Why onions rot in the garden and during storage and how to avoid this problem
It is believed that onions are easy to grow. Perhaps, only those who did not do this think so. The gardener faces a lot of problems, and if they are not solved, the onion can rot already in the garden. Or later, in storage. It is important to know these pitfalls and be able to work around them.
Causes of rotting onions in the garden
To grow healthy and good onions, you must strictly follow all the rules of agricultural technology: water, but not too much, feed, but in moderation, carry out prevention, provide light, observe crop rotation, etc. The reasons that the onion began to rot right in the garden lots of.
Diseases or pests
Onions have a lot of pests, and there are many diseases. True, not all of them lead to rotting of the feather, and even more so of the bulbs, but there are some. Subject to the cultivation technology, the likelihood of their appearance is small, but weakened plants get sick or are easily affected by pests.
Bacteriosis does not appear immediately, its effect is usually noticeable at the end of the growing season. Signs are slimy to the touch, softened gray-brown areas on the bulbs. First, some scales rot, they are interspersed with healthy ones, but then the whole bulb rotts and exudes a fetid odor. Excessive soil moisture contributes to bacteriosis infection, therefore, you should always know when to stop when irrigating.
With bacteriosis, rotting can begin from any scale, but then all will be covered
This fungal disease first manifests itself as yellowing of the leaves, which will soon fade. Then a cotton-like white mycelium with small black dots forms at the bottom of the bulbs. It quickly spreads to onion scales: first to the outer ones, then deeper and deeper. In case of severe damage, the bulb rots entirely. Excessive humidity combined with cold weather and other flaws in onion care contribute to the appearance of the disease.
Fusarium disease is manifested by yellowing and deformation of the leaves, which gradually wither and dry out. Plants weaken, the root system rots. The rot then spreads to the bulbs. Fusarium is more common in humid hot weather, and onion fly contributes to infection. Treating seedlings before planting significantly reduces the risk of disease.
The disease begins with chlorosis of the leaves: they turn yellow and become deformed. Then they become covered with a thick bloom, which looks like light spots in dry weather or grayish-purple in wet weather. After the leaves, there comes a time of decay and bulbs, then roots. Like white rot, powdery mildew is more likely to appear in cold, wet weather, especially when overfeeding with nitrogen fertilizers.
Powdery mildew symptoms are similar to those on other plants.
Of the pests, the action of which is already manifested in the garden, the onion fly is the most dangerous. The fly itself is practically harmless, its larvae eat onions. They perforate both leaves and bulbs, feeding on the pulp of plants, because of this, the bulbs rot. Finding the larvae is easy: both they and the eggs laid by the fly are clearly visible. Carrots planted next to onions reliably drive away the fly. In case of infection, pollination of the beds with tobacco dust or the use of insecticides can help.
Externally, the onion fly looks like an ordinary, domestic
Onion hoverfly (rootworm)
The hoverfly is similar to the onion fly, but is larger in size. Causes maximum damage closer to the beginning of July. Its larvae eat the bulb, climbing into it, which causes decay. Crops of carrots also ward off this pest from the onion garden. Controlling the larvae that have already appeared is difficult and requires powerful insecticides.
Video: onion diseases
Waterlogging of the soil
A short list of diseases suggests that over-watering or rainy weather contributes to most of them. Waterlogging of the beds can lead to decay of the onion by itself, without the help of pathogens. Onions require moist soil, large bulbs cannot be obtained without watering, but here you need to know when to stop. Perhaps this moment is the most difficult in growing onions. Moderately moist soil is required for this culture constantly, watering the beds is stopped only three to four weeks before harvesting.
When growing onions, drip irrigation systems are often arranged.
Overflow is especially dangerous on clay soils, as well as where groundwater passes nearby. In such cases, it is necessary to add sand to the bed and raise it. If the soil in the surface layer is even slightly important, watering should not be carried out. Onions require a lot of moisture during the intensive growth of the bulbs, but even at this time you need to be so careful that if it rains for a long time, it may be worth, on the contrary, to cover the garden from them with a film.
Poor quality planting material
Both seeds (nigella) and seedlings can be infected. In both cases, pre-planting preparation is required. It is especially important to disinfect your own seeds (most companies now approach the issue responsibly, and it is less and less possible to buy infected seeds in the store). Seeds are disinfected by dressing in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for 20-30 minutes.
Sevok can be processed in the same way, but more often it is simply kept in hot water: it is poured with water at a temperature of 65 aboutC and allow to cool. I must say that not all pathogens are destroyed. It is better to use a solution of copper sulfate (a teaspoon is not a bucket of water), in which the sevok is bathed for 8-10 minutes. Naturally, before processing it, it is necessary to carefully examine and discard damaged specimens.
The causative agents of diseases can be not only in the planting material, but also in the soil, therefore, before planting onions, for 1-2 days, the garden bed is usually disinfected by spilling it with boiling water or a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate.
