Madder (Rubia) is a perennial flowering plant of the Madder family, which has about 80 varieties. These representatives of the flora are found in the southern part of Europe, in the tropical and middle latitudes of Asia, Africa and America. Among the numerous species forms of this family, the dye madder (Rubia tinctorum) is of particular interest to gardeners. Madder dye is grown for the purpose of producing red paint. The genus name means "red", which clearly demonstrates the properties of the plant. The people have long known the value of madder, so the perennial is popular in many gardens and suburban areas.
Description and characteristics of madder
Madder has a thick rhizome with a massive central root, the surface of which is covered with a layer of brown-red bark. The stems are quite fragile, highly branched and contain four faces. They rest on their edges on spiky needles with twisted ends and start growing closer to May. The leaf plates look like an ellipse and are tough to the touch. The leaves, painted in a pale green tone, have curved spines on both sides. Collecting several pieces on the stem, the plates form whorls. The size of the whorls does not exceed 10 cm. In some species the leaves are sessile, while in others they are petiolate.
The flowers resemble small yellow stars. A funnel-shaped corolla emerges from the center of the bud. Flowers form semi-umbrellas at the top. The opening of the buds occurs in early summer and lasts three months. Ripe fruits are called black drupes. Their length is about 9 mm. The ripening period lasts from August to November. The plant demonstrates the ability to bear fruit in the first year of life.
Planting madder outdoors
This perennial prefers regions with a warm, humid climate and places high demands on the composition of the soil. The root system is so developed that the rhizome can deepen by 35 cm.Consequently, a looser and more fertile soil is chosen for planting madder. This is the only way to achieve a decent harvest. Perfect for growing madder loam rich in humus and nutrients. The plant will develop better in areas where winter crops of grain, feed, vegetables were previously grown.
Before you start sowing madder, the soil is thoroughly plowed. Moreover, the depth to which it is necessary to lower the shovel should be equal to the width of the shovel blade. A couple of kilograms of organic fertilizer, for example, humus and compost, are applied per square meter of the plot. Then do the cultivation of the ridge.
The seeds are processed before being sent to the ground. To process 1 kg of seed, you need to take 2 g of Granosan. In the southern regions, perennial seeds are allowed to be sown directly into the soil, starting in mid-April. By this time, the soil has already warmed up well. The sowing depth should be at least 4 cm, and the width between the individual rows should be 45 cm. Under favorable climatic conditions, the first shoots are expected to appear after 2-3 weeks. If the frost returns and the spring is too cold, the seeds will be able to sprout much later. Perhaps the germination process will take another 30-40 days. The optimum temperature for the successful development of seeds is considered to be between 23 and 25 ºC.
The method of grafting is considered to be no less effective. Pieces of the rhizome are cut off as cuttings and planted in pre-dug furrows to a depth of 8 to 10 cm, keeping an interval between individual furrows of at least 10 cm. The furrows are covered with a layer of earth, tamped down and watered abundantly.
Madder care in the garden
As mentioned earlier, madder is capable of bearing fruit already in the first year of life. However, do not expect a large harvest. After two or three years, the bushes will bear fruit much better.
An important condition for proper care of madder is abundant watering and loosening of the soil, weeding and removal of weeds. During the season, the soil on the site is loosened 3-4 times, paying special attention to the aisles. Hand weeding is considered to be of better quality. With the arrival of autumn, madder is huddled, and in the spring, frozen ground leaves and shoots are cut off from the bushes. The soil is enriched with mineral fertilizers, for example, complexes consisting of nitrogen and phosphorus. For 1 sq.m. the area with plantings is applied about 3 g of fertilizer.
Collection and storage of madder
For medicinal purposes, the madder roots are prepared. They are dug up only from adult plants that have been growing in one place for 2-3 years. Harvesting is carried out in August or September at the end of fruiting. The underground parts are carefully removed from the ground, shaken off and evenly distributed in a thin layer on a newspaper sheet. Peeled roots cannot be washed, they are dried raw in a bright room where the sun is available. Traces of sand are scraped off slightly dried roots and sent to dry them in a dark ventilated room. Some people use an oven to dry the raw materials, but the setting should be set to 45 ºC or less. The prepared raw materials are stored in a clean glass jar under a lid. Shelf life of the roots is approximately 2 years, then they lose their medicinal properties.
Types and varieties of madder with a photo
As cultivated inhabitants of the garden, gardeners prefer to breed the following species.
Madder (Rubia cordifolia)
Herbaceous perennial that lives in nature in the corners of Siberia, Primorsky Krai and the Amur region. Cultural plantings of this species of madder are widespread at the Cape of Good Hope or along the Nile coast. The plant is grown for industrial and medical purposes and is used in the production of dyeing synthetic materials.
Marena Georgian (Rubia iberica)
Grows in the Crimea and the Caucasus. Unlike the previous type, the bushes look much more massive. The leaf blades are pubescent and ovoid. The plant is found in Iran, Syria.
The other varieties of perennials are practically not cultivated.
Medicinal properties of madder
Madder roots contain lucidin, purpurin, free alizarin, haliosin, a number of organic and inorganic acids, pectin substances, sugars, calcium and potassium in the composition of salts. Galenic components were found in plant tissues, which are responsible for the excretion of urates, oxalates, phosphates and purify the body. These substances are an excellent diuretic, choleretic and antispasmodic agent.
In folk medicine, madder raw materials are used to treat kidney diseases, inflammatory processes occurring in the digestive organs, as well as for constipation, cystitis, gout and polyarthritis.
The herbal parts of madder effectively cure various bone diseases, for example, rickets, caries or tuberculosis. Tinctures are prescribed to drink for women experiencing problems with the menstrual cycle. The substances found in the tissues of the herb help relieve inflammation of the spleen. The healing power and value of the plant is mentioned even in the writings of Hippocrates, Galen and many ancient healers who learned to use madder dye during their lifetime to treat diseases of the kidneys, liver and heal wounds.
In Tibet, folk healers worship the madder.
The main value of this herbaceous flowering representative of the flora is to dissolve and remove stones from the liver and kidneys. Through numerous studies, scientists have found that a 5% solution of dried madder powder has a positive effect on the kidney stone, loosening its structure. If the extract is used regularly for two weeks, the stone is destroyed and completely excreted from the body in the form of fine sand. Simply put, madder raw materials avoid surgery and heal much faster.
Madder is dyeing. Treatment.
It is not recommended to use drugs made on the basis of madder for patients with glomerulonephritis, ulcers, gastritis and renal failure, since there is a possibility of rejection of the components by the body. Pregnant and breastfeeding children, young children should also refrain from taking raw materials. Overdose symptoms are irritation of the gastric mucosa, acute pain and inflammation of the urinary tract.
