked by our readers whether it is possible to grow black currants in areas with cold winters, we can answer with a clear conscience: yes! Among the varieties of black currant, there are many winter-hardy ones, which perfectly tolerate winter temperatures. Black currant for the Moscow region is represented by the following varieties:
- Paulinka - mid-season fruitful winter-hardy variety with thin-skinned small and sour berries. Disadvantage: affected by fungal diseases;
- Izmailovskaya - also a mid-season variety, but the berries of Izmailovskaya black currant with a thick aroma, large, sweet and sour taste;
- Belarusian sweet - cold and disease resistant variety with medium-sized but very sweet berries. Despite the fact that ripening is extended in time, the berries do not crumble from the bushes.
In addition to those described, varieties Karelskaya, Moskovskaya, Pygmey, Exotic, Selechenskaya-2, Detskoselskaya and others grow well in the Moscow region.
Black currants can also be grown in cooler areas. For example, in the Urals, currants of the varieties Nina, Kent, Rhapsody, Pamyat Michurina, Dashkovskaya, Sibilla grow well, and in Siberia - Minusinka, Hercules, Lucia, Zagadka and Brown.
Properties of black currant - benefits and harms
The fruits of black currant are considered a source of health - so many useful substances for the human body are included in their composition. Black currant berries contain vitamins C, B1, B2, B6, B9, D, A, E, K and P, pectins, essential oil, sugars, carotenoids, phosphoric and organic acids, potassium, iron and phosphorus salts. And the leaves, in addition to phytoncides, vitamin C and essential oil, contain sulfur, lead, silver, copper, manganese and magnesium.
The amount of vitamins and other nutrients in black currant is much higher than in any other berries, so it is a healthy food product that strengthens the body, enhances immunity and enhances the healing effect in the fight against diseases. Black currant is indicated for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, malignant tumors, problems with the cardiovascular system and vision. The use of currant berries is beneficial for progressive atherosclerosis, kidney, respiratory and liver diseases.
Due to the anthocyanidins they contain, black currant berries have anti-inflammatory and disinfectant properties that help the body cope with angina - currant juice diluted with water, rinse a sore throat.
A decoction of black currant berries is useful for anemia, hypertension, bleeding gums, stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers and gastritis. A mixture of currant juice and honey is used to treat a severe cough.
Rubbing the pulp of berries into the skin, you can make freckles and age spots not so noticeable, and when rubbing it into the cuticles and nail plates, you will make your nails stronger and more beautiful.
The leaves of black currant also have medicinal properties, which many people gladly add to tea, pickles and pickles. The leaves contain more vitamin C than berries, so decoctions, infusions and tea have tonic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic, cleansing and antirheumatic properties. Medicines from the leaves are used for gastritis, cardiovascular diseases, gout, and externally - for dermatitis and exudative diathesis.
Both decoctions and infusions can be prepared both from fresh raw materials and from dried black currant leaves. From young foliage in the spring, you can prepare a vitamin drink that strengthens the body: dilute any sour juice with boiled water, pour this mixture over currant leaves for a day, then strain, add a little honey if you want and drink half a glass a day.
You can make wonderful and healthy blackcurrant vinegar from the leaves, a few drops of which will add taste and aroma to any dish: pour fresh blackcurrant leaves with cold sugar syrup (100g of sugar per 1 liter of water), close the container with gauze and leave to ferment for 2 months, then strain and bottle in dark glass.
Due to the high content of phenolic compounds and vitamin K in black currant, it is contraindicated in thrombophlebitis - prolonged use of berries can lead to increased blood clotting. Fresh berries of black currant and juice from them are unhelpful with increased acidity of the stomach, ulcers and hyperacid gastritis. Fresh berries and juice from it are not recommended after a stroke, heart attack and with developing thrombosis.
Pure, undiluted blackcurrant juice can cause allergies in children, but diluted in small amounts can increase hemoglobin levels in the blood. It is undesirable to consume black currant juice during pregnancy.
For healthy people, in order to get the required amount of vitamin C, it is enough to eat only 20 black currant berries daily.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Gooseberry family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
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Black currant Enchantress: description, planting and care
Currant Charovnitsa is a black-fruited crop variety that was bred not so long ago, but many gardeners have already been able to appreciate it. This fruiting shrub is distinguished by the dessert taste of berries, undemanding care and increased resistance to common diseases. But in order for the plant to show good productivity annually, it is necessary to provide it with proper care, taking into account the basic requirements of the culture.
