How to use herbicides in your garden
Runny ordinary along the edge of the site
Appearing immediately after the snow melts and the first warming up of the earth by the sun, annual and perennial weeds stick out their tops from the soil, taking nutrients from cultivated plants. After a while, they "clog" them with their shadow and well-developed root system.
Perennial weeds (creeping wheatgrass, sow thistles, thistles, shepherd's purse, field bindweed, medicinal dandelion, common dandelion, stinging nettle, horse sorrel, caustic buttercup, etc.) and annuals (white marrow, small-flowered galinsoga and other. ) with high reproductive capacity. This problem is seriously aggravated by the autumn application of organic matter (manure or compost) to household plots, which often contributes to the sudden appearance of huge hordes of weeds, which were not here before. Everything is explained simply: their seeds, having passed through the digestive tract of animals, it is not known on what meadows and pastures that ate, usually do not lose their germination. If we do not destroy the weeds in our summer cottages and garden plots, then you can be left without a significant part of the harvest, so you have to fight with these enemies, whether you want it or not, but you have to fight.
Weeds in the field
By far, the most optimal (environmentally friendly), but also the most laborious way to combat weeds is regular manual weeding and conscientious sampling of root sections of perennial weeds that develop well on loose soils. In this case, it is desirable to free the deep layer of soil from them. Unfortunately, to significantly reduce soil contamination with annual weeds and completely eradicate such perennial weeds as thistles, sow thistles, creeping wheatgrass, medicinal dandelion and other species in a similar way, it will take at least 3-5 years. If this work is interrupted at least for a season, the weed vegetation will quickly restore its numbers. This is facilitated by a number of biological properties of weeds, acquired by them in the course of evolution - their high fertility, non-simultaneous germination and the ability of seeds to maintain germination for many years, as well as the propagation of perennial weeds by vegetative means. Some plants (sow thistle, blue cornflower, sweet clover, medicinal dandelion, etc.) even germinate unripe seeds. If such seeds remain on a plucked or cut mother plant, then they ripen, crumble and replenish seed stocks in the soil.
In recent years, due to increased physical exertion, many gardeners and gardeners, including me, have to apply, albeit within a limited framework, herbicides... It is known that their correct application can significantly facilitate work on a personal plot. Translated from Latin, the word "herbicide" means Grass-killing... Some drugs, falling on the leaf surface, cause burns and subsequent death (local action), others are absorbed by the leaf surface of the aerial part inside and currents of plant juices reach the root system, affecting it (systemic action). Thanks to the use of herbicides, soil moisture is retained as a result of the reduction of mechanical treatments.
Although the range of herbicides for use on large farms is quite extensive, for use in the private sector, their number is relatively small. The annually republished “Catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals in the territory of the Russian Federation” specifies the herbicides permitted for use on household farms. For many years now, herbicides-analogues based on glyphosate have been offered quite successfully for the private sector - roundup, tornado and tornado BAU, ground, glyphos, zero and others. They are drugs of general exterminating (total) systemic action and are characterized by high versatility in relation to a wide range of weeds. Preparations of this group are considered safe for the environment, low-toxic for warm-blooded animals, for bees and other beneficial insects and do not accumulate in animal tissues, do not irritate the skin. The active ingredient - glyphosate - decomposes in the soil (there it loses its herbicidal activity and decomposes relatively quickly into natural substances: carbon dioxide, water and phosphates), therefore there is no negative aftereffect for sowing the following crops after the introduction of the toxic chemical. It is believed that the drug does not enter the plant through the soil, does not interfere with the germination of seeds.
Roundup is offered much more often than other drugs in agricultural stores: it has been used abroad for more than 30 years, in Russia since the 90s. Once in the plant, the systemic herbicide destroys both annual and perennial weeds, disrupting physiological processes (for example, protein synthesis) in young dividing cells, so it is very important to know at what time it is best to use it. The value of Roundup and its analogues is their ability to penetrate into the root system of such hard-to-eradicate perennial weeds such as sow thistles, thistles, creeping wheatgrass, stinging nettle, horse sorrel, caustic buttercup, shepherd's purse, field bindweed, medicinal dandelion. However, in my opinion, it is still difficult to completely destroy many of them in one treatment, even if the work is done correctly. After all, the root system of these plants is often very developed, has a huge length and numerous underground nodes of tillering and dormant buds.
Preparations of the glyphosate group are highly effective only when the weeds have a sufficiently developed aboveground mass. Therefore, it is important to wait before spraying the full emergence of seedlings of annual weeds with a good vegetative mass (they are usually affected at all stages of their growth and development) - regrowth of wheatgrass up to 10-20 cm (with 3-5 leaves), the formation of good rosettes of leaves of perennial root-sprouting weeds ( sow, thistles, etc.). When processing flowering plants, the drug stops flowering and leads to drying out of flowers, leaves and stems. In the latter case, the effect is enhanced by increasing the movement of the herbicide along with the seasonal outflow of storage substances into the root system. However, the drug does not affect those weeds that germinate after treatment (on the site itself or are later brought in from neighbors), therefore, a properly treated area may turn out to be overgrown after a while, however, these will be mainly annual plants.
The effectiveness of herbicides is greatly influenced by weather conditions. When the weather is sunny, favorable for the growth and development of plants, the penetration of drugs into them increases, when it is cool, it weakens, and their death, respectively, accelerates or slows down. In hot or windy weather, in case of emergency, drugs should be applied in the morning and evening hours; it is not recommended to carry out this work with abundant dew, which reduces the effectiveness of chemical treatment. It should be borne in mind that in hot dry weather, damage to the leaf surface of neighboring plants is possible even with vapors of the preparation; of course, the drift of the solution to neighboring areas is absolutely not allowed.
Some experts consider the best spraying time to be in the evening, when there is an outflow of nutrients from the aboveground mass to the underground. With the active formation of their aboveground mass by weeds during this period of their development, the flow of plastic substances from underground organs to aboveground ones during the day somewhat dominates their outflow, and therefore limits the penetration of the herbicide into the roots of perennial weeds. Herbicides can be used in cool weather, but at positive temperatures, before the onset of stable frosts, although it is preferable to carry out the work in a timely manner under favorable climatic conditions - warm, sunny weather. Indeed, according to experts, weeds die more actively in warm weather than in cold weather. For optimum herbicide results, the weeds must be actively developing at the time of spraying, in a well-hydrated soil. If the weeds suffer from drought, then they try to postpone the spraying until the onset of a favorable time.
To prevent the drug from getting on the leaves of agricultural and ornamental plants, use directional spraying on vegetative weeds. Cultivated plants, especially vegetable crops and berry crops, are carefully covered using wooden shields, plywood and plastic wrap as a screen. If drops hit these plants by accident (chlorosis, death of the leaf surface, and then the root system are possible), then they are immediately washed off with a stream of clean water or the branches of shrubs or trees are removed entirely in order to avoid their death. In hot dry weather, damage to the leaf surface of neighboring plants is possible even with vapors of the drug.
In personal subsidiary farms, especially those with a large area of land, it is possible to successfully use herbicides, for example, in the complete destruction of weeds during the development of new lands; in the spring - in the near-trunk circles of fruit trees and grape bushes, in the fall - after harvesting for sowing the next year, as well as in the spring - to destroy weeds along fences, buildings, paths and the outside of greenhouses. For example, the most optimal use of the herbicide is considered to be its use in summer on fallow (resting) fields and on newly developed plots where perennial weeds predominate: ideal conditions are created here both for germination of weeds and their development, and for choosing the optimal processing times. Only the edges of the area used can be processed if necessary. If a herbicide is used on perennial plantations of fruit trees against a complex of weeds, then it is carefully sprayed between the plants, protecting their stems from getting the herbicide on them.
In the autumn, there are not always favorable conditions for spraying. For example, a weak development of weeds is observed, sometimes the leaf surface of the weeds is damaged by early frosts or low temperatures slow down biological processes. In this case, the result from the use of herbicides is reduced. At the same time, this period is the safest for the environment from the use of the drug, especially if the crop is harvested.
Against annual cereal and dicotyledonous weeds, it is recommended to use Roundup and its analogs at the rate: per 100 m² - 40 ml, against perennial weeds - 60 ml. The most economical treatments are in areas where there is a simultaneous infestation with annual and especially difficult to eradicate perennial weeds. Where there are no such perennials or very few, the use of the drug may not be financially justified. If perennial weeds are not found everywhere, then the site can be processed selectively. Seedlings of only annual weeds on the site are cheaper to destroy using a conventional hoe (pruning) or loosening when hilling. In autumn, good results are observed when using 50-60 ml per 100 m². On planting potatoes in the spring, the processing of fields is carried out 4-5 days before the emergence of shoots (20-30 ml per 100 m²).
The rate of translocation in different types of weeds is not the same, it largely depends on the humidity and temperature of the air. If annual weeds die relatively quickly - after 5-10 days, then for perennial weeds it will take at least 2-4 weeks (this process is especially long in the presence of powerful stems in the thistle of the field and pink sow thistle); also, you should not carry out mechanical soil cultivation (hoeing, digging) at this time. Getting on the leaf surface of plants, the drug is relatively slowly absorbed by it, therefore, for its full penetration inside, it takes at least 6 hours without precipitation and watering. Only in this case, a lethal dose of the active substance enters the plant.
It is very advisable to treat with herbicide in areas infested with perennial, difficult to eradicate weeds. They save gardeners from the need for multiple manual treatments. But if separate shoots or tiny areas of such weed vegetation appeared on the crops of the summer cottage, then it is preferable to use a brush here, wetting the foliage with a 20-50% solution of the herbicide.
To avoid the need to fell trees, cuts are made in their wood with a hatchet, then 1 ml of a 50% solution of herbicide is injected there with an injector, while the notches are made on the trunk at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. their fresh cut is applied with a 25% aqueous solution.
It has been noticed that some perennial weeds have a high resistance to the action of herbicides. Therefore, some experts propose to enhance the herbicidal effect by adding ammonium sulfate to the solution (150-170 g per bucket of solution). Due to this, the effect of the drug increases several times. Since after the dissolution of this fertilizer, insoluble impurities may remain in the container, then before work the final solution must be carefully filtered through 3-4 layers of gauze so as not to clog the sprayer.
It should be noted that there are some subtleties of preparing a working solution of herbicides. Experts believe that the effectiveness of drugs is reduced if their solution is prepared in a metal container and hard water is used. In their opinion, this is due to the interaction of the active substance glyphosate with metals and salts in water (with calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum). It is advisable to prepare a working solution immediately before use; it is permissible to store it for no more than a week in a glass or plastic container in a dark, cool place. With prolonged storage, the prepared solution of the drug loses its positive qualities. In order for the working solution to be evenly applied to the above-ground mass of weeds, a sprayer with spray tips should be used (the pressure in the unit should not be allowed above 1-1.5 atmospheres); after work, it is required to repeatedly rinse all its working parts with water. The use of such technical means as brooms or piston sprayers often used by gardeners during herbicide treatments is categorically unacceptable.
Although all of the herbicides mentioned above are classified as harmless to bees, nevertheless, certain rules are required. For example, spraying plants in the early morning or late evening; at the same time, it is imperative to inform the neighbors-beekeepers about the upcoming chemical treatments in their plots. It is strictly forbidden to use herbicides on household plots that are not allowed for the private sector by the state "Catalog of Pesticides".
candidate of biological sciences,
senior researcher at VIZR,
Site plan and schemes
When a place for the garden has been chosen, it is necessary to develop a site plan and choose a planting scheme. Each piece of land must be rationally used so that there is no room left for the growth of weeds.
There are four main patterns that are used when landing:
- Square (see photo). The scheme is the most common, since it is convenient to care for plants when using it. According to this plan, all trees are planted in even rows, and the distance between them depends on the type of culture. For example, pears and apple trees should be 4-5 meters apart. And for plums and cherries, it is necessary to maintain an interval of 3 meters. To avoid leaving areas empty, shrubs or dwarf fruit trees can be planted between the trees. The square pattern is more suitable for apple and pear trees.
- Chess (see photo). This planting pattern is excellent, in which a relatively small crown grows. A checkerboard planting is optimal if the garden is located on a slope. The illumination with this scheme is very good, the crowns do not interfere with each other and do not form a shadow. A checkerboard planting implies compliance with a certain distance: between trees - 4 meters, and between rows - 5 meters. Plums, apple trees, peaches and pears can be planted.
- Triangular (see photo). Placing plants according to this pattern, it is necessary to calculate the correct distance between them. To do this, you must adhere to the rule of doubling the indicator. For example, if the crown height is four meters, then the distance between trees on all sides should be at least eight meters. The triangular pattern can grow 15% more trees than the previous two options. You can plant cherries, apples, apricots, peaches, plums according to this plan.
- Horizontal. Planting trees according to this scheme is only possible if the garden is located on a hill. The plantings are planted in the ground along horizontal lines. In this case, it is worth observing the distance: there should be three meters between the trees, and five between the rows. Any fruit trees and shrubs can be planted in a horizontal pattern. All plants will receive a sufficient amount of light.
If there will be a vegetable garden and a garden with fruit trees and shrubs on the site, it is recommended to visually divide the territory into three zones. The first should contain vegetable crops, the second - shrubs, and the third - directly fruit trees. This arrangement allows you to most competently distribute sunlight between all plants.
How to plan your vegetable garden and garden?
Currently, many people have a country house with a small plot of land that they would like to set aside for a garden or vegetable garden. It would seem, at first glance, a rather simple task, however, in order for everything to be not only beautiful, but also practical, it is necessary to work a lot on the correct layout of the land plot. This is not an easy task, since certain rules must be followed in the planning process. How to plan a vegetable garden and a garden, the photo of which will look simply amazing, as well as existing layout models, will be discussed later in this article.
How to apply herbicides correctly
Herbicides are chemicals that, when in contact with weeds, cause their death. In order not to destroy garden crops when spraying weeds, it is necessary to know the properties of herbicides, the methods of their effect on weeds, the rules for preparing solutions and the processing time.
Only the correct application of herbicides will destroy weeds without harming the health of humans, animals and bees.
Herbicide translated from Latin means "killing grass". These are potentially dangerous chemical substances which gardeners should turn to last. Illiterate herbicide application will destroy all vegetation, including edible crops and, in addition, will have a very negative impact on human and animal health.
The most optimal and environmentally friendly method weed control is their physical destruction by regular weeding with sampling of rhizomes and root segments. But sometimes, especially when developing virgin areas, herbicidal intervention is necessary. In this case, you need to clearly know which herbicide use .
Weed control in the garden with a tool
Herbicides by impact on weeds are divided into unpaved and soil (sometimes called vegetable). The former are introduced into the soil, the latter are treated with green plants.
Ground herbicides it is better not to use it on a personal plot, although there is an opinion (very controversial) that decomposing in the soil, they do not harm humans and animals.
According to the effect on weeds, herbicides are divided into 2 groups:
- continuous action , which destroy all vegetation on the site when processing green plants. Recommended for use in the development of new small backyard gardens, paths, outdoor areas along the fences infested with different types of weeds
- selective drugs (selective). These types of herbicides destroy certain types of one- and perennial weeds and do not harm the cultivated crops.
Methods of action on weeds
Exposure to herbicides on the weeds maybe local (contact) and systemic ... With local exposure, the applied herbicide contacts the surface of the weed (leaf blade, young stem) and destroys its aboveground part, without penetrating into the root system, which grows back over time. These herbicides kill mainly annual weeds. For perennials, they are ineffective.
Unlike contact ones, herbicides systemic actions penetrate into the plant and completely destroy the plant organism from the inside.
What herbicides are needed on the farm
The gardener's chemical first-aid kit should contain only herbicide preparations permitted for use in the personal plot. For a private household, it is better to have universal soil (vegetable) herbicides systemic action. When used correctly, they are safe for the environment and have low toxicity to humans, warm-blooded animals and bees.
Of those approved for use, the most effective are Roundup, Tornado, Zero, ground Glyphos, which destroy all types of one- and perennial weeds. This type of herbicide is usually used against perennial weeds (medicinal dandelion, medicinal sweet clover, field bindweed, horse sorrel). Roundup and Hurricane, in addition to the usual perennial weeds, effectively destroy rhizome (sow thistle, creeping wheatgrass) and cereals.
