This tree belongs to the elm family, and grows in Europe, Scandinavia, Crimea, the Caucasus and England. It grows up to 25 meters in height and can live for about 300 years. It has a straight trunk up to 1.5 meters in diameter, covered with a smooth, dark brown bark. It blooms from March to April, before the leaves open, in small, nondescript flowers with purple stamens. The fruits begin to ripen in May-June and look like rounded lionfish with a nut in the center. The elm bears fruit every year, starting at the age of seven. Frost resistant, and can withstand frosts down to -28 degrees. The tree has a powerful root system, it grows quite quickly: in a year it grows 50 cm in height and up to 30 cm in width.
The name of the smooth elm was created from the Celtic "elm", which means elm. In Russia, this word was interpreted as a "flexible rod" and the wood of this tree was used for the production of carts and sledges. Using the flexibility of the elm, our ancestors used it as a good building material and also made weapons. This tree was used to make household utensils: arcs, shafts, knitting needles and much more.
The bark of the tree was used to tan leather, and the bast of this tree was used to make bast. Leaves and young shoots were fed to livestock.
Breeding and care
Reproduction of smooth elm occurs mainly by seeds, occasionally by shoots from it. Seeds can be stored in a hermetically sealed container for 2 years and do not lose their germination. Seeds are sown immediately after ripening for 1-2 weeks. In this case, preliminary preparation is not required. They are sown in rows with a pitch of 20-30 cm, covered with earth and watered abundantly. The elm is unpretentious to the conditions and easily tolerates excess moisture and its lack. It can grow in the shade, but thrives better in good light.
In the first weeks after planting, the sown seeds should be watered abundantly, and in hot weather they are covered with a film until the first shoots appear. When planting an elm, it should be borne in mind that it grows rapidly and that soon it will shade other light-loving plants with its crown. It has been noticed that smooth elm has a depressing effect on grapes. In this regard, one should take into account their intolerance to each other and plant them away from one another.
With the help of bark beetles, the Dutch disease of this tree is spread. It is based on the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi and attacks weak trees. If damaged, the plant can die in a few weeks or hurt over the years.
Dutch disease is characterized by rapid drying of the branches. On such branches, leaves either do not bloom at all, or there are very few of them. When infected with this disease, the tree, as a rule, dies and cannot be saved. Basically, this disease progresses on highly moist soils.
Pharmacological properties and use in medicine
Smooth elm contains substances that are astringent, diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial.
Traditional medicine uses decoctions of the bark of this tree to treat inflammation of the bladder, inflammation of the connective tissues, and edema. In addition, it was used for various skin diseases, as well as for diseases of the digestive system, for diarrhea. A decoction of elm leaves was used to treat colic, to heal wounds that did not heal for a long time.
For fever and colds, extracts from elm bark, with the addition of birch buds and willow, help. This infusion contains a lot of mucus (a product of cell secretion) and tannins, which have a beneficial effect on the human body in case of burns and dermatitis.
As a medicinal raw material, the bark and leaves of the smooth elm are harvested. The bark is harvested in the spring, when sap flows, and the leaves in June, in dry weather. Usually, trees planned for felling are used for this purpose. The material prepared in this way is dried in places protected from direct sunlight. It can be used for 2 years. Decoctions and infusions are made from this medicinal raw material.
The wood of the smooth elm has a unique ability: it resists rotting for a long time in high humidity. This feature was widely used in Europe - pipes for water supply were made from the trunks of an elm tree hollowed out from the inside. For the construction of the first London Bridge, elm timber was used as supports.
This plant can be attributed to early honey plants. In good weather, you can see many bees collecting nectar near this tree.
Since the elm has a powerful root system, it is used in protective plantings, in turn, anchoring plantations. In addition, its leaves retain much more dust than other trees, and it successfully takes its place in park plantings.
Some common types
- English elm. Prefers the south and west of Europe. It is an integral part of deciduous, mixed forests, grows on rich soils near rivers and lakes. Very frost-resistant tree up to 50 meters high.
- Elm Androsov. It is a hybrid between squat and bushy elm. It can grow up to 20 meters in height. Loves moderately moist soil, but tolerates dry periods very well. Winter-hardy.
