How to store seeds correctly - 6 secrets that not everyone knows about
Optimum seed storage conditions ensure maximum seed germination. The main thing is to follow six rules.
First of all, the seeds must be thoroughly cleaned: remove the resin from the conifers, and the pulp from the fruit and berry. Residues of resinous substances and pulp impair germination, and their smell attracts rodents. In addition, the presence of particles of pulp, husks or other fibers will contribute to the development of mold if the tightness of the packaging with the seed is broken.
This step cannot be skipped. If you plan to plant seeds during the year, it is recommended to maintain the air humidity at 75-80% during drying. If the seed lasts for several years, then the seeds must be dried at a temperature of +30 ... + 35 ° C for at least three weeks. If the grains are easily poured, then they can already be packed.
Relative humidity above 60% is considered fatal for seeds. In winter, a frost-free room without heating is suitable for storage.
In the cold season, do not keep seeds in the country or in the garage.
For additional protection from moisture, you can wrap two tablespoons of milk powder in a four-layer paper towel and put the resulting envelope between the seeds, and replace it with a new one six months later. Silica gel packs are also suitable for this purpose.
Granules are sold by weight, but you don't have to buy them: you can take those that were in shoe or electronics boxes.
The main advantage of silica gel is that it is harmless and chemically neutral, and the pellets can be dried and used again. Note: Dry pet litter is often based on silica gel.
In a refrigerator at +5 ... + 10 ° C, the seed can be kept until next year, and in a freezer at -18 ° C for twenty years. Make sure the seeds are well dried or the frost will damage them.Before planting, future seedlings need to be removed from the refrigerator and allowed to warm to room temperature, the process will take about 20 minutes. If this is not done, condensation will form and the grains will begin to stick together, and later mold may appear on them.
If the relative humidity of the air is higher than 60% at home, seeds can be placed in jars with a rubber seal on the lid or in plastic bags with a zipper. This storage method is not suitable for legumes that need constant air circulation.
The seed must not be exposed to direct sunlight. It is best to keep the seeds in complete darkness, as even dim light can cause them to germinate.
Seeds need to be harvested in dry weather... If they are not dry, then in the heat they heat up, mold and deteriorate.
Seed moisture level most vegetable crops should be below 10%. Of course, it is difficult to determine this indicator without a device. But you can use this method: try to break the seed. If this fails, then the humidity is above normal.
The composition and benefits of fertilizer
Diammofoska is a fertilizer containing a complex of nutrients. Its main components are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Potash and phosphorus components are presented in the highest concentration.
The fertilizer has the appearance of pink granules and has a neutral acidity. The diammophoska also contains sulfur, magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium. These microelements are present in granules in equal amounts.
The fertilizer is versatile and suitable for use on all types of soils. The main application period is spring, but top dressing is carried out in summer and autumn.
The substance is effective on nitrogen-rich soils: peatlands, plowed areas, areas with high humidity. The use of diammofosk fertilizer is possible on soils poor in phosphorus and potassium.
Nitrogen stimulates the growth of green mass and the formation of flower buds. With a lack of a trace element, the leaves turn yellow and fall off, the development of plants slows down. Nitrogen is especially important in the early stages when the plantings are entering a period of active growth.
Diammofoska does not contain nitrates that can accumulate in soil and plants. Nitrogen is present in the fertilizer as ammonium. This shape reduces nitrogen loss through evaporation, moisture and wind. Most of the substance is absorbed by plants.
Phosphorus contributes to the formation of plant cells, participates in the metabolism, reproduction and respiration of cells. Its deficiency leads to the appearance of a purple color and deformation of the leaves.
Phosphorus in diammofoske is present as oxides, which are well absorbed by garden crops and stored in the soil. The amount of phosphorus in the fertilizer is about 20%. In its pure form, the trace element slowly penetrates into the soil, therefore it is more often applied in the fall.
When diammophoska comes into contact with the soil, phosphates break down and spread much faster. Therefore, fertilizer is applied at any time during the season.
Potassium ensures the transport of nutrients to the roots of plants. As a result, crop resistance to diseases and unfavorable weather conditions increases. With a lack of a trace element, the leaves turn pale, dry out, and stain.
Rules for the use of growth stimulants
Unlike fertilizers, growth regulators do not contain any additional nutrients. Their use is aimed primarily at accelerating growth and increasing the quality and quantity of the harvest.
For good results, the processing process is repeated several times. The drugs are used both against a specific problem associated with the growth or development of a plant, and for the purpose of prevention. However, it is important to remember the instructions. If the specified norm is exceeded, you can not wait at all.
Do not forget about the observance of safety rules:
- It is necessary to start work only with special protective clothing, respirator, gloves.
- Do not use food containers.
- When working with stimulants, you should refrain from drinking, eating and smoking.
- If the substance gets on an open area of the skin, it is necessary to completely wash it off with soap.
- If a growth stimulant has entered the esophagus or stomach, activated charcoal can be used. Drinking plenty of water will also help.
