The lychee fruit tree (Litchi chinensis), also called the Chinese litchi, is a member of the Sapindaceae family. It is also called fox, Chinese plum, liji or laysi. There is documentary evidence that such a plant was grown in China as early as the second century BC. Today, such a plant is cultivated in all countries of Southeast Asia. Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza wrote that this fruit is similar to a plum, it does not burden the stomach, and it can be eaten in any volume, which is why he called such a plant "Chinese plum". This culture was brought to Europe by the French botanist Pierre Sonner, who traveled to China and Southeast Asia. It happened in the 18th century.
Lychee fruit is eaten canned or fresh, it is used to make jelly, ice cream and other desserts, and it is also used to make traditional Chinese wine.
Lychee is an evergreen tree with a spreading crown. Such a tree, growing in natural conditions, can reach a height of 10-30 meters. The composition of complex pinnate leaf plates includes from 4 to 8 leaf plates of an elongated ovoid or lanceolate shape with a pointed apex. The front surface of the plates is dark green and shiny, and the back is pale gray. Lush umbrella-shaped inflorescences reach 0.7 m in length, they consist of flowers that do not have petals, but consist only of cups of a pale yellow or light green color. The inflorescences include a large number of flowers, but no more than 15 ovaries of all develop into the fruits, while the remaining ones die off. The length of the fruit, covered with a red skin, can vary from 25 to 40 mm, there are many sharp tubercles on the surface. Inside the fruit there is a jelly-like pulp of light color and sweet taste, it leaves the rind very easily and has a slightly perceptible wine aftertaste. In the center of the fruit there is a dark brown oval pit. In lychees growing in the tropics, fruit ripening is observed in May or June.
Growing lychee from a bone
In the middle latitudes, lychee is considered an outlandish plant; therefore, it is rather difficult to buy seedlings of such a culture in a garden pavilion. However, you can try to grow such a tree from a bone in indoor conditions. To do this, get a ripe fruit with a strong smell, translucent juicy pulp and red skin. The bone must be removed from the pulp, it is wrapped in moistened gauze or cloth. For 7 days, you need to ensure that the wrapper is slightly damp all the time.
The tissue must be removed from the swollen bone, after which it is planted in a pot, at the bottom of which there is a drainage hole. At the bottom of the pot, first you need to lay out a drainage layer of expanded clay, after which it is filled with a flower soil mixture. It is only necessary to deepen the bone into the substrate by 20 mm. When planting several seeds, the chances that a seedling will appear increases several times. When the seed is planted, the substrate in the container must be moistened with lukewarm water. The seed should germinate at a temperature of 25 to 30 degrees, it is very important to ensure that the substrate in the pot is constantly slightly damp. The first seedlings should appear in about 7-30 days, but this may happen later.
After the first leaf plates of a light red color grow in the seedling that has appeared, the container must be rearranged on a sunny windowsill, while the plant should be protected from direct sunlight. A plant is transplanted into a larger pot during the formation of a 4 or 5 leaf plate. In order for the seedlings to develop normally, they need a long day of light, at least 12 hours. The air temperature in the room throughout the year should not drop below 20 degrees.
Lychee care at home
How to water
Lychee is a tropical moisture-loving plant, in this regard, a young bush must be moistened twice a day from a sprayer with boiled or filtered water. The plant should be watered moderately and systematically, for this you need to use filtered or separated water for two days, while it should be at room temperature. Experienced growers advise using bottom watering, for this you need to regularly add water to the pan.
It is necessary to water the bush in such a way that it does not suffer from a lack or an excess of moisture in the root system. At the same time, the room must constantly have high humidity.
The first feeding of the lychee should be done 3 months after the seedling appears. After that, feeding is stopped until the tree is at least 1 year old. Starting from the second year of life, feeding is carried out 1 or 2 times in 4 weeks, for this, a solution of complex mineral fertilizers in moderate concentration is used. Organic fertilizers can also be used to feed lychee, for example, a mullein solution (1:15) is well suited. Thanks to top dressing, the formation of buds is improved, and the bush is also stimulated to bear fruit.
Such a plant is slow-growing, so it needs to be cut very rarely. During the first 2 years, you need to deal with the formation of the crown of the plant. After that, the shape needs only to be maintained, for this by systematically shortening the excessively long stems. If a lot of time has passed, and there are still no fruits on the tree, then you should not be upset, because such an exotic tree is still quite rare.
Lychee has a fairly high resistance to disease. A tree can only get sick if it is not properly cared for. If you water the bush too abundantly, then rot may appear on the root system. If the plant does not have enough water, then it will become lethargic and begin to wither. By providing the lychee with proper care, you can protect it from all diseases.
This crop is also highly resistant to pests. However, spider mites, whiteflies, mealybugs, aphids, thrips or scale insects can move to the bush from other indoor flowers. In this regard, the plant needs a systematic thorough examination, if pests or signs of their presence are noticed on it, then try to start their destruction immediately. To do this, the affected plant must be sprayed with acaricide or insecticide, while the solution must be prepared in accordance with the instructions on the package.