- Hornbeam elm. Undemanding to the soil, salt-tolerant, quite winter-hardy tree. It is used in the formation of hedges, in the design of parks, squares and gardens.
- Thick elm. Gives more preference to the wild nature of Central Asia. This tree has a dense, wide-pyramidal crown with a 30-meter trunk. Drought-resistant.
- Lobed elm. The main place of growth is East Asia and the Far East. A fairly shade-tolerant and frost-resistant tree.
- Squat elm. It can be found in the Far East, Transbaikalia, Korea, Japan and northern Mongolia. It is not a tall tree, up to 15 meters in height, and can often be seen as a bush. Well suited for greening new buildings, street plantings, parks and squares.
Why are elm leaves and bark useful?
To cure various diseases, traditional healers turn to the beneficial properties of not only herbs, but also trees, one of which is the rusty elm, belonging to the Elm family of the Elm genus. The height of the tree can reach twenty to twenty-five meters, the trunk diameter is about one and a half meters. The crown of the elm is spherical and wide. The bark of the plant is rough to the touch and has a brown color. Young branches are pubescent, with red-brown bark. Elm leaves are rusty obovate. They are arranged alternately, double-row-mosaic. Because of this, it is almost impossible to find gaps in the crown of a tree. Elm flowers are small and inconspicuous. They are collected in bunches that are located in the leaf sinuses. The fruit of the tree is a winged nut. Rusty elm can live up to four hundred years.
Slippery elm is widespread in the deciduous forests of the USA and Canada. It grows along the banks of rivers, where the soil is distinguished by its nutritional value. In Europe and Russia, this type of elm is found as a park plant.
Central and Eastern Europe (European part of Russia), Caucasus, Western Siberia, Kazakhstan
broadleaf and floodplain forests along large rivers
broadly cylindrical with a rounded top, loose, formed by large branches extending at an acute angle upward, when free standing forms a stem growth
- grows relatively quickly, the annual growth in height is 30-40 cm
- at the age of 40-60, growth slows down, an increase of about 20 cm per year
demanding on the availability of iron, on soils with a pH of 7.5-8.5 suffers from chlorosis
seeds ripen in summer and do not have a dormant period, so they can be sown without pre-sowing treatment, however, in spring sowing, preliminary stratification at + 5 ° C for 2-3 months increases germination
propagates by cuttings rather poorly, 16% of green cuttings will take root when treated with Kornevin
loves rich soils, tolerates poor soils, but differs on them by weak growth and early leaf fall
tolerates haircuts well and retains its shape for a long time
completely winter-hardy, although in some winters the ends of the shoots may freeze slightly
with fruits until they are ripe
bark in youth brown-gray, smooth, later brown-brown
alternate, thin, elliptical or obovate, asymmetric, with a strongly unequal base, pointed at the apex, bisected along the edge, rough, 6-12 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, with 18-19 lateral veins, smooth above, glossy, below slightly pubescent, on petioles 3-9 cm long
blooms before the leaves bloom, in Moscow - from the second decade of May 7 days
small, brownish or red-violet, green-violet, with 8-lobed ciliate, sharply unequal perianth, 6-8 protruding stamens with purple anthers, on long, 6-20 mm long, hanging pedicels
flowers are collected in multi-flowered bunches
elliptical lionfish 12-16 mm long, densely ciliate along the edge, with a nut in the center, on legs 2-5 times longer than the length of the lionfish, the edges of the wing recess overlap one another
in Moscow, the fruits ripen in early June, fruiting from 8-12 years of age
Elm leaves and options for infusions from them
It is important to check before use that the leaves have been properly dried and stored in a dry place. Elm leaves are rich in vitamin C, phenol carboxylic acids, flavonoids, leukopeonidin derivatives and leukopelargonidines. Preparations based on elm leaves are used as antimicrobial, astringent, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and diuretic agents.
For colds, an infusion or tea made from elm leaves can be used as an effective antipyretic agent.