The rational use of stimulants will ultimately not only contribute to an increase in yield, but also improve soil fertility, the quality of fruits without harming the plants themselves.
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Where to store seeds at home?
At home, seeds are best stored in thick paper bags placed in plastic containers or small bottles. Incompletely used seeds are left in purchased bags, carefully rolled up and protected from moisture. To store them, it is best to sprinkle a little dried flour, cornstarch or other moisture-absorbing material on the bottom of a glass jar. Place the packed bags on top and close the lid tightly.
It is best to store seeds on the bottom shelf of your refrigerator or in a separate cool room. Some well-dried seeds (dill, fennel, carrots, parsley, lettuce) are conveniently stored in glass jars. In dense foil bags, the seeds suffocate after 1-2 years and lose their germination or die altogether.
6 little-known rules for storing seeds - garden and vegetable garden
It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are an essential part of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Of particular value are vitamins, which are either almost absent or present in small doses in other products. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that difficult. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.
So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.
To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.
They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.
Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.
Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.
Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is unsuitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.
Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).
Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).
Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.
Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.
Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.
Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but it is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers.Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).
Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-illuminated area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of woody plant roots in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.
The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.
The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.
When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.
The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, take care of plants and harvest.
Secrets of growing squash
How to grow a tasty and very useful plant, which is still underestimated by our gardeners?
Rarely in what garden you will find squash now. Everyone was carried away by zucchini and pumpkins, because it is known how useful and fruitful they are. And their closest relative, the squash is undeservedly forgotten.
Young (certainly young!) Squash fruits have a high nutritional value. They taste like artichoke and asparagus. For us, this is something unknown, and gourmets - the French even call the squash the Jerusalem artichoke. But in canned form, squash is clearly appreciated in our country, because from the jars where they float in a fragrant marinade along with cucumbers, they are caught in the first place. Their flesh is firm, crispy and at the same time tender. Their fruits contain a lot of sugars, vitamins, pectin. They contain a large percentage of dry matter. This means that delicious pancakes can be baked from the squash. They are also good in fried, stewed, boiled forms. Stuffed squash is a festive table decoration. He is extraordinarily handsome. The only drawback is the intricate shape of the fruit, which makes it difficult to peel. So, you need to use it in a young form along with the peel.
Squash fruits are very useful for obesity, anemia, kidney disease. They have choleretic properties, and are also recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases, because they contain a lot of potassium salts. They are also very beautiful. Snow-white, creamy, light green, bright orange and even lilac fruit plates with scalloped edges often decorate vegetable growers' exhibitions. There are also dark green and even speckled fruits.
Agrotechnics of patisson
The planting site is chosen warm and sunny, protected from northern winds, because the squash is more thermophilic than the vegetable marrow. Roots are especially fond of warmth. You can sow on beds with a distance between the bushes of at least 80-100 cm, because the bushes of the squash are very large. Since it is often enough to have only one or three bushes on the farm, you can plant them one at a time at the ends of the ridges with other vegetables. Squash bushes are able to beautifully complete a garden with carrots or beets. Why not plant a bush in the most unexpected place to decorate your garden? It turns out very impressive. I successfully grow squash in an old barrel, I get very large yields. Leaves on long stalks hang down, covering all defects on the walls of the barrel. It turns out a beautiful bush, as if it is standing in a vase.
The soil must be fertile, well-seasoned with organic matter. On lean soil, small fruits grow with a tough skin and little tasty pulp. Patisson, like other pumpkin crops, does not tolerate acidic soils. The optimum acidity is pH 6.5–7.5. It grows well after carrots, tomatoes, beets, green crops. The depth of the fertile layer is on the bayonet of the shovel.
Sowing. You can sow with dry seeds under a film at the end of May, when the soil warms up, or at the beginning of June. Seeding depth - 5 cm. Seedlings must be covered from night frosts. In the afternoon, in warm weather, it is better to remove the film from seedlings. Then they will grow stronger.
If you want to get an earlier and plentiful harvest, it is better to pre-grow the seedlings. The seedlings are 25–30 days old, which means sowing should be around April 20–25. Since the squash suffers from transplants, each plant must be grown in its own vessel - a peat pot, or better - in a paper cup, because the pots are sometimes very tough, and the roots grow poorly through them. Just in case of emergency, it is worth sowing 2-3 seeds in each vessel. They are laid flat to a depth of 2-3 cm, covered with foil, and placed in a warm place. When shoots loops appear from the ground (after about 5-7 days), the pots should be transferred to a bright place, put them in a cooler place at night - 15 ... 18oС degrees, so that the seedlings do not stretch out. When the cotyledons unfold, the film must be removed. In the phase of the 2-3rd true leaf, the extra, the weakest plants in the pot must be cut off.