Why is Lychee sick? Does not grow, leaves turn yellow. And at the beginning about the weather))))
Types and varieties of lychee
A fairly large number of varieties and hybrids of lychee were bred, but such a plant is widespread only in Asia. The most popular are the following cultivars:
- Green dangling... The tree is covered with leafy plates of a pale green color. On the surface of the fruit there is a barely distinguishable green strip. The fruits remain fresh and do not lose their taste even three days after the peel is removed from them.
- Glutinous rice balls... The dense flesh of these fruits has a sweet honey taste. They are covered with a red skin, on which there are no tubercles. The stone of such fruits is much smaller in comparison with other varieties, or there is none at all.
- Sweet osmanthus... The sweet fruit has an osmanthus aroma. They are covered with a very bumpy skin of a rich red color.
- Green Yatu... There is a dark green speck on the peel of the fruit.
- Black leaf... This variety is early maturing. Fruits are fleshy, they are covered with a rind that secretes juice, similar to red ink.
- May red... This variety is the earliest. Fruits are harvested already in May.
- Concubine smile... This variety is very ancient and early maturing. The fruit and the peel with which they are covered give off a red juice.
Lychee fruit properties: harm and benefit
Lychee fruits contain many substances that are beneficial to the human body, for example: vitamins E, K, C, H, PP and group B (B1, B3, B6), magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, iodine, manganese, zinc, selenium, iron, calcium, potassium, pectins and organic acids. In oriental medicine, such fruits are used in order to normalize sugar levels in diabetes mellitus, improve the activity of the liver, kidneys and lungs, and they also help in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. In case of cardiovascular diseases, it is also recommended to eat lychee, because the pulp of the fruit contains potassium. They are also very useful for high blood cholesterol levels, anemia, bowel disorders and pancreatic diseases. In Hindu medicine, such fruits are considered an aphrodisiac that improves male strength and sex drive.
FACES USE AND HARM | what are the benefits of lychee, useful properties of lychee calorie content
Lychee fruits are contraindicated only for those who have an individual intolerance. There are no other contraindications for such fruits. However, stale fruits with a dark peel should not be eaten, because they can cause intestinal upset.
How to grow lychee at home?
Lychee is a tropical evergreen tree. Lychee leaves have an oblong pointed shape. The tree bears fruit: its small red fruits are similar to strawberries, but with white flesh and large brown pits, ripen within 120-130 days after flowering. Lychee fruit is sweetish, with a pleasant smell, slightly astringent, and tastes like grapes. Lychee can reach 35 meters in height. The tree is propagated in different ways, but we will describe below how you can grow lychees from a bone.
Description of pomegranate
In its natural habitat, this perennial plant grows massively in the Eastern Transcaucasia, Central Asia. In the west, the natural habitat of the pomegranate tree captures the coast in Asia Minor, and the southern limit reaches the coastal zone of the Arabian Sea.
The word "pomegranate" is of Latin origin and translated into Russian means "grainy". This definition is best suited to describe the mouth-watering, sweet juice, seeds of the tree, which are hidden under a very dense skin. In ancient times, the fruits of this plant were called "grainy apples", and only later, in the Middle Ages - "seed apples".
Pomegranate tree at home
In nature, pomegranate is a fairly tall tree, reaching a height of 5-6 m, growing mainly in a subtropical climate. The fruit plant prefers hot, humid air and maximum sunlight.
In other conditions, the seeds of a deciduous tree practically do not germinate, and from the emerged specimens, weak, painful plants grow, which eventually die.
When grown at home, pomegranate grows as a small decorative bush, maximum 1m in height. Fruit size does not exceed 4-6 cm in diameter. The leaves are light green in color, they are small.
This fruit crop is characterized as a very attractive, spreading plant with a gorgeous crown and a slender trunk. The shape of the flower is funnel-shaped with orange-red coloration. As soon as the flowering period ends on the tree, fruits appear in the form of a ball, rather large in size and having a leathery pericarp.
The plant has a lifespan of 50-60 years. Upon reaching this age, the trees must be replaced with young ones, since they lose the ability to bear fruit and their agricultural purpose.
During flowering, the bush is abundantly strewn with tubular flowers similar to the horn of a gramophone. They are short-lived and wither for 3-4 days. One of the features of a tropical culture is the continuous formation of new buds. The effect of constant flowering is created, lasting from May to September.
The first harvest can already be obtained in the third year after planting, the fruits ripen in the second half of autumn. It is more efficient to propagate pomegranate by means of cuttings, but, with proper agricultural technology, it is possible to grow it from seeds, seeds.
Rules for the careful care of exotic fruit
When the tree begins to take root and rise above the ground, it needs to be provided with enough light. The ideal place for him is the sill of a large window. It is important that the plant has access to lighting for 12 hours a day. In winter, wise gardeners use artificial lighting.