Morena honeysuckle variety
Morena is an early maturing variety of domestic selection of honeysuckle, bred in the city of St.Petersburg at the Pavlovsk experimental station of the V.I. N.I. Vavilov through crossing elite forms N 101 and N 21-5. The authorship belongs to M.N. Plekhanova and A.V. Kondrikova. In 1995, the variety was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation in all regions. Its other names are: The Little Mermaid, No. 689−42. This is one of the best varieties for growing in the Northwest.
Photo by: Sattarova Naylya, Sverdlovsk region
Bushes of medium vigor, wide (up to 1.7 m in height, up to 1.7 m in diameter), with a neat squat oval crown, not prone to thickening. The leaves are large, lanceolate (elongated-oval) with a wedge-shaped base, bright light green color. The leaf blade is dense, weakly folded along the midrib. Slightly curved shoots, thin, non-pubescent, colored brownish-green. Due to their visual appeal, Morena shrubs are often used for decorative purposes in the embodiment of garden design.
The fruits of this honeysuckle are large (in length - up to 2.5 - 3 cm, in diameter - up to 1.1 cm, weighing more than 1.0 - 1.3 g, maximum up to 3.5 g), one-dimensional, elongated jug-like forms, with a translucent thin skin and slightly hilly surface. The color of the berries is blue-blue, the skin is covered with a strong waxy bloom. The berry taste is pleasant sweet and sour, dessert type, without bitterness. The pulp is tender, soft, slightly aromatic. Tasting assessment of the taste of the variety - 4.5 points out of 5 possible.
By chemical composition, the fruits contain: dry matter (13.6%), the amount of sugars (7.8%), acids (2.3%), ascorbic acid (54 mg / 100 g). A universal variety, very tasty desserts are obtained from berries (jams, jelly, etc.). Transportability is good.
Depending on the growing conditions, the fruits ripen from mid-June to early July. It is noted that in the conditions of Moscow and the Moscow region, the process of full ripening is completed 5 - 7 days earlier than varieties of Moscow selection, while ripe berries remain fresh on the branches for a long time, do not wither and do not crumble. In general, the crumbling rate of ripe berries is low.
It is believed that the yield of this honeysuckle is above average. But still Morena is not classified as a high-yielding variety. During the season, an average of up to 1.2 - 1.5 kg of berries (or 53.3 centners / ha) are harvested from one bush. The maximum yield in certain favorable years is 2.5 kg of berries per bush.
The variety is fast-growing, resistant to low temperatures (winter hardiness is above average). Rarely affected by diseases and pests.
Morena's honeysuckle is self-fertile. Among its best pollinators, the varieties Viola and Blue Spindle are distinguished. Other pollinating varieties: Amphora, Kamchadalka, Malvina, Pamyat Kuminov, Blue Bird, Start. Other shrubs of the same variety are also used for pollination.
This honeysuckle is used in breeding work as a large-fruited donor.
The main advantages of the variety include: large berries, dessert taste of fruits, early ripening, low shedding, early maturity, yield.
From furrow to harvest
In the Western Caucasus, the presence of fertile lands and favorable climatic conditions made it possible to engage in agriculture on a large scale. Agriculture was developed in the Sochi, Tsemesskaya, Sudzhuk and Adagum valleys, in the basins of the Psekupsa and Pshish rivers, on the left banks of the Kuban and Laba. Even among the Kuban Nogais in the first half of the 19th century, there was an intensive process of transition from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism and agriculture. In agriculture, one-, two- and three-field, as well as fallow-transfer systems were used. During the latter, after several years of cultivation, the land was left to rest, transferring the plowing to new virgin or fallow lands. The predominant agricultural crops in the Western Caucasus were winter wheat, corn, barley and millet. They grew a lot of tobacco and tea. Horticulture and gardening were of great help in the economy. The orchards in the gorges of the rivers Ashe, Kudepsta, Khosta, Shakhe, in the Gostagakey tract, Vardane district, etc. were especially famous for fruits and berries. The Circassians widely used the method of cultivating fruit species by grafting wild trees with cuttings of cultivated fruit plants.
The inhabitants of the Black Sea coast were engaged in viticulture. The grapes were grown in Abkhazia, in the Psezuapse valley, Vardane, Sochi and other places. "Arable farming, - wrote to F. F. Thornau, - is located in Abkhazia, as in all mountains, in the most primitive state and is limited to a small sowing of gommi (millet), corn, barley, beans and tobacco. Very little wheat is sown. The Russians taught the Abkhazians to breed cabbage, potatoes and some other vegetables. Abkhazia is extremely rich in grapes and various fruits, especially pears, plums and peaches, growing without any care ... "
In the article “Abkhaz winemaking” S. Bshuaa writes: “In the national Nart epic ... there is a legend“ The Great Jug ”, which tells that the vineyards of the Narts, the ancestors of today's Abkhazians, were vast and famous for abundant harvests. Winemaking was carried out by a man named Sith, who knew his business like no other and kept wine in earthen jugs. On both sides of the Caucasian ridge, perhaps, there is no place where people would not find in the ground the remains of Nart jugs, very convenient for storing wine: over time, it became fragrant, like strawberries, retained the freshness and taste of grapes for a long time. The jugs were of different sizes ... The largest, "great" jug was considered Wadzamakat, which contained the contents of six hundred ordinary Nart jugs used for water ... As the epic goes on, Wadzamakat had special properties. It, for example, constantly contained finely chopped pieces of a red snake, which helped the wine to make any sled even more powerful. In addition, the wine in the Wazamakat jug never ran out. And when the sledges began to divide the property among themselves, Wazamakyat turned out to be the cause of heated disputes - everyone wanted to possess this sacred jug. Finally Sasrykva (the hundredth brother of the Narts, born by the omnipotent mother Satanei-Guascha in an unnatural way - by carving out of the rock) suggested: “Let each of us tell about his exploits. The most amazing feat will make the wine bubble up in Wazamakyat. That will get the jug. " The nart worker Bzheikua-Bzhashla (Semi-Black-Half-gray) won, for he did not have time to finish his speech when the wine bubbled up in a jug. Then the enraged Sasrykva pulled Wadzamakyat out of the land and, saying that the jug was guilty of the strife of the Narts, threw it on the ground. And the "great jug" was smashed to smithereens. “There were grape seeds at the bottom of Wazamakyata. These seeds scattered on Alena's ground, and grape vines grew from them. And they were called Nart ... There was no wine in the world better than the wine extracted from the Nart vines, but alas! - this grape has degenerated. "
Until now, dozens (up to 60) names of Abkhaz grape varieties are known. Among them are black, red, dark purple and white varieties.