Elm leaf decoctions are used to treat the gastrointestinal tract. With proper preparation, the infusion of elm allows you to remove all sorts of inflammation. Infusions are often used as lotions, compresses, or gargles.
- For skin diseases. If the patient suffers from dry skin, scabies or scrofula, then a decoction based on fifteen grams of ground leaves and a glass of water will help. The infusion is used in the form of lotions.
- Constipation. Prepare an infusion of two tablespoons of dried elm leaves and a glass of water. You need to consume a glass daily.
It is important to remember that there is always the possibility of individual intolerance to a drug based on elm leaves, bark or fruits. Elm leaves are widely used for the preparation of medicinal products in traditional and folk medicine. The leaves are used to treat colds, skin diseases, diseases of the stomach and intestines.
The assortment of shrubs used in landscaping includes beautifully flowering species, shrubs with a beautiful crown shape, color of leaves, shoots, fruits, easy to shape and prune, climbing shrubs.
Shrubs, characterized by a special decorative effect of flowers, leaves and fruits, are used to create single or group plantings in well-visible areas or in freely growing hedges. Easily formed shrubs are used to create regular landscaping elements (molded hedges or single plants).
Climbing shrubs are used for vertical gardening of building walls, retaining walls, pergolas, terraces, etc.
The main flowering shrubs are lilac, rose, mock orange, hydrangea, viburnum, spirea, weigella, deidia, forsythia, honeysuckle.
Lilac. In the USSR, 21 species of deciduous and evergreen lilacs are widespread, of which 17 have been introduced. Amur, Hungarian, common lilacs are of interest for green construction in the central zone of the USSR, and Persian lilacs for more southern regions. Common lilac and its numerous varieties, differing in the shape of inflorescences, flower color, terry, are of the greatest decorative value. Currently, more than 1000 varieties of common lilac and its hybrids are known. Varieties of foreign and domestic selection are widespread - white, pink, pink-lilac, lilac-pink and purple.
Common lilac. Quite a large shrub or small tree with a rounded crown. Blooms in late May - early June. Duration of flowering 2-3 weeks. It is frost and drought resistant, it is not very demanding on soils, but it grows well and blooms on fertile loamy soils. The typical form of common lilac is propagated by seeds, varieties - only vegetatively (by grafting, cuttings, layering). Varietal lilacs are grown in bush and standard forms.
Hungarian lilac. Tall shrub (3-8 m) with a pyramidal crown. Blooms 1.5-2 weeks later than common lilac. The flowers are lilac-purple, fragrant, collected in large erect inflorescences. Duration of flowering is 20-25 days. The culture is fast growing, frost and drought resistant. It tolerates urban conditions well. Easily propagated by seeds and cuttings. It can be cultivated throughout Europe, Central Asia, Western Siberia.
Chubushnik. After lilac, one of the most common flowering shrubs in landscaping. Includes a large number of species and garden forms, differing in the nature of growth, flowering, resistance to climatic conditions. The most frost-resistant are the common and Caucasian mock-orange, the most decorative is the large-flowered mock-orange. Lemoine's chubushnik is very decorative, including a large number of varieties. However, most of them are low-frost-resistant and suitable for more southern regions. There are a number of valuable decorative forms and varieties of domestic selection.
The medicinal properties of the elm are little known, but people who have tried to be treated with decoctions and infusions from the bark and leaves of a tree always keep prepared dry raw elm at home. The chemical composition of the leaves and bark of the elm is varied.: it contains ascorbic acid, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, phenol carboxylic acids.
Ilm infusions and decoctions reduce inflammation, have an antibacterial effect, and accelerate wound healing. Herbal extracts are used to treat diseases of the kidneys, skin, musculoskeletal system, heart and blood vessels, thyroid gland. A decoction of elm bark is gargled with sore throat, tea from the leaves is drunk for constipation. For hemorrhoids and kidney diseases, baths with the addition of a decoction of the bark are useful. The infusion is used as a lotion for skin rashes, hard-to-heal wounds.
When treating with infusions and decoctions from the bark and leaves of elm, it should be borne in mind that plant materials can cause hypersensitivity reactions, which manifest themselves in the form of allergies. You also need to understand that not all diseases can be cured with folk methods; if symptoms worsen, you must definitely see a doctor.