Rules for the use of herbicides
In specialized stores herbicides sold as powders or highly concentrated solutions. Considering that the preparations are poisonous, personal protective measures (gloves, gown, hat, glasses and mask) must be taken before dilution.
Working solutions are prepared immediately before weed treatment. Solutions are prepared only in enamel, earthenware or plastic dishes. Contact of the solution with metal is unacceptable.
For one- and perennial cereal and dicotyledonous weeds, the working solution is prepared at the rate of 40-80 ml per 10 liters of pure water. For more powerful weeds (rhizome, with a deeply penetrating root system), the working solution is made more concentrated - 100-120 ml per 10 liters of water.
Weed processing times
Weeds are processed 1-3 times during the warm spring-summer period in areas without garden plants. For effective weed control, the treatments are repeated for 2-3 years.
The first treatment is carried out in the spring when the weeds reach 10-15 cm in height.
The second treatment is repeated in June - the first half of July, to destroy overgrown weeds (wheatgrass, bindweed, cereals). The concentration of the working solution is increased by about 10-15 ml of the drug per 10 l of water. The third treatment is carried out, if necessary, after harvest.
All treatments are carried out in dry, sunny, calm weather. Watering is carried out 2-3 days before the treatment of the weeds. The soil must be moist before spraying. Weeds are sprayed with poison in the morning after dew has melted or in the evening before sunset. The consumption of the working solution is 5 liters per hundred square meters. The solution is sprayed over weeds and do not carry out any work on the site for 2 weeks.
The lack of sunlight also promotes the reproduction and growth of moss. To combat bryophyte, they try to remove excessive shading wherever possible. Thinning thick, spreading tree crowns, removing unnecessary items and debris.
If the shadow falls from a house or outbuildings, the sun's rays are reflected using mirrored surfaces - a sheet of metal or foil. In the area where it is impossible to increase the illumination, shade-loving plants are planted. As they grow, they will displace the moss.
Advantages and disadvantages of Roundup
What additional advantages, in addition to absolute ruthlessness to weeds, has Roundup?
- Works quickly and efficiently, preventing weeds from overgrowing and drowning out cultivated crops
- Helps maintain soil structure by eliminating the need to dig in clogged areas
- Provides more uniform and faster emergence of sown seeds by killing most competing plants
- Does not accumulate in the soil, that is, sowing can be started already 2-4 weeks after treatment
- Perfectly deals with all types of perennial and annual weeds
- It is believed that if the instructions are followed, the herbicide does not cause any harm to nature and human health.
It is believed that if the instructions are followed, the herbicide does not cause any harm to nature and human health.
Please note that Roundup is not a panacea for weeds, because this miracle remedy has many potential disadvantages:
- it relieves the site of already vegetating weeds, but does not in any way affect the seeds in the soil. That is, from under the withered grass, in a month, quinoa, bindweed and other stubborn "zest" begin to crawl
- Roundup developed by an American firm Monsanto, which was more than once caught "by the hand" for falsifying the results of testing this drug. It turns out that information about its effectiveness is based on the experience of practical use, and not on scientific research.
- it is also impossible to speak with 100% certainty about the safety of this drug for the environment and humans. The fact is that it contains some minor ingredients, which, in combination with glyphosphate, greatly increase its toxicity. Of course, tests for the potential danger of this herbicide have so far been carried out only on rats, but their results do not inspire optimism. In particular, animals exposed to Roundup have problems reproducing healthy offspring.
- The European Union does not classify this herbicide as readily biodegradable in the soil. There were cases when traces of its presence in the ground were found even a year after processing.
How to withdraw: video
When you see dense thickets of hogweed, you should not go into their middle. All work with weeds must be carried out gradually, starting from the edge of the site. Protective rubberized clothing and accessories must be tailored to the size of the person. The presence of wide goggles and a mask is mandatory on the face. The neck area, in the absence of a hood, should be protected by a raised collar, a scarf. When using herbicides and other poisonous substances, before starting work, you must read the instructions for using the drugs and check their expiration date.
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