... Since ancient times, vineyards have occupied the main part of the Abkhaz estate. Grape seedlings are planted at the foot of the trees, they grow higher and higher up the trunk. As Sh. Inal-Ipa writes, “wealthy residents specially cultivated fenced alder groves on their vineyard plots called“ akuatsa ”.The grapes that have ripened on the tree, as a rule, have high taste and extraordinary aroma, because at that height there is practically no shade, there is free access to the sun's rays, and therefore ripening is much more efficient. However, it is not easy to care for such vineyards. Long before the onset of spring, or, as the Abkhazians say, before the trunk and branches of the vine are filled with water (adzahua adzy alalaandza), they free the vine and the tree itself from dry and unnecessary branches. At the same time, the root of the vine is fertilized with manure ... The grapes are usually harvested in October-November, sometimes in December. “According to old people, the best wines were obtained from grapes harvested with the onset of cold weather, already after the first snow fell,” Sh. Inal-Ipa points out ... Men of all ages, including old people, are engaged in the harvesting of grapes on the trees ... Bunches of grapes are picked and laid in a cone-shaped basket with a sharp end (amtsyshv), woven from twigs of hazel or other hard wood species. There is a hook attached to the handle, which allows you to hang the basket on a branch, there is also a long rope along which the basket goes down and up ... The second person picks up at the bottom and pours the grapes into a larger cylindrical basket woven from the same materials. The harvested grapes are delivered to a special room with the necessary means of winemaking. Indoors, they begin to squeeze out the grape juice.
... The most ancient and primitive method of obtaining juice, which survived until the second half of the 19th century in Abkhazia, was first described by F.F. Tornau in his memoirs published in 1864: “The inhabitants make a hole in the ground, cover it with clay and then burn it as much as necessary, spreading fire in it. Having trampled the grapes with their feet in this pit, they scoop out the wine when the juice has fermented, and store it in earthen jugs buried in the ground. "
Abkhazians, not dividing wines into dessert, dry, semi-dry, sweet, semi-sweet and fortified, usually distinguish only two types of wine: "male" ("ahatsa-yuy") and "female" ("akhvsa riyuy") wine. The first is stronger and more bitter in taste, they say about it "has power" ("amch amoup"), the second resembles a sweet or semi-sweet wine. "
In the Central Caucasus, the production of agricultural crops was most developed in Kabarda and the lowland regions of Ossetia. In the mountainous regions of Ossetia, Balkaria and Karachai, where the percentage of arable land was negligible, agriculture was of an auxiliary nature. The highlanders conquered every piece of land from nature, cutting down the forest, clearing areas of shrubs and stones, fertilizing and irrigating their small saban fields.
In the middle of the 19th century, there were several dozen large gardens in Kabarda. In Ossetia, horticulture was developed in the Alagir region. In neighboring Ingushetia, arable land was also small - about 12%. Many areas in the mountains were created from alluvial fertile soil and had to be maintained annually. Even in fruitful years, their grain was enough for a maximum of six months. In Ingushetia, gardening and horticulture have developed, including the cultivation of melons: watermelons, melons, pumpkins.
Agriculture in Chechnya and the foothills of Dagestan progressed, despite the hostilities. On the plain and at altitudes up to 1000 m above sea level, winter wheat was sown, corn and millet were sown higher - rye and barley. Highlanders bred early maturing, drought and frost-resistant wheat varieties. "Everywhere," wrote the chief of the left flank of the Caucasian line, Major General AP Pullo in 1839, "forests were cleared, and on vast stretches there were only sown fields irrigated by skillful canals." Chechen bread was used not only for domestic consumption, but was also exported for sale to Nagorny Dagestan, Kizlyar and other regions.
In the valley of the Terek River, melons and gourds were cultivated. Rice was also grown. Its crops expanded steadily, aided by a network of irrigation canals. So, if in 1811 501 and 4840 poods of rice were sown, then in 1835, respectively, 14 850 and 40 thousand poods. In mountainous areas, agriculture was of an auxiliary nature. Prince I. Orbeliani, who spent eight months in captivity with the highlanders in 1842, wrote: “Agriculture in Chechnya is quite good, but in the mountains it is in a miserable situation ... There are important reasons for this: there is little land in the mountains that is convenient for cultivation, and that of bad nature, there are few plant parts in it, mainly it consists of lime and sand, and therefore it must be managable; the limitations of cattle breeding, however, restrict agriculture. " The picture was similar in the mountainous regions of Dagestan. In the story "Caucasian Bogatyrs" V. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko wrote: “… Here every inch of land suitable for sowing must be won back from a stone. In the mountains, not only among the Koisubulians, but everywhere, even under relatively rich Sites, you can see how Lezgins with a sack tied to a belt, with a two-legged hook planted on a long stick, are looking for cracks to drive iron claws into there. And when they find it, they rise half a sixth, drive a nail between the stones over the abyss, stand on it and throw their claws further until they scratch themselves up to a few steps of the ground on the ledge where you can sow a handful of wheat ... the mountaineers brought fertile land there from the valleys on donkeys. How many times it was necessary to repeat this excursion to form narrow strips of land for sowing! Then from above, using some stream, water was drawn along all the terraces, so that not a single inch of the earth remained unirrigated. Then the bread was sown, from top to bottom. Harvesting was also carried out from top to bottom. Such treated terraces are now often found where the mountaineers remained in their places, the rest represent an abomination of desolation, from which it is hard on the soul. "
I. Orbeliani noted: “In some places only, on more gentle slopes, there are pastures, hayfields or fields sown with barley, spelled, corn and millet, but even those without flooded water would not have brought any fruit to the farmer. The proportion of productive land to barren land is very insignificant ... Some disasters could force people to settle in the mountains of Dagestan. What long-term labor is worth cultivating a piece of rock or half-dead soil in order to provide yourself only from hunger! And the richest mountaineer is not able to feed one Russian person with his whole supply ”.
Accustomed to the rich nature and mild climate of Georgia, the prince thickened the colors a little, but on the whole correctly noticed the difficulties of agricultural production in Dagestan. Despite the enormous labor expended by the mountaineers, the grain harvests were small: they collected only two or three times more than they spent on sowing. There were also bad harvest years, when not even the sowing seeds were harvested. The lack of crops at the end of the 30s of the XIX century caused famine and mass uprisings in Circassia. Arable work, which laid the foundation for the future harvest, was especially important.