Similar topics of scientific works in biological sciences, the author of the scientific work is Podkovyrov I., Konotopskay T.
THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
SELECTION EVALUATION OF HYBRIDS OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB.
FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
I. Podkovyrov, T. Konotopskay, Candidates of Agricultural Sciences I. Yu. Podkovyrov, T.M. Konotopskaya, Candidates of Agricultural Sciences
Volgograd State Agrarian University, Volgograd City, Russia
Volgograd State Agrarian University, Volgograd, Russia Phone: +7 (8442) 41-17-75, E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 11, 2012
The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of a complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.
The article deals with the selection of an elm tree for ornamental gardening. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis, an assessment of economically valuable breeding samples was made. The advantage of individual selection is shown.The variability of the morphological features of the shape of the crown, leaves and fruits has been studied. The promising groups of plants have been identified, which allows the continuation of breeding work. The results of hybridization of elm species are summarized.
Selection of trees Decorative gardening Variability of signs Individual selection Hybridization Elm. KEYWORDS
Tree breeding Ornamental gardening Variability of traits Individual selection Hybridization Elm.
The reserve for increasing the stability and efficiency of elm breeds is the expansion of their species composition and the use of rich intraspecific diversity. Generic complex umm b. is a good model object for studying the issues of inheritance of traits and their variability, hybridization. Of interest are the issues of selection and seed production of an elm tree, reproduction of selectively improved material, zoning of species, hybrids and forms.
The region has accumulated considerable experience in elm breeding and seed production. Certain issues are considered in the works of G.P. Ozolina, G. Ya. Matthies, S.N. Kryuchkova, E.A. Kryukova,
G.P. Arkhangelskaya, A.P. Bohun [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The selection of the best biotypes, which are registered with the state, has been carried out. On their basis, clonal and family forest seed plantations (LSP) have been created and are functioning in the Lower Volga region. However, their role is underestimated in ornamental gardening.
Modern trends in the development of these industries require the use of high-quality planting material of a high selection category in the production. In the difficult natural and climatic conditions of the Lower Volga region, the creation of durable and sustainable plantations is possible only with the introduction of selection achievements in production
production. Extremely unfavorable years periodically repeating in the region (for example, the record-breaking frosty winters of 1968/69, 1971/72, 2010/11 and the subsequent severe droughts of 1969, 1972 and 2011) led to the disintegration of most of the existing plantings. However, against the background of the general death of trees, individual specimens that are resistant to a complex of unfavorable factors have survived to this day. These plants can be the basis for breeding.
MATERIALS AND RESEARCH TECHNIQUE
The experimental part of the work was carried out during 2000-2012, on model objects in three natural zones of the Lower Volga region - chernozem steppe, dry steppe and semi-desert. The objects were artificial and natural plantations with the participation of elm rocks, located in various parts of the terrain.
The selection of candidates for plus trees was carried out according to the generally accepted method. Trees were selected that significantly exceeded the average values of plantations in terms of taxation indicators and were in excellent condition [1,2]. A comprehensive assessment was carried out on the basis of the study of growth, development, resistance to drought, salinity, graphyosis in vegetation and bed experiments according to generally accepted methods.
Morphological analysis of parental forms and hybrids was carried out on seedlings, mature trees, and herbarium specimens. For herbarization, shoots were taken from the middle of the crown from the southwestern side. In the morphological description of leaves and fruits, 13 characters were used: I - length of the petiole, mm, A - length of the leaf blade, mm, B - width of the leaf blade, mm, D - distance from the base to the widest part of the leaf blade, mm, W - upper leaf angle, Н1 and Н2 - greater and smaller lower leaf angles, N - number of lateral veins, pcs., X - length of the winged leaf (mm), Y - width of the winged leaf (mm), Z - distance from base to seed (mm). And also the following ratios: B / A - leaf ratio, D / A, I / A, H2 / H1.
In addition to the coefficient of variation, the method of principal components was used to characterize the variability . Processing method
the house of principal components allows to select for further analysis the main components, the eigenvalues of which
1. