Raspberries after fruiting: pruning, feeding, watering, processing
Fruit and berry plants
Caring for raspberries after fruiting is complete is pruning, feeding, mulching, protecting against diseases and pests, and preparing the raspberry for winter. However, not all of these activities are carried out immediately after picking the berries: some need to be done earlier, others later.
The order in which these works are performed will be discussed in our article.
It is better to prune raspberries at the end of August, without waiting for autumn, immediately after harvesting, so that unnecessary shrub organs do not take away nutrition from the recovering fruitful shoots. Old shoots are cut off at surface level, trying not to leave stumps in which harmful microorganisms and pests can winter. The shoots of the current year are only shortened by 10-15 cm: pruning will restrain their growth and contribute to the early ripening and lignification. At the same time, shoots are shortened even on late raspberry bushes, without waiting for it to stop bearing fruit. They do this so that before the onset of cold weather, the cuts on the shoots have time to heal.
Watch the video of cropping raspberries.
The number of replacing shoots growing from the root collar of the bush is also normalized by pruning: such an amount is left so that after pruning there are no more than 8-12 developed shoots on each bush. But the root growth should be destroyed regularly and ruthlessly, and throughout the season. If you need a new raspberry bush, leave the strongest growth shoot, take care of it and, when it develops its own root system in a year or two, separate it from the mother bush.
Repaired raspberries bear fruit on the shoots of the current year, so after you remove the last berry, cut the bush completely to the very base.
Treatment against diseases and pests
In order to prevent the bushes after pruning, they are treated from pests with such drugs as Actellik, Fufanon, Inta-Vir, and for diseases, raspberries are treated with one percent Bordeaux liquid before wintering, when the soil under the bushes will be completely cleared of fallen leaves and old mulch. It is necessary to spray with a fungicide not only shoots, but also the soil under the bushes.
After pruning, remove all plant residues from the raspberry tree and apply fertilizer under the bushes. We offer you the following options for organic dressing:
- scatter a few handfuls of wood ash around each bush;
- water each plant with herbal infusion;
- add a solution of mullein or bird droppings under each bush;
- apply humus, compost or peat under the bushes at the rate of 5 kg of fertilizer per m² of raspberries.
However, if last year you already applied organic fertilizers to the soil, this season it would be better to embed 40 g of potassium sulfate and 50 g of superphosphate into the soil under each bush to a depth of 15 cm.
In the second half of the season, nitrogen will only harm the raspberries, provoking the growth of new shoots, which almost certainly will not have time to woody by winter and will die from frost.
Watering and mulching the raspberry tree
After harvesting, raspberries do not need watering: the plant will have enough natural precipitation, unless the end of summer and the beginning of autumn are too dry. But in mid-October, water-charging watering of raspberries should be carried out, pouring five buckets of water under each plant: moist soil does not freeze so quickly.
After pruning raspberries, when plant residues are removed from the site, the old mulch is also scooped up, and after top dressing, winter watering and treatment of bushes from fungal infections, the soil in the raspberry is mulched with leaf compost, high peat, dry grass or spruce needles. The mulch layer should be 4-6 cm thick.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Pink
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
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- Information about Berry Crops
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Raspberries are delicious and healthy, which is why you can see their lush greenery in every garden area. The raspberry dwarf shrub is not quite common, as it is both perennial and annual at the same time. The fact is that his rhizome is perennial, and the shoots bear fruit for only one season. Growing raspberries is a fun and challenging process. Therefore, in order to achieve a good harvest and large fruits, you need to know a few secrets.
Garden raspberries - planting and care are the main issues of concern to novice gardeners. Most often, raspberries are propagated by root suckers - shoots released by an adult, or by seedlings. There are many varieties of raspberries. Most Popular:
- Giant, Polka, Hercules - mid-season
- Sun, Izobilnaya, Cumberland, Vega, Meteor, Runaway, Flame - early.
Now the so-called remontant (late-ripening) varieties are gaining popularity - their fruits begin to ripen at the end of August, the collection continues until October-November.
Planting raspberries, site selection
When choosing a variety, consider the region in which it will be grown. For warm climatic zones, almost any are suitable, but for zones with dry summers or very frosty winters, stop at drought-resistant and frost-resistant ones.
Now it is worth taking care of a suitable landing site:
- For full growth, raspberry bushes need a lot of light, which means try to find a well-lit area. In the shade, raspberries will also grow, but the fruits will be smaller, the timing of their appearance and flowering will shift, as a result, the harvest will turn out to be poor. If the growing conditions are favorable, it can bear fruit for 10-12 years.
- The soil under the raspberry tree should be with a nutritious top layer of about 40-50 cm, since its root system develops horizontally, and not deeply.
- Best of all, if the soil is moderately moist, raspberries do not like too much moisture - this negatively affects its development.
Planting is best done in autumn, in mid-October. Preliminary preparation of the soil consists in clearing the site of weeds, digging and leveling the soil. If necessary, you can add mineral fertilizers or manure. Raspberries grow well on a plot that was used for growing garden crops for two or three years before planting. Their remains can not be removed, but dug up - they will serve as an excellent feeding.
- The material is planted in rows, at a distance of 50-70cm from each other, in pre-prepared pits measuring 30x40cm.
- Do not plant densely - the plants will be cramped, the collection will be more difficult.
- Do not deepen the roots of the seedling, straighten them, sprinkle with earth on top and tamp so that it is stable. Then the "new settlers" should be spudded, watered abundantly.
- It is advisable to mulch (cover) the holes with manure or other organic material, which will protect the seedlings from overheating in summer and freezing in winter.
Perhaps, in the first year after planting, raspberries will not please you with a rich harvest, since they need time to adapt to a new place. After a year, the results should be better, if this did not happen, you will have to transplant the raspberry tree to a new place.
Spring raspberry pruning
After a hot shower, as soon as a positive temperature is established, the topsoil dries up, the raspberry bushes are cut and shaped.
Regardless of the method of planting raspberries, it is more practical to prune in 2 stages.
At the first stage, weak shoots are removed near the ground, which have fertile, crooked, thickening branches and stems with bulges at the base (gall midge larvae overwinter there). The remaining stems are thinned out, leaving 6-8 stems during bush formation, and up to 15-20 stems per linear meter of area with tape (trench) planting. Thickening will lead to a decrease in yield and crushing of berries.
The second stage of spring pruning of raspberries is carried out when a stable positive air temperature is established at least + 5 ° C. During this period, the buds are already open, the tops of the shoots of the culture have begun to grow and it is clearly visible how the bush overwintered. The final revision removes the missed fruiting raspberry stems, the frozen tops of the stems.
In healthy raspberry stems, the tops are cut off to a length of up to 20 cm in order to obtain additional lateral fruiting shoots, the frozen ones are cut to the first living bud. Spring pruning of raspberries is important in that it creates optimal conditions conducive to the formation of a bountiful harvest, increases the duration of the fruitful period of the crop.
Spring pruning of raspberries. © PavelRodimov
Proper care of raspberries in early spring
Raspberries grow in almost every summer cottage and, with proper care, pleases with delicious berries. In the spring, its bushes require special attention, because the future harvest depends on it.
Taking shelter after winter
As soon as the threat of return frosts has passed, you can remove the shelter from the raspberries and open the plantings. If the shoots were bent, secured with pins and covered with snow, then after the snow melts, the branches must be untied and lifted.
If the branches were covered with straw or polyethylene, they are opened as soon as the sun begins to warm. It is impossible to keep plants under such shelter for a long time, so as not to provoke the appearance of fungi and rotting of the buds.
The future harvest largely depends on the watering of the raspberries. She loves water very much, so you need to water the bushes quite abundantly. It is necessary to wet the soil to a depth of at least 30 cm so that the moisture reaches all the roots. About 40 liters of water are consumed per 1 m² of the plantation.
The procedure must be done constantly, adjusting depending on the weather. In sunny and hot weather, the plant requires more water, and in rainy and cloudy weather - less. In the spring, you can water the bushes not only at the root, but also by sprinkling.
Spring pruning of bushes includes the removal of fertile, weak, crooked branches, stems with bulges at the bottom, and it is also necessary to thin out the remaining bushes so that there are 6-8 branches on each.
On good stems, the tops are cut off by 20 cm in spring. This is how additional shoots appear. Branches that are frozen in winter are cut to the first living bud. This procedure is very important because it prolongs the fruiting period of the crop.
It is very important to tie the raspberry branches correctly. Especially if you are growing varieties that bend under the weight of ripe berries. To begin with, the columns are hammered in the middle and along the edges of the row.
A wire is pulled between them (the top - at a height of 100-120 cm, the bottom - 60-80 cm). Then each branch is tied in two places with a not very tight soft cloth.
With the correct tie, the bushes will be in an upright position, which will make it easier to pick berries in the future.
Application of top dressing and fertilizers
Feeding can be done at the beginning of April. But if you planted the bushes in well-fertilized soil, then this procedure is carried out only in the second year of the life of the bush.
There are two types of feeding raspberries:
- root (mandatory fertilization at the base of the bush)
- foliar (carried out additionally, if necessary, according to the sheet).
In early spring, the plant needs nitrogen most of all. Thanks to him, shoots and leaves grow better. When flowering begins, you need to fertilize the bushes with potassium and phosphorus.
Treatment against diseases and pests
As you know, it is easier to prevent a problem than to deal with it, so you need to constantly prevent diseases of raspberry bushes. First of all, it is necessary to constantly monitor that the site is free of weeds and debris, because pests multiply and live in them.
In addition, you should water and feed the raspberries, adhering to all the rules. In conditions of high humidity, fungi and viral infections develop. There are many drugs available to prevent infection.
All preparations are diluted in accordance with the instructions and sprayed into the garden.
During the period of budding and flowering, the following remedies for diseases are most often used:
For pest control are used:
Gathering ripe raspberries is a laborious and time-consuming procedure. However, the harvesting of fruits of the Pshekhiba variety is greatly simplified due to the large size of the berries, amicable ripening and the density of the drupes.
The fruiting period of raspberries is extended over several weeks, so ripe berries are removed every few days. To collect the fruits, use only small containers so that the berries do not crinkle. Once harvested, raspberries of this variety are stored in the refrigerator for about a week.
Fertilizing raspberries after fruiting
The raspberry must be fertilized. After harvesting berries under raspberry bushes, you need to weed and loosen the soil up to 10 cm so that the fertilizers better penetrate the soil.
Before feeding, you need to find out the composition of the soil under the raspberry tree. If it is clayey and heavy, the rate of all substances is increased by one and a half times.
Late summer feeding of raspberries is needed so that young shoots develop enough, get stronger and are ready for wintering. Having received enough nourishment in the previous year, raspberry bushes will yield a larger crop next summer.
How to feed raspberries after harvest
The standard post-harvest fertilization schedule for raspberries is:
- Potassium - strengthens the roots of raspberries, and they better absorb nutrients from the soil in preparation for wintering. Can be used at choice:
- wood ash (scattered under the bushes, slightly loosening the ground, followed by abundant watering) - 200 g per 1 m 2
- potassium sulfate (fertilizer without chlorine, which raspberries do not like) - 30-60 g per 1 m 2
- kalimagnesia (it contains, in addition to potassium, magnesium, without which the leaves may fall prematurely)
- Siderata (white mustard, vetch or clover) are planted between rows. In autumn, the grown plantings are mowed and embedded in the soil under the raspberries, enriching it with useful substances.
You should not feed raspberries before pruning, as fertilizers are "sprayed" not only on new shoots, but also on old ones that must be removed.
If raspberry leaves have a non-standard color (purple, violet), you need to fertilize it with phosphorus.
It is better to use a double superphosphate extract, in the composition of which the necessary element will quickly get to the plants. For this you need:
- 20 tablespoons of superphosphate pour 3 liters of hot water.
- Insist, strain.
- Dissolve 150 ml of the prepared liquid in 10 liters of water.
- Add 20 ml of nitrogen fertilizer and half a liter of ash.
My raspberries grow in heavy clay soils. Around the middle of summer, during the setting and ripening of berries, its leaves turn dark red. I know that this indicates a lack of phosphorus, and I always water the bushes under the root with a double superphosphate extract. After a few days, the result is evident: the raspberry leaves are again bright green. By the way, after such a shake-up, the berries become noticeably larger.
Raspberries do not need nitrogen at the end of summer, since too active growth of young shoots will weaken the plant before wintering.
Caring for raspberries after harvest
If raspberries are grown with a tape, after fruiting, they need to be normalized, that is, all shoots that extend beyond the tape must be removed. For this:
- the width of the bushes is 40 cm
- the distance between the shoots is made at least 15 cm.
With this type of cultivation, there are about 12-15 stems per 1 m 2.
In addition, you need to cut out young shoots, called root suckers. They are formed as a result of the aging of raspberries. Its rhizome begins to branch out and each year it becomes closer to the surface.As a result of this phenomenon, many small young shoots appear. Root shoots must be removed unless you intend to propagate a specific bush. Just carefully separate the undergrowth from the main bush with a shovel and discard.
If the mother bush is already old (6 years or more), these shoots can be used to rejuvenate the raspberry tree. In the spring, when the root shoots grow up to 25 cm, it is cut off and planted in a new place. And the mother bush is dug up and burned to destroy a possible source of disease.
Video: Caring for raspberries in summer
Do I need to prune strawberries, how and when
An important question that worries every novice gardener: "Do I need to cut strawberries?"
Pruning is carried out regularly, starting at the very end of fruiting. The fact is that all the newly formed mustaches are not needed.
Multiple outlets can be rooted if you want to propagate the crop. But in general, it is advisable to remove new shoots.
For information on how to properly trim a strawberry mustache, read our article: "Why cut a strawberry mustache."
The same goes for the leaves. Leaving sick, drooping or stained leaves is not worth it. But let 3-4 healthy leaves grow further.
Complex fertilizers for the garden
It is very convenient to use complex mineral fertilizers in the garden. Careful selection of macro- and microelements allows you to provide plants with adequate nutrition. For the orchard, such specialized complex mineral fertilizers as "Autumn", "Fruit Garden", "Universal" are recommended. Fertilizer of Kemir has proven itself well. When using complex fertilizers, it is much easier to calculate the proportions for feeding: you need to follow the instructions on the package exactly.
Competent care and proper feeding of the garden will protect it from many misfortunes. Pay as much attention to your plants as possible, and you will always harvest a good harvest of fruits and berries.