A. Omarov described how the sowing took place: “We measured out two subs of wheat and poured them into a sack, fed the bulls, and then the plowman put a plowman over his shoulder (a bag made of untreated leather, with a belt, they put various little things necessary for a plowman in this bag), put the plow on his shoulder, tied the bag on his back donkey and drove the bulls and donkey into the field. Father and I also went to arable land. On the way, we met residents who were also driving the bulls and carrying their plows, the counter greeted the father with the usual words: "May prosperity be over you, God bless your seeds!" - to which they received the same in response. Upon arrival at the aforementioned arable land, while the plowman was harnessing the bulls to the plow, the father poured wheat into the hem of his chokha and began to read the prayer, while the plowman, raising both hands to the sky, said: "Amen." At the end of the prayer, the father began to throw the wheat with his right hand along the arable land, and the plowman did his job in the sown area. The arable land was quite large, about 320 sq. soot, that is, two sabs of wheat (1.5 poods) were sown on it. In front, it was separated from foreign lands by a small slope of 1.5 sazhens wide, which ran along the arable land and was saved for grass on the sides and behind - by a strip of unplowed land half a yard wide. In some places, sharp stones stuck out along this strip, constituting boundaries in the mountains ... "
The arable implements of the peoples of the North Caucasus were generally similar. The population of the flat part cultivated the land with a heavy front plow, into which 3-4 pairs of oxen were harnessed. In the mountainous part, a light mountain plow, made of wood, but with an iron ploughshare, served as a plowing tool. The plowing was shallow, the plow loosened only the top layer of the soil, which was rational in a thin fertile layer. The harrow was a harrow, consisting of a bush of thorns or brushwood, sandwiched between two boards. To press the brushwood to the ground, heavy stones were placed on the board or children were seated, for whom it was fun entertainment. The drag, like the plow, was attached to the yoke, into which the bulls were harnessed. Weed crops with a special paddle-shaped hoe or pulled out the weeds by hand.
We find a typical sketch of field work in the mountains from the same A. Omarov: “In the third month of spring, when the grasses and grasses rose quite high, it was time for the first field work, which belonged exclusively to the female sex. First of all, the cleaning of weeds from bread began. Each housewife, at the end of her morning routine, went out into the field and took with her a woolen bag, in which she put a half-chick with cheese or a handful of oatmeal for her dinner ... In this difficult time, if you look from a high place, you can see slowly moving figures everywhere on the green fields women, like grazing herds only at times, these figures rise and stretch out to their full height in order to give rest to the tired lower back or to lay aside the grass collected in their hands. During this period of spring work, it is still permissible to bring green grass home for the cattle, but when the time comes for the second cleaning of the grain in the last month of spring, then it is strictly prohibited. Then everything that is plucked in the field is collected in a heap and left to dry for several days, and then the women carry this hay home on their backs and here it is finally dried for the winter for the cows ... "
They reaped with sickles, which, like other implements, were made by local blacksmiths. Mowed with scythes, stacked with wooden pitchforks. The grain was threshed on a rammed current, on which the ears were folded. Moving along the current, the oxen, with the help of two boards tied to a yoke, on which they put a load, knocked out the grains from the ears. The millet was thrashed. The grain was raked with wooden shovels. The grain was ground in the following way: “A mountain river flows near our aul, which was considered the main village in the Vitskhino society and consisted of 200 households,” recalled A. Omarov. - The river forms several small waterfalls, at which stone mills were built, with a count of more than one and a half dozen. Each mill belonged to several owners, who used the income from it in turn, that is, for a certain number of days, the income from the mill came to the benefit of each of its owners, and one of them, more than others with the ability of a mechanic, performed the position of owner of the miller and for this received an excessive , the agreed part of the income. These mills are called small mills. They act only in the warm season with the onset of winter ... the water in the river decreased and froze, and therefore the small mills rested in the winter. But the big mills, built on the river Kazikumukhskoe Koisu, where there was no shortage of water, acted diligently at that time.
Thus, in the period of the year I am describing, our small mills were awakening from winter rest, and on the roof of one of them, the miller used to shout in a loud voice: "Bring grain to the mill!" But before going to the call of the miller, the hostesses ... first they poured the grain on the roof of their saklya, on the carpet to dry it in the sun, and appointed a guard from their family to protect the grain from sparrows ... After drying the grain, the hostesses cleanse it of the earth by means of a special sieve , and then, having poured it into a sack, they carry it on their back to the mill. Some of them brought a cup or a small bag of grain to the mill in advance in the form of a deposit, so that after a long time they did not wait in line, others gave the millers a handout, such as: a bundle of tobacco or a jug of buza, and others begged those behind whom there was a queue to give it to them. Thus, small mills were filled with sacks of wheat, barley (mostly fried for oatmeal) and corn. The latter was disliked by millers of small mills, because corn spoils the millstone and, in general, the weight of the millstone does not correspond to the hardness of the corn grain. During the day, there were women at the mills, and at night there were guards with weapons, the owner of the bread and the miller, too, had to always have weapons with them. Guard towers were built near some of the more distant mills from the village, and there was a guard in them at night ... "
We can judge the results of the economic year from the notes of N. Voronov, who traveled around Dagestan in the late 1860s: “The richest of the Gidatlinsky auls, Oroda, consists of 272 households, with a population of over 1000 souls. This thousandth population accounts for the total area of plowing, on which 2600 sabs or 285 quarters of grain can be sown. With an average local harvest, up to 12 thousand sabs are collected from the fields, that is, more than 40 sabs per yard or family, or 12 sabs per capita. Here is the annual proportion of food with bread proper. Since the Central Dagestan saba contains about 5 garnets, and weighing about 30 pounds, then, consequently, for every 183 inhabitants there is an average of 3060 pounds of grain per year, or about 1 pound per day. Such a daily proportion may seem very insufficient, but not for a highlander, a constant and, moreover, a voluntary fasting person who is content with a few lumps of oatmeal a day. According to official information, this proportion turns out to be even poorer, namely: in the entire Gidatlinsky naibstvo, an annual harvest of about 40 thousand sabs of grain is considered, which gives a little less than half a pound a day for each person. " The most widespread industry for processing agricultural products in the North Caucasus was flour milling. Along with water mills, large steam mills appeared in Dagestan and Novorossiysk - 1 each, in the Stavropol region - 18, in the Tersk region - 36, in the Kuban region - 56. Making up just over 10% of all mills in the region, they processed more than half of the incoming grain.