- Breeding history
- Description of the variety of black currant Charovnitsa
- Drought tolerance, winter hardiness
- Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
- Productivity and fruiting, keeping quality of berries
- Disease and pest resistance
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Features of planting and caring for black currants Charovnitsa
- Reviews with a photo about black currant varieties Charovnitsa
When to plant yoshta
Yoshta is planted in early spring, before the start of sap flow, or in early autumn. The site for this unusual plant should be sunny, and the soil should be fertile. They say that yoshta will grow well and bear fruit only if a currant or gooseberry bush grows nearby.
When buying planting material, you should pay attention to the quality and condition of the root system of the seedlings - it must be strong and healthy.
Chipped and weathered roots may not take root in the soil. Pay attention to the bark: its "wrong side" must be green, not brown, otherwise you risk buying a dead seedling. If you buy yoshta saplings in the fall, carefully remove all leaves from them before planting, being careful not to damage the buds. Also remove rotten and dry roots, lightly trim healthy roots. If it seems to you that the roots are dry or chapped, keep them in a bucket of water for 24 hours.
Planting yoshta in spring
The size of the planting pit for yoshta should be such that the root system of the seedling fits in it with a margin - about 50x50x50 cm. Prepare holes for planting in the fall. The distance between the yoshta bushes is kept within 1.5-2 m, but if you decide to use the yoshta as a hedge, then a distance between the bushes of 40-50 cm will be enough.
Place half a bucket of humus or compost in each pit, add half a liter of wood ash, 100 g of superphosphate and some soil from the infertile layer to it and mix thoroughly. Fill the pit with this mixture to a third of its volume, then add up to half the volume of fertile soil from the topsoil and pour a bucket of water into the pit. This completes the preparation of the pits in the fall.
During the winter, the soil in the pit will settle and settle. In the spring, slightly loosen the bottom of the hole, place a seedling in its center, gently spread its roots and fill the hole with soil from the upper, fertile layer, shaking the seedling from time to time so that there are no voids in the soil. When the hole is full, lightly tamp the surface of the area around the seedling, pour a bucket of water under it, and when the soil dries slightly, mulch it with a layer of peat, humus, straw, hay or grass 5-10 cm thick.Then cut the seedling, leaving on each shoot no more than 2-3 kidneys.
Planting yoshta in the fall
Planting and caring for a yoshta in the fall is carried out in the same order as in the spring, but the pits for it are prepared two weeks before planting.
Currant - plant description
Perennial shrub from the gooseberry family. The height of the bushes is up to 2 meters with fluffy pale green shoots that change color with age to brown.
The root system is fibrous, reaching a depth of 20-40 cm.
The currant bush consists of branches of different ages, located at different levels, thanks to which the currant bears fruit for 12-15 years.
In the spring, at a temperature of +5 degrees, the buds swell, flowering appears at +11 +15 degrees, because of this it is affected by spring frosts.
Most of the varieties of currants do not need pollination, they are also frost-resistant. Currant leaves are used in conservation (very fragrant), and they are also used for brewing tea.
The berries are sweet and sour in taste, with a strong aroma, rich in vitamins and microelements. The high content of vitamin C makes currant berries very useful, a good remedy for the prevention of diseases.
Black currant care
Caring for black currants means: watering, weeding, feeding, pruning, hilling and protecting from pests.
“How to cut black currants?” - many ask this question and for good reason. Improper pruning can lead to the drying out of the currant bush and its death. Since currants wake up early in spring, it is important to have time to trim dry and affected branches.
Black currant pruning is carried out in September-October.
The intensity of pruning depends on the age of the plant and its damage by the pest. In the second year, the 6 largest shoots are left, the rest will lie down for removal. In the spring, these same shoots are pinched to the length of three buds, thereby stimulating the development of fruitful young twigs.
A more mature plant is pruned more intensively, leaving 4-5 of the most promising branches, others are pruned at the root.
The soil around the bush is dug up, fertilized with rotted manure.
Weeds are weeded as they grow. Black currant prefers abundant moisture, therefore frequent watering (three times a week) is required, with the exception of early snowy spring.
At the beginning of the growing season, it will not be superfluous to add nitrogen and mineral fertilizers to the soil. Loosening of the soil and hilling is performed as the earth crust forms.
Black currant in the fall does not need special care, the plant is preparing for hibernation. Abundant watering is stopped, the soil around is mulched and covered with spruce branches. When the plant stops bearing fruit, pruning is performed and a layer of rotted manure is brought under the bush.
If the winters in your region are harsh, you should wrap the currant branches with polyethylene or nylon (you can use old tights), and in early spring, in March, remove the "special protection".
Reproduction of black currant is carried out by cuttings. The easiest and most affordable way is to prepare black currant cuttings from one-year-old shoots, about a centimeter wide and 17-22 cm long.
The stalk is cut in the fall, with a sharp knife or pruner one and a half centimeters above the bud, after which they are planted in the ground, deepening by half the length and watering abundantly until late autumn. For the winter, the stalk should be covered with a plastic bottle with a cut off bottom. In the spring, composting is carried out, and hilling is carried out.