In early June, you can plant seedlings in the ground along with a pot. You can grow seedlings in plastic cups, then when planting in the ground, you need to try not to disturb the earthen lump with roots. They are planted about 1 cm deeper than it was in the pot. Before planting in the ground, the seedlings must be hardened in the open air for at least a week, otherwise it will cause an ultraviolet burn of the leaves, as well as shock from the wind and night cold: the leaves can shrink, growth will stop, and the entire effect of early sowing on seedlings will be lost. After planting in the ground, seedlings should be watered with warm water and shaded with newspaper until they take root.
Leaving is weeding, loosening. It is necessary to loosen it taking into account the fact that the root system of the squash is shallow. Starting from the 3-4 leaf phase, the plants are gradually spud to form additional roots. Water the squash if necessary, not often, but abundantly, not with cold water. They are fed with slurry, herbal infusions, mineral fertilizers - according to the instructions for them. Mineral and organic dressings alternate. The first feeding is done when the plant, after planting in the ground, will grow, then every 7-10 days.
With a strong thickening of the bush, 2-3 leaves are cut out of it, one leaf per week, to enhance airing. Over time, the lower aging layer of leaves is also cut out. In a cold, damp summer, you can cover the roots with a film - for warmth. It is always good to mulch the roots with humus.
Squash are cross-pollinated plants. Therefore, it is required that other pumpkin plants grow nearby. Sometimes you need to help them in pollination by working as a "bee".
Harvest. Patisson is a plant of continuous fruiting. As soon as one fruit is cut, the next one begins to grow on the bush. While the fruit is growing, it delays the formation of new ovaries and their growth. Therefore, it is not necessary to grow fruits to a very large size, so as not to delay fruiting. In addition, large fruits have a rough skin. Large fruits are grown only for exhibitions and for winter storage. Ripe fruits can be stored indoors for several months. For food, you need to remove young ovaries with a diameter of no more than 10-12 cm. At this time, they are tender, suitable for any dishes. For canning, you need to collect fruits with a diameter of 4–5 cm. Fruits of a larger diameter will have to be cut into slices, and this turns out to be less interesting.
Squash varieties White - 13 - belong to the mid-season and high-yielding variety of squash. The fruits are white and medium in size. Bush-shaped plants. As a rule, the fruits are ready for harvest, 60 days after the first sunrises appear. Disc - refers to the early maturing and fruitful variety of squash. Fruits are small, pale green in color. This variety is well suited for canning. Orange is a mid-season, high-yielding variety of squash. Fruits are large in size, resembling a plate. The color of this fruit is golden. It has good taste and nutritional qualities. Pyatina is an early ripe variety of squash, very productive. The fruits are of medium size. Squash of this variety has a pale green color and rounded, with jagged edges of the shape. The fruits are usually harvested 80 days after the first sunrise. Rodeo F1 is an early, very productive squash variety, bush-shaped. The fruits are very tender, white in color. This variety has an inherent piquant taste. Umbrella is an early ripe variety of squash. The fruit is cupped or bell-shaped with jagged edges, the weight of which can reach up to 1.4 kg, the surface is smooth, sometimes slightly hilly, whitish or light green. The pulp is white, firm. Chunga - Changa - An early ripe variety of squash. Bush plant. The fruit is disc-shaped, with a jagged edge, weighing up to 400 g. The color of the fruit is dark green. The pulp is tender, dense, juicy. Good taste. Relatively resistant to powdery mildew. It is used for canning and home cooking. The sun is a mid-season variety of squash. The plant is bushy, not branching. The fruit is plate-shaped, with jagged edges, smooth, weighing up to 300 g, bright yellow when ripe. The pulp is creamy. Recommended for garden plots, home farms, canning and home cooking. Varieties
The most famous old varieties - mid-season White 13, Orange, Solnyshko - are beautiful, moderately fruitful. More interesting are the new varieties and hybrids that yield significantly higher yields.
Variety Disk - early maturing, forms disc-shaped smooth fruits of white color, stored for a long time. Very productive. The pulp is white, not very juicy.
The Umbrella variety has been known for a long time. The fruit is cupped, the upper part is in the form of a cone. The pulp is white, firm.
The Cheburashka variety is early ripe, has a powerful bush, a white dish-shaped fruit, its flesh is white, tender, juicy. The variety is fruitful, cold-resistant.
Latest news: Gosha variety. Powerful plant. Fruits of lilac color, exotic for squash. Variety Piglet - early maturing, bush plant, with small leaves. Fruits are white, weighing up to 200-300 g. The flesh of both varieties is white, juicy, dense. The Chunga-changa variety is known - an early ripe variety, a bush type plant, fruits weighing 300-350 g, dark green. The pulp is creamy, tender, juicy. Dingo-Dingo - similar to the previous one, and the fruits of its interesting lilac-green color. Pirouette is a bush type plant with light fruits.
Of particular note is the new mid-early hybrid of the patisson-mini Solar Blast F1. The period from sowing to the beginning of fruiting is 45-50 days. It is intended for obtaining mini-squash for whole-fruit canning. Fruits are bright yellow, weighing 70–100 g. The pulp is creamy, dense, with a small amount of seeds. Fruits outgrow very slowly. The plant is bushy, compact.