Garden crops were added to the bread: onions, garlic, carrots, radishes, beans, etc. “In varnishes, as elsewhere in the mountains,” wrote A. Omarov, “there are very few gardens and vegetables are considered almost an unnecessary delicacy. Only in one Vitskhinsky mahal, residents of some villages are engaged in sowing small vegetable gardens or orchards (as the residents themselves call them) with greenery every year. As I said above, our aul was distinguished throughout the khanate by an abundance of water on the southern side, it adjoined a small grove, no more than 10 fathoms wide, which was divided into several quadrangles, each of which was the property of an individual owner, and sometimes several. Therefore, it happened that in our gardens one or two trees belonged to one owner, and the other three or four trees belonged to another. These gardens consisted of pear and cherry-plum trees, apple trees, which gave the smallest wild fruits, and rarely an old walnut tree stood here and there. No one cared about improving the species or planting new trees, and the land in the gardens was not subjected to any cultivation: in addition, small livestock were allowed to feed in these gardens or the grass was mowed in them. In the space adjacent to the gardens, there were the same small quadrangles that made up the country gardens, which were enclosed, like the gardens, by low stone walls, stacked without cement. In the spring they were dug with picks or iron shovels, and then they made small ridges to sow vegetables on them. For the most part, they sowed onions, then - cucumbers, pumpkins, peppers and parsley. All around the vegetable garden they sowed corn, in some places sunflower and hemp. The latter took off their shoes more to decorate the garden than to use them.There were also such housewives who did not have their own gardens, and therefore, in order not to stay, looking at others (not to envy), they brought bags of earth on their shoulders and, having poured it on the outskirts of the kysh, on flat stones or in pots, planted her pepper, onion and garlic. In general, all vegetable gardens were thoroughly watered and cleaned of weeds. " Despite the lack of fertile lands in the mountainous regions of Dagestan, magnificent gardens bloomed along the banks of the Andean, Avar and Kazikumukh koisu, and the gorges were turned into greenhouses, in which peaches, apricots, persimmons, mulberries, pears, plums and other fruits grew. Viticulture has developed noticeably, especially in Northern and Primorsky Dagestan.
The Caucasian administration made certain efforts to develop gardening, viticulture and industrial crops in Dagestan. In the area of Derbent, many gardens were planted, in which trees from the Crimea and southern Europe grew. In the first half of the 19th century, Kizlyar turned into a center of winemaking: from 1800 to 1818 the number of vineyards here increased threefold. In 1846, there were over 11.5 million vines in Kizlyar. L. N. Tolstoy wrote in "Kizlyar Gardens": “You are either walking along a beautiful, clean swept and sandy path, or standing in the shade of huge fruit trees. Excellent ripe fruits: pears, peaches, apricots, bergamots, plums sway on the branches, and you just have to reach out to pick them. All around you, right, left, front - a whole sea of grapes - and nothing else but grapes. You can't see the greenery. Rarely somewhere on a high torcalin a vine winds, on which there are several leaves of a bright bloody color, the rest of the leaves, dusty, blackened, shriveled from the sun, hide between black and dark blue clusters, only transparent in some places. Amber clusters of white and pink grapes break this monotony ... Incessantly, the most diverse sounds drown out their (Cossack - Auth.) Voices: now the creak of a cart loaded with grapes and quietly moving along the path, or the monotonous song of a Nogay who, somewhere in the plant, stands in kayuke, clings to the crossbar with both hands and lazily tramples sacks of grapes with bare feet, knee-deep stained in red as blood, the imperative voice of tomada, which in Armenian or Tatar gives orders to his multi-tribal workers, either cheerful female laughter or sonorous , the somewhat shrill singing of the Cossacks who are cutting grapes in the nearest garden ... "
In the districts of Derbent and Kizlyar, saffron was grown in the "philistine gardens", which "was in no way inferior to the best European". Tobacco growing was further developed. In addition to local varieties, imported varieties were also grown in Dagestan. In 1849, the seeds of Havana tobacco brought from Cuba were sown in Derbent district, South Tabasaran and Akhtakh. Tobacco grown in the North Caucasus was used by 9 factories located mainly in Yekaterinodar, Armavir, Maikop, Vladikavkaz and Port-Petrovsk.
To provide raw materials for the developing textile industry of Russia, in the 30s of the 19th century, cotton sowing was increased, and to improve the quality of cotton, seeds of especially valuable long-staple varieties were ordered from abroad.
The “Caspian Manufactory” in Port-Petrovsk, which arose at the end of the 19th century, was serviced by 700 workers and provided half of the cotton fabrics produced in Dagestan.
As a dye, Caucasian madder was widely used, the export of which from Dagestan increased tenfold, almost completely displacing foreign crapp (dye madder) from the Russian market. In 1864 in Derbent the Krappov factory was built, producing over 17 thousand poods of madder annually.
Sericulture was widely developed in Kaitag, Tabasarani, Kumykia and in the Kizlyar region. In 1846 alone, over 12 thousand poods of raw silk were delivered from Dagestan to the Tsar-Abad silk-winding factory near Nukha.
In the second half of the 19th century, especially in lowland areas, factory-made machines began to be used: a three-four-blade iron plow ("Bucker"), a reaper ("lobogreyka"), a thresher, a sheaf-binder, a mower, a horse rake, etc. Production increased cereals, especially corn.
A large amount of grain was sold. “In view of the sale of rye and corn to distilleries, the mountain population of the Kuban region, mainly of the part where these plants are located, significantly increased the plowing of land for these crops, mainly for corn, which is sold not only to the factories of the Kuban region, but also Stavropol province ", - said the head of the region in the report for 1881. They mastered new cultures in the Kuban region, in particular buckwheat. In the flat auls of the Circassians, their own agricultural four-year cycle was formed, which provided for the alternation of crops and black fallow. In Kabardino-Balkaria, from 1867 to 1890, corn production increased from 80 thousand to 800 thousand poods, that is, 10 times, and the gross grain harvest - more than twice.
Among the Chechens and Ingush of the Terek region, the area under wheat crops increased by 46%, corn - by 39%. At the same time, in the mountainous regions of Chechnya and Ingushetia, only 8% of the area suitable for field cultivation was used for arable land. Agriculture here was irrigated, with abundant fertilization, otherwise nothing was born on the scarce highland lands. Irrigation canals were diverted from mountain streams and, using the pressure of water, forced it to flow not only over flat terrain, but even with a slight (up to 15 degrees) rise. They irrigated both arable land and hayfields near auls.
Researcher of the Caucasus A.P. Berger wrote: "The Upper Argun Chechens are not very much engaged in arable farming and do not have enough bread for their own feeding; they receive bread, salt and other vital items from the inhabitants of the lower auls, who are more favorable to arable farming in the area." In Dagestan in the second half of the 19th century, the steam three-field system prevailed, the fallow one was extremely rare. Terrace farming continued to develop in the mountains. In the lowland and foothill parts, winter crops prevailed, in the upland, spring crops. The first place among cereals was occupied by wheat (50-60% of the total harvest), the second - barley (25-30%). Rice cultivation (chalty cultivation) played an important role in a number of regions of lowland Dagestan. In the mountains, only about 6% of the total land area was under arable land. In small fields, the new, more sophisticated technique could not be deployed. Grain yields were still low. Marketable bread was produced only in certain parts of Dagestan. In 1889, for example, in Dagestan there were 2.5 times less food crops per capita than in the Terek region, 4 times less than in the Stavropol Territory and 6.6 times less than in the Kuban. Due to the absence of large cities in the North Caucasus, gardening and horticulture were mainly of a consumer nature and were not associated with the market. Nevertheless, the highlanders, especially the Circassians, accumulated experience in growing fruits by folk selection, the most suitable varieties of apples, pears, plums, peaches, etc. were bred to the local natural conditions. Agricultural schools were engaged in improving the variety, at which nurseries arose.