In addition to the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the soil, onion decay can also be promoted by its too high acidity, therefore, on acidic soils, they are neutralized in advance with ash or chalk.
Violation of the rules of crop rotation
Crop rotation exists, among other things, so that diseases and pests do not accumulate in the garden. Onions should not be planted in one place for several years in a row. It is best to plant it after potatoes, cucumbers or peas. Do not plant onions after any related crops such as garlic. The break should be 3-4 years.
When planning landings, it is worth looking into directories.
Onions grow well only in fertile soil filled with organic matter and mineral fertilizers. At the very beginning of growth, it consumes a lot of nitrogen, but in the process of maturation, this element is practically not required for it. Excess nitrogen, especially in the nitrate form, causes rotting of plants. In no case should fresh or poorly rotted manure be used under onions: only humus or compost, without excess. There is less nitrogen in them than in fresh manure, and it is consumed gradually onions.
Causes of onion rotting during storage
Even well-sorted and dried onions can partially rot during storage: not all damage can be visually noticeable, and there are many reasons for rotting.
Not every onion variety is capable of long-term storage. As a rule, salad varieties, especially early ripening ones, are stored for only 2-3 months. Yellow onions generally store better than white or red onions. Onions grown from sets have a slightly better shelf life than onions grown from nigella for one season. Therefore, rotting onions can be simply guilty of exceeding the permissible shelf life.
Video: tips for harvesting onions
Onions do not store well in high humidity conditions, as well as in a bright room. In this case, it sprouts and rots. Onions, which are frozen even for a short time, also quickly rot. There are two completely opposite storage modes for onions: at a temperature close to 0 aboutC, and vice versa, warm, about 18 aboutC. Humidity above 80% is unacceptable.
I myself keep onions all the time right in the apartment, under the table, in cardboard boxes. If it is carefully sorted out and dried, there is practically no waste.
It is bad if other vegetables are stored nearby. Potatoes or cabbage contribute to onion decay.
The bulkhead of the onion before storing it should be careful: any damage to the onion during harvesting (cuts, dents, neck breaks) will lead to rapid decay. This bow should be used first. A bow dug out using a shovel or pitchfork is better stored than a bow pulled out of the ground by hand. The foliage must also be protected and cut off only after the onion has dried, two weeks after harvesting.
Gray rot of the neck
A number of onion diseases appear only during storage. The most common is cervical rot. Usually, the infected bulbs show themselves within the first month, therefore, the stored onions must be checked often at first. With this disease, the outer scales in the neck area wrinkle, and a grayish plaque with black spots forms under them. The rot quickly descends, covering the entire bulb. The causative agent of this disease is found in plant residues or in the soil, it must be disinfected. Diseased bulbs are urgently removed from storage.
Cervical rot rarely manages to manifest itself in the garden, but when placed in storage it can be noticeable already within the first month
Onion mite is one of the pests, the effect of which is usually not noticeable during onion cultivation. It is very small, translucent, active in hot dry weather. It penetrates into the bulbs through the bottom, gnaws them from the inside. They rot and dry up outside. A tick can be eliminated in the garden only with acaricides, but the trouble is that it is difficult to notice it. If there are doubts about the purity of the seed, it is treated with colloidal sulfur preparations before planting.
A tick can be considered only with an increase, but with a massive distribution, it can be seen on the bow in the form of numerous light dots.
Nematodes are miniature white worms, the effect of which is already noticeable in the garden, but it happens that it manifests itself only during storage. At the same time, the onion scales become damp, become soft and rot. The process starts from the neck: after all, at first, the stem nematode feeds precisely on onion leaves. It is very difficult to destroy nematodes: the soil is repeatedly etched and then quarantined. Therefore, preventive measures are important: correct crop rotation, thorough cleaning in the beds, dressing of the seedlings.
How to prevent rotting
The measures that are needed to prevent onion rotting follow from the described causes of the phenomenon. Prevention is as follows:
- correct crop rotation;
- selection of disease resistant varieties;
- pre-planting preparation of seedlings and seeds;
- moderate watering and proper feeding;
- weed control;
- sowing carrots next to onions.
It is important to harvest on time and dry the onions thoroughly before storing them. In the storage, the temperature and humidity regime should be strictly observed, at least once a month to sort out the onions (and at first - and more often), rejecting suspicious specimens. Store only onions with dry and thin necks, without the slightest damage.
After harvesting, onions are dried in a ventilated room for at least two weeks.
What if the onion has already started to rot?
If the decay of the onion becomes noticeable already in the garden, the decaying plants should be immediately dug up, and the soil under them should be watered with a 1% solution of copper sulfate. In some cases, when rotting is small, only from the surface, part of the bulb can still be used, but not fresh.
Better still not to risk and destroy rotting specimens.
Timely removal of rotting bulbs will help save the remaining crop, but it is important to determine the cause of rotting and take action if possible. If it is a matter of fungal diseases, it is possible that the garden bed should be treated with a Bordeaux mixture (only after that you cannot use the feather for food for a long time). If flaws in agricultural technology became the cause of rotting, try to reduce the amount of watering or loosen the garden more often. If pests - use folk remedies or insecticides.
Video: how to process onions in the garden
Onions rotted during storage are immediately removed from them and delivered with the bulbs, depending on how far the process has gone. If raw bulbs are found during the bulkhead, but without signs of rot, they must be dried and stored separately from high-quality bulbs. Partially rotten onions can be trimmed and the remainder cut and then dried or frozen.
Rotting onions is an unpleasant process, but it can be prevented by adhering to agricultural techniques, and during storage - by choosing the right conditions. It is important to pay attention to the onions more often both in the garden and in the storage.
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Why does the onion rot
Growing vegetables on your own plot allows you to get high-quality and inexpensive products at the end of the season. But there are times when root crops become unusable in the garden or during storage. Why does the onion rot and what methods of dealing with this scourge exist? Let's talk about this in our review.
Why does the onion rot in the garden
The most dangerous pest for this vegetable is the onion fly. Its larvae gnaw the vegetable from the inside, which is why it very soon begins to rot. Even a small population of such insects can destroy the entire crop in a short time. To prevent the appearance of a pest on your site, you need to do the following:
- Plant a carrot or dill near the onion. The smell of such herbs scares away insects.
- Treat the bed with wood ash. It will prevent the appearance of midges, and will also be a good fertilizer for the crop. Other methods of processing onions before planting are described here.
- If you nevertheless noted the appearance of larvae in the garden - be sure to spray the entire culture with saline, cooked in a ratio of 1 glass of salt to 10 liters of water. It is important to pay special attention to the processing of the bulbs themselves, not just the feathers.
If you see plants that already have at least one white larva, you will need to remove them from the garden right away to avoid contaminating other crops. Otherwise, you could lose your entire crop.
The main diseases of onions
There are several of these diseases. Let's dwell on them in more detail.
It is very easy to find it, and surely many have come across it. A clear sign of it is when you cut the onion, and inside it you find an alternation of healthy juicy scales with softened particles, with an unpleasant odor. This is bacterial rot. What is most unpleasant, during harvesting, such bulbs are practically indistinguishable from healthy ones. And only after some time (two or three months), the bulbs begin to rot. Traces of this disease remain in the soil in the future, on the affected bulbs and plant debris.
It attacks weakened bulbs during storage, whose thick neck has not completely dried out. So, usually, after one, one and a half months of storage, gray myicilia appears under dry scales, and after it, a little later, you can see black dots. Through these black dots, this pathogenic fungus multiplies and thus the neighboring bulbs also die when they come into contact with the infected bulb.In the garden bed, neck rot penetrates the bulb through the neck and this leads to its decay. The development of the disease is slow, so it is difficult to detect it at first.
Fusarium or bottom rot
Fungi are the cause of this disease. You need to fight this disease even in the garden. Be careful, and if you see that leaves are quickly dying off in the garden, starting right from the top, then you should pull the bulb out of the ground and examine it carefully, especially carefully at its bottom, i.e. lower part. Usually, in an infected bulb, all the roots on the bottom have already rotted, and the fungus myicilia is already beginning to appear. These bulbs become watery and soft to the touch.
The decay process can be triggered by other reasons. For example, also mechanical damage during the harvesting process, inappropriate storage conditions and features of various varieties. So lettuce varieties of onions, in which the neck is unripe, we advise you to eat immediately.
Why does onion rot during storage? Prevention is the best protection!
So, what should you do to prevent onions from rotting? Try to stick to the following rules:
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- Let's start by planting it. And here you should carry out the correct alternation of various crops on your site in the crop rotation. Onions should be planted in the garden after cucumbers, early potatoes, and white cabbage. It should be returned to this place only after three or four years.
- Dig in onions while harvesting. This will allow you to avoid damaging the bottom. After harvesting, dry the bulbs well in summer, in good weather.
- Healthy bulbs should be selected for storage, while the neck should be cut at a height of five centimeters.
- If you have such an opportunity, we advise you to warm up the bulbs in a well-heated bath or on a warm stove. This will be a good prevention of cervical rot.
- Throughout storage, you should often sort out the onion and remove diseased bulbs from it.
- Use a pink solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect the bulbs when planting.
- You should also use various deterrents in the garden. These can be infusions of shag or garlic, wood ash or tobacco dust.
- Onions are best stored at temperatures close to zero, i.e. from -1 to plus + 1 degrees, or from plus 18 and above.
Do you want not to buy green onions in winter, but to grow them yourself, at home? Then watch this video.