Home care for a lychee tree provides for competent watering. The plant does not like extreme drought, as well as excess moisture. Therefore, it is advisable to constantly monitor him. If the humidity in the house is low, the seedling should be sprayed with a spray bottle. For this, the water is first defended in order to clear it of large impurities and bring it to room temperature. Otherwise, the plant may suffer.
It is important to feed the plant in a timely manner. The first time this should be done 3 months after planting. To do this, use a top dressing that is rich in minerals. The next dose is applied when the tree is 1 year old. After another year, fertilizers are poured into the soil every 2 months. Thanks to competent feeding, a magnificent lychee tree will grow in the house, as shown in the photo provided.
The plant is only pruned in the first two years to give it a beautiful shape. Subsequently, only dried branches or foliage are removed. If you do frequent pruning, the process of formation of paniculate inflorescences is disrupted. This means that the fruits will not appear soon. Despite this, many gardeners admire the lychee tree at home. It might be worth trying to grow an exotic tree and enjoy the taste of the overseas fruit.
Lychee transplant - video
Many exotic plants can be obtained from seeds. How to grow lychee from a bone at home, consider the photo below. In wildlife, this evergreen fruit tree reaches a height of 10-30 m! Small elongated fruits with a red skin have a sweetish taste. The skin is completely covered with pointed tubercles. The peel is easily separated from the pulp, which tastes like grapes. The fruit slightly knits the mouth. If you plant a dark brown oval bone in the ground, a sprout will hatch from it.
Useful qualities of pomegranate
And its juice contains glucose, fructose, acids (apple, lemon, wine, oxalic, boric, amber and others), chloride and sulfate salts, tannin, phytoncides, nitrogenous, tannins.
Pomegranate is a storehouse of vitamins
Due to the presence in the pomegranate of all these useful substances for the human body, and determines its healing qualities. It is recommended for use to improve blood formation, quench thirst, to activate the production of hemoglobin, and the formation of erythrocytes in the blood.
And also to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, the nervous system and raise immunity.
Elderly people are also prescribed pomegranate to recuperate in the postoperative period. Pomegranate grains contain vitamin K, which is necessary for normal metabolism in connective tissues and bones, and is also needed for the absorption of calcium.
Drinking pomegranate juice can help normalize blood pressure
It is recommended as a hematopoietic agent for diseases of the cardiovascular system, circulatory system, respiratory system, kidney, liver.
Women during menopause can also include pomegranate in their diet to relieve symptoms, since it contains estrogens. Tropical fruit helps well in depressive conditions.
Pomegranate is quite popular in vegetarian cuisine.
Considering 15 amino acids in the composition of its juice, most of which are found in meat. It turns out that for people who have completely abandoned meat products, this exotic fruit can fully compensate for the lack of protein.
Another useful quality of pomegranate juice is the presence of a diuretic and choleretic effect, as well as anesthetic and anti-inflammatory effects.
The use of pomegranate has been observed to help with scurvy, uric acid diathesis, atherosclerosis, headaches and gastrointestinal disorders. For people who have undergone radiation, living in an area of increased radiation and whose work is associated with radioactive isotopes, it is definitely recommended to use this fruit.
Patients suffering from anemia, hypertension, bronchial asthma, malaria and diabetes mellitus are also prescribed pomegranate.
Due to the content of alkaloids in the pomegranate peel, the fruit has a strong antihelminthic property
For inflammatory processes in the liver, kidneys, joints, eyes, it is good to use a decoction based on pomegranate peel... Especially, it is good to use it for sore throats, problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
It is known to use pomegranate peel powder slightly fried in olive or butter for cosmetic purposes, as a remedy for oily skin of the face, for the treatment of various injuries of the skin.
The use of pomegranate seeds is quite actively used to improve the work of the intestines, in addition, they are a source of useful pomegranate oil, in which there is a high concentration of fat-soluble vitamins E, F.
They are necessary for rapid healing of wounds, restoration of epidermal cells, for rejuvenation and protection of the body from the development of cancer. With the help of pomegranate extract, you can restore the skin from sunburn.
Contraindications regarding the use of pomegranate
It is not advisable for people suffering from gastritis with high acidity, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer to consume pomegranate juice saturated with acids. If there is a need for its use, then it must be diluted with water.
In addition, pure pomegranate juice can corrode tooth enamel, therefore, immediately after drinking it, it is recommended to brush your teeth, rinse your mouth well with water.
If a person has intestinal problems, constipation, then the fixing property of an exotic fruit can exacerbate this problem. In case of an overdose of decoction from the peel, malaise, dizziness, convulsions may occur, and blood pressure will greatly increase.
In order to prevent a deterioration in general well-being, it is recommended to consult a doctor before using pomegranate decoctions.
VIDEO: HOW TO GROW POMEGRANATE ON THE WINDOW
HOW TO GROW POMEGRANATE ON THE WINDOW
Pomegranate at home: growing from a stone and care, useful properties and contraindications (Photo & Video) + Reviews
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