Great successes were achieved in horticulture, especially in the cultivation of potatoes, which now grew even in the mountains. In the Terek region, for example, only from 1886 to 1894 the planting of potatoes increased 5 times. Beets, carrots, onions, garlic and cabbage were also grown.
By the end of the 19th century, serious shifts took place in viticulture, which had turned into a branch of commercial agriculture. Dagestan was especially famous for its vineyards, primarily the districts of Kizlyar, Derbent, Port-Petrovsk, Temir-Khan-Shura, Khasavyurt and Kaitago-Tabasaran districts.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF PRE-REFORM TABASARAN
Based on various sources and the latest literature, the article reveals the main occupations of the Tabasaran population in the first half of the 19th century.
Key words: tabasarany, Rubas, Darvag, madder, rayats, seasonal work, trades, trade, Derbent.
ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TABASARAN IN PREREFORM PERIOD
The article focuses on different sources and newest literature concerning the occupation of Tabasaran population in the first part of the XIX century.
The key words: Tabasarans, Rybas, Darvag, madder, handicraft, trade, Derbent.
In the first half of the XIX century. agriculture and cattle breeding remained the main occupations of Tabasaran. The area under crops of grain increased due to the clearing of lands from forests and artificial irrigation. The leading grain crop in the Tabasaran farm was wheat, which was cultivated in many auls. Barley was also widespread in Tabasaran, and other agricultural crops were also cultivated, such as millet, rye, spelled. The main zone for the production of wheat and barley was flat and foothill, where the villages of Darvag Zil, Ersi, Dyubek, Tinit and others are located.
The area of irrigated land has increased. The main rivers used for irrigation were Rubas and Darvag. “From the Darbakh River,” testifies DI Tikhonov, “the residents have built a sufficient number of canals for watering the land sown with bread” [6, p. 128]. “The valley of Tabasaran and the coastal strip of Dagestan,” wrote I. Berezin, “alone can feed a vast population” [1, p. 86].
Cereals were the main, but not the only ones, in the economic activity of Tabasaran. Madder has displaced crops for grain crops, the widespread cultivation of which in Tabasaran is evidenced by sources. In Derbent, Tabasaran and Kaitag, up to 5 thousand kapans were sown under madder per year.
In the middle of the XIX century. the cultivation of madder in Tabasaran is proceeding at a very fast pace, which was closely associated with a sharp increase in demand for it from the Russian textile factories. The main area where madder was grown was South Tabasaran [7, p. 314]. In the area of the rivers Darbak and Rubas in the 40s of the XIX century. plantations under madder, according to A. Berger, “almost ousted all kinds of crops, all the best places were occupied by it” [2, p. 331]. In the 1840s - 1850s. in Tabasaran, up to 350 madder kapans were collected. Tabasaran beks had madden plantations, on which dependent peasants served their duty. The rayats were obliged to sow the Bek madder, cover and bring brushwood to cover the madder, as well as completely collect and deliver it to the designated place. In addition, they made a cash tribute in the amount of 40 kopecks. with a pood of dry madder.
The rayats of the villages of Rukel, Kemakh, Mugatyr, Mitagi, Zil, Datil, Ekrakh, Arkit, Fergil, Murad-Ali-kent, Ushnyug Darvag performed all the work on the Bek madders.
Hemp was grown in Tabasaran auls. In some villages, the cultivation of hemp was of great importance in economic activity. According to the materials of the estate-land commission, the inhabitants of the villages of Yagdyg, Khanag, Khurik, Kurkak, Halag and others stated: “We made chuvals and carpets for the harals (big bags) from hemp. This is our main business, it supports our existence. "
The available data indicate the development of tobacco growing in Tabasaran. The tobacco harvest in 1849 was good. In 1850, Havana tobacco seeds were sown in North and South Tabasaran. The ruler of South Tabasaran, Colonel Ibrahim bek Karchag-sky, sowed tobacco for the first time and got a good harvest. In 1851, the collection of tobacco in the southern Tabasaran amounted to 500 poods, and in the northern - 400 poods. A pood of tobacco in Tabasaran cost from 1 ruble. 40 kopecks up to 2 rubles.
According to the data of the first third of the 19th century, cotton was also grown in Tabasaran [6, p. 314 5, p. 183]. In some Tabasaran auls, residents were engaged in silkworm breeding.
Gardening was further developed in Tabasaran. Local gardeners have gained a wealth of experience and contributed to the development of various horticultural crops. About the development of gardening in Tabasaran in the 18th century. and the cultivation of fruit trees have been repeatedly written by contemporaries [8, p. 40 1, p. 75]. From fruitful trees, writes P.F. Bells, - nutty in abundance, as well as orchards and vineyards ”[6, p. 314 3, p. 348].
Trees rejuvenation, grafting and other cultivation methods were well known to local gardeners, who applied their experience in the development of fruit crops. In the auls of the plain Tabasaran, a rich harvest of fruits was obtained.
In the first half of the XIX century. One of the main branches of the economy of the inhabitants of Tabasaran was cattle breeding. Moreover, in the mountainous and foothill part, cattle breeding took a leading place. The role of cattle breeding in the Tabasaran economy is evidenced by the facts of the widespread use of animals in agricultural work.
In all Tabasaran auls, home processing of various types of local raw materials was widespread. Carpets, carpets, shawls, khurdzhins, burqas were made of wool. Leather dressing was widespread. Household utensils (spoons, dishes, troughs of various shapes and purposes), agricultural implements (shovels, threshing boards, plu-
ghee, sleighs, carts), building material (beams, doors, windows), etc. The most skilled craftsmen were the inhabitants of the villages of Khurik, Ruguzh, Khanag.Further development was given to carpet production, for which the craftswomen of the villages of Ersi, Zil, Tinit, Mezhgul, Dyubek and others were famous.
With the accession to Russia, the demand for fish increased, which contributed to the development of fishing. Fishing was developed along the course of the rivers Rubas, Darvag P. Zubov, characterizing the possession of the coastal part of Dagestan, wrote: “The main wealth of these countries is silkworm breeding, vineyards and orchards, wild madder, oil, salt and fishing” [5, p. 99 - 100].
The difficult socio-economic situation forced the residents of Tabasaran to look for work in the villages of the Derbent Khanate, the Kaitag Utsmiystvo, where various types of agricultural work were carried out. The craftsmen in stone and wood processing also went to work.