If the stalk needs to be prepared for spring planting, it is cut off, the end is dipped in liquid paraffin, wrapped in paper and stored in the refrigerator or cellar until spring. During planting, the lower edge with paraffin wax is cut off and the planting is performed.
Care for golden currants: pruning in spring and feeding
The bush is formed from basal shoots that have developed from underground buds. Seasonal growth of one-year basal shoot has a wave-like character, during the season 2-3 growth waves are observed, which correspond to changes in the external environment. They can reach 0.5-1 m in length.
The maximum productive age of the bush is 10-15 years. Shoots of golden currant, in comparison with other shrubs, do not age so quickly, maintaining a steady progressive growth of the stem due to the formation of young vegetative shoots on skeletal branches.
When caring for golden currants, annual pruning is not required. The main thing is to thin out the crown and cut out old branches before the formation of stem growth. Currants tend to form shoots from the root collar. Therefore, in the presence of old branches that are already weakly giving stem growth, they must be cut out to the base.
When pruning golden currants, old shoots and trunks are removed once every 4-5 years. You should not leave "hemp" when pruning. They make it difficult to overgrow the cut.
Pruning of golden currants is carried out in early spring, before bud break.
Since currants are susceptible to damage from stem pests such as glassware, special attention should be paid to the pruning technique. Examine the core of the escape. If it is black, cut until it looks healthy. The cut must be above a well-developed healthy vegetative, but not a flower bud. Large cuts should be covered with garden pitch.
Pruning should not be done in winter - in January, February, since the wood is directly exposed to low temperatures, it is severely damaged, which will negatively affect the healing of the wound. In addition, winter drying of the entire plant is possible through open wounds. It is not recommended to do pruning during the period of sap flow, this weakens the bush and can lead to its death, not to mention a sharp decrease in yield.
Planting and caring for golden currants is not at all difficult, since this plant is not one of the shrubs that are very demanding on agricultural technology. Systematic care for golden currants is to keep the soil free from weeds and moist. Loosening should be shallow, no more than 4-5 cm.
During the growing season, three periods can be distinguished, distinguished by the intensity of absorption of nutrients: flowering, ovary growth and ripening of berries. These periods are characterized by a continuous increase in nutrient intake and removal. Most of all, the plant absorbs nitrogen, then potassium and phosphorus. During the flowering period, nitrogen should be added. In summer, complex fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are good from mineral fertilizers.
And after harvesting - phosphorus-potash at the rate of 20-30 g / m2 of potash fertilizer and 40-50 g / m2 of superphosphate.
Watering - depending on the weather and mandatory when fertilizing and after harvesting. It should be plentiful (at least 3 buckets per fruiting bush). Watering is combined with subsequent loosening and mulching.
Black currant pruning
In hot regions, currants are affected by glass, therefore, on older shoots, by the middle of summer, all ovaries and foliage droop, and then the branches dry. They need to be cut out. Thus, caring for black currants in spring comes down to pruning them. As a rule, branches over 5 years old and extra shoots are cut out for clearing bushes. Cut out shoots with a wormhole from a glass pot are not subject to composting, they must be burned.
Black currant, in contrast to red, actively grows zero shoots from the roots, which begin to bear fruit next year. Then they grow, branching out every year. Young nodules when pruned in spring can be distinguished by their characteristic lighter bark. They are not cut out. Older branches are highly branched, and five-year ones have a diameter of about one and a half centimeters.
It is also convenient to prune black currant bushes in the fall. By about the end of September, the growths of this year have already finally formed on the bushes, and from them it is possible to determine whether the branch is affected by the glass or not. If the annual growth is less than 7 cm, you can safely cut the entire branch at the root. In no case do not spare the currants. Even if part of the branch has given good growth, and part of it is weak, cut the entire branch at the root and burn it. Otherwise, you will give a reason for breeding glass.
If, after cutting out the affected branches, pierce the core with a knitting needle, then there is a chance to destroy the glass larvae. But rarely anyone uses this method, more often such shoots go to the fire. For beginner gardeners who have not yet encountered such a pest, we post photos of shoots affected by glass:
this is how the glass case affects the core of the currant shoots (photo 2015)
Thanks to such simple care measures - drip irrigation, mulching and timely pruning of black currants, we annually collect 10-12 kg of berries from four bushes. I think this is quite a decent harvest for hot regions, because this culture is not at all a southerner. Try and grow currants in yourself, maybe your experience and observations will complement ours. Please share your results. In general, these are the most important points in the agricultural technology of growing a crop such as black currant - planting and care, reproduction, as well as pruning and rejuvenating bushes.