In the first decades after annexation to Russia, the peasant withdrawal was essentially out of sight of the colonial military administration. The official authorities divided the migrant workers into two parts: “peaceful” and “non-peaceful”. In relation to the former, episodic control was carried out, and the latter were subjected to repressive measures. In fact, the "peaceful" migrant workers were persecuted. Local authorities were instructed not to allow mountaineers without documents. Despite these restrictions, the Dagestani highlanders, including the Tabasaran, went to Derbent, Kizlyar. The documents were “tickets”, “written forms”. Sometimes the peasants left without any documents.
The forms of seasonal work were very diverse. In small groups they left for agricultural work to large farmers, wealthy cattle breeders, gardeners. Craftsmen, in particular builders, went outside Tabasar-na to earn money [7, p. 148]. The Tabasarans were also engaged in otkhodniki in the Derbent and Cuban khanates [9, p. 144]. Some of the highlanders who left their domains were hired for military service.
In early spring, Tabasarans left in large numbers for the fishery called "Batag-andikh". There was a massive departure to the madder plantations of Tabasaran and Derbent, where madder almost ousted other types of crops [2, p. 331].
The accession of Dagestan to Russia, the further development of the economy created conditions for the expansion of Tabasaran trade relations with neighboring peoples and countries. Tabasaran were connected by trade ties with Dargins, Lezgins, Laks, Azerbaijanis, Kumyks, etc.
Trade within Tabasaran was carried out mainly at weekly bazaars - in the villages of Khuchni, Khiv, and others. The main subject of trade was the products of agricultural and cattle breeding and household crafts.
Livestock and livestock products - leather, wool, dried fruits were exported from Tabasaran [4, p. 266], madder, home-made products, and bread, iron, materials, fabrics, metal products were imported to the Tabasaran auls.
Derbent still played the leading role in the Tabasaran trade. Through Derbent, the inhabitants of Tabasaran were connected with the peoples of Dagestan, as well as with the Transcaucasus. “The residents of Verkhny Kaitag and Tabasar,” the document says, “began to arrive in Derbent for trade without any distrust, and many of them took from the Derbent commandant for a ticket to pass them to the Transcaucasian provinces for trade affairs. "[4, p. 266].
Tabasaran traders often visited the Azerbaijani cities of Nukha, Cuba, etc. The main trade items were handicraft products - carpets, leather goods. Fabrics and sweets were bought in Azerbaijani cities. A large role in the trade of Tabasaran with neighboring peoples and countries belonged to the Jews. In Tabasaran auls there were entire neighborhoods inhabited by Jews who were exclusively engaged in trade.
Trade relations of Tabasaran with Russia expanded, which were carried out through Kizlyar, Astrakhan. The development of trade relations with Russia was facilitated by the exemption of local possessions from duties. Carpets, dried fruits, and nuts occupied an important place in trade. Madder produced in Tabasaran in large quantities and distinguished by high quality was very valuable for export.
The items of import were iron, copper, metal products, fabrics, dishes, mirrors, etc. Domestic trade of Tabasaran was largely in the nature of exchange, while in trade with Russia with the countries of the Caucasus, money played an important role.
The Russian administration in the Caucasus encouraged the trade of the peoples of Dagestan with Russia, took measures to ensure that the highlanders themselves did not export local products from dealers. A special document said that the Dagestani highlanders were allowed by the government "to trade in all the rights that natural subjects of Russia enjoy", that they have the right to "travel to all lands belonging to Russia," to sell "everything. surplus in work and handicrafts and buy everything you need. "
Among the Dagestani highlanders, "low-price paper fabrics" were in great demand, which were distributed more and more every year.
However, the development of both domestic and foreign trade in Tabasaran was hampered by a large number of different units of measurement (just the list of names and meanings of various coins, measures of length, weight, measurements shows what an obstacle this was for the development of trade within the country), as well as the fragmentation of Dagestan. Each feudal lord demanded a different kind of duty for the transport of goods through his possessions. After joining Russia, the Russian government abolished the right of local owners to collect duties. This event contributed to the expansion of trade and economic ties of Tabasaran with the peoples of Dagestan, Transcaucasia. The economic development of Tabasaran was hampered by the long Caucasian war.
The development of trade relations in Tabasaran and its inhabitants with neighboring regions and peoples was hampered by the lack of comfortable roads. Communication between the population
It was carried out with the help of donkeys, horses, which could not always be used, for mountain paths became impassable for several months a year.
1. Berezin I. Travel across Dagestan and Transcaucasia. Kazan, 1850. Part II.
2. Berger A. Caspian region. Caucasian calendar for 1857 Tiflis, 1856.
3. Bronevsky S. The latest geographical and historical news about the Caucasus. M., 1823. Part II.
4. The movement of the highlanders of the North-Eastern Caucasus in the 20 -50s. Makhachkala, 1959.
5. Zubov P. Painting of the Caucasian region. SPb., 1835. Part 3.
6. History, geography and ethnography of Dagestan in the 18th - 19th centuries. M., 1958.
7. Material culture of the Dargins. Makhachkala, 1967.
8. Neverovsky A. A brief look at northern and middle Dagestan in topographic and statistical terms. SPb., 1847.
9. Ramazanov Kh.Kh., Shikhsaidov A.R. Essays on the history of southern Dagestan. Makhachkala, 1964.
INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF YOUTH PARLIAMENTARY
The article examines the international experience of the functioning of the institution of youth parliamentarism. Its formation began about a hundred years ago in the United States. Youth parliamentarism is a form of youth participation in social and political processes. Its specificity lies in the imitation of political decision-making and in the creation of certain conditions for the political socialization of young people.
Key words: youth, political socialization, youth parliament, political participation, political activity.
INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF YOUTH PARLIAMENTARISM
The article deals with the international experience of the institute of youth parliamentarism. Its emerging dates back to 19 century the United States. Youth parliamentarism is a form of youth participation in socio-political processes. Its specificity consists in the imitation of political decision-making and in creating in this way certain conditions for the political socialization of youth.
The key words: youth, political socialization, youth parliament, political participation, political activity.
An analysis of the experience of modern youth policy shows that the principle of work "for youth" is giving way to another today - "with the direct participation of the youth themselves." Mechanisms that facilitate the involvement of young people in social processes are becoming more and more relevant and relevant. Of interest are such institutions through which young people can influence the solution of their own problems and at the same time join democratic values and the process of the formation of civil society. One of these institutions is youth parliamentarism. Youth parliamentarism in Russia has been developing for no more than 20 years in parallel with the formation of civil society. However, the international experience of the functioning of this institution totals about 100 years.
In world practice, the beginnings of youth parliamentarism appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. Its history began in 1910 in the city of St. Louis (USA, Missouri), when Henry Ginssenbair and his comrades formed the Herculaneum club. In 1915, Colonel H.N. Morgan, a St. Louis citizen, has inspired club members to get involved in civic issues. As a result, Ginssenbayr and his 32 comrades formed the Youth Progressive Civic Association on October 13, 1915. The following year, as a result of its expansion and the activation of young people to address public issues, this
the organization was renamed and became known as "Young Citizens". In 1918, it was joined by the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce, resulting in the name St. Louis Youth Chamber of Commerce. The spread of the influence of this organization in the United States was influenced by the First World War (1914 - 1918). Twenty-nine clubs have sprung up in the United States, which have been merged into the United States Youth Chamber of Commerce. Henry Ginssenbair was elected the first president of the national organization.
Let's pay special attention to the fact that thanks to the formation of the Department of Commerce in Winnipeg in 1923, the idea arose to organize the first Youth Chamber outside the United States. In 1928, England learned about the Youth Chamber. In 1940, the United States Youth Chamber approved a program of relations with countries in Central and South America. This led to the establishment of the Youth Chambers in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama in 1943. Thus, the creation of the International Youth Chamber began. In 1944, the first international conference was held in Mexico City. Mexican Raul García Vidal was elected the first president of the organization at the international level. It was then that the International Youth Chamber was formed by representatives from countries such as Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America.
Herbs for the skin: 27 herbal teas for the treatment of skin conditions
Skin diseases are ubiquitous and difficult to treat. Boils, abscesses, dandruff, neurodermatitis, psoriasis and other ailments, including baldness, require complex treatment, and herbal medicine in this fight brings tangible benefits.
We bring to your attention 27 herbal recipes, methods of their preparation and use for the treatment of skin diseases of varying degrees of neglect. The recipes, as well as the methods of application, were selected from the best Soviet popular scientific publications.
We remind you that before using herbal medicine you need to have an idea of the problem and an accurate diagnosis made by a dermatologist. Otherwise, it is easy to do harm instead of benefit, and worst of all, to waste time for drug treatment.
The duration of herbal medicine depends on the disease, but effective herbal treatment lasts at least weeks, with a mandatory break of one to two weeks.
The simplest aqueous herbal extracts (decoctions and infusions) are the most popular in traditional medicine - they are easy to prepare at home. Decoctions are prepared from the bark and roots of plants, and infusions are made from flowers, leaves, stems, etc.
To prepare the herbal infusion, take the required amount of medicinal raw materials in specified proportions and drinking water, mix and incubate under a lid in a water bath, then cool at room temperature for at least 45 minutes, filter and squeeze the raw materials, and then bring the volume to the original value with boiled water.
The preparation of the herbal decoction differs from the preparation of the infusion by the holding time in a water bath - at least 30 minutes, as well as by reduced cooling for 10 minutes.
In table 2 the proportions are given at the rate of 1 tbsp. a spoonful of medicinal raw materials in a glass of boiling water. When the amount of raw materials, water or preparation method changes, a note is made in the text.
Neurodermatitis on the baby's leg. Photo: Kindergesundheit
The proportions of herbs are indicated in grams and percentages, so it is easy to calculate the amount of raw materials in tablespoons or teaspoons. For example, a ratio of 20/40/40% can be represented as 0.5 / 1/1 tbsp. spoons for 2.5 cups of water. If electronic scales are available, it is best to use them for accurate proportioning. If there is nothing to weigh the grass on, then know:
- A full tablespoon ≈ 20 grams of dry herb, and 200 ml is a glass of boiling water
- A tablespoon without a "top" ≈ 15 grams of dry medicinal raw materials
- Two teaspoons ≈ 10 grams dry herb
- One teaspoon ≈ 5 grams of raw material.
You can read more about the preparation of medicinal preparations in a special article.
- ↑ avar. Derbend, agul. Derbend, azerb. Dərbənd, darg. Chili, godfather. Derbent, laksk. Darbant, lezg. Kvevar, rut. Derbend, tab. Dere-bent, Tsali, tatsk. Derbend, tsakhur. Derbend
- ↑ "Essays on the history of the peoples of Russia in antiquity and the early Middle Ages." V. Ya. Petrukhin, D.S. Raevsky. P. 205
- ↑ "Russia in Transcaucasia". V.F. Minorsky
- ↑ Calculated according to the database of municipalities of the Russian Federation for 2008
- ↑ Physical geography of Dagestan / under total. ed. Akaeva B. A. M: "School". 1996
- ↑ 12Derbent Climate Archived November 1, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ 12Population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2018.Archived July 26, 2018.
- ↑ Semyon Bronevsky. General geographical and historical information about the Caucasus. Part two. Moscow. 1823. p.-338.
- ↑ The Persians gave him the name Derbent - "Road junction".
- ↑Kettenhofen E., Darband, Encyclopædia Iranica, 1994-2011.
- ↑Anna Stepanovna Tveritinova.Eastern sources on the history of the peoples of Southeast and Central Europe, Volume 1. - S. Pp. 57.
- ↑ Dagestani Azerbaijanis (Türks, Terekements), historical process. www.moidagestan.ru. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- ↑ Dagestani Azerbaijanis (Turks, Terekemenites) - Turkish Forum. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- ↑Giyasaddin Asker oglu Geybullaev. Toponymy of Azerbaijan. - Baku. - S. p. 17.
- ↑ Tsal is one of the Lezgi names of Derbent.
- ↑Zabit Rizvanov, Rizvan Rizvanov. History of Lezghins (short popular science essay). - Makhachkala. - S. p. 53.
- ↑Musaev G.M. Rutula (XIX-early XX century). Historical and ethnographic research. - Jupiter, 1997.
- ↑ Russian-Darginsky dictionary / Compiled by Isaev M.-Sh. A., under the general editorship of Dzhidalayev NS .. - Makhachkala: Daguchpedgiz, 1988.
- ↑ 100 Great Cities of Antiquity
- ↑ Mega-Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius (inaccessible link)
- ↑ The meaning of the word "Derbent" in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
- ↑ In Derbent, work has begun on cleaning the Sukhodol River Archival copy of March 5, 2016 on the Wayback Machine
- ↑E. I. KrupnovAncient history of the North Caucasus. - M.: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1960 .-- P. 66.
- ↑ 12A. A. KudryavtsevA city that has not been subject to centuries. - Makhachkala: Dagestan Book Publishing House, 1976. - P. 11. - 141 p.
- ↑William Hazlitt.The classical gazetteer: a dictionary of ancient geography, sacred and profane. - Whittaker, 1851 .-- S. 135 .-- 378 p.
- ↑T. I. Makarova, S. A. Pletneva. Crimea, North-Eastern Black Sea region and Transcaucasia in the Middle Ages, IV-XIII centuries. - Science, 2003 .-- P. 354 .-- 532 p.
Derbent, the country's northern outpost, stands out among the cities of Caucasian Albania (Table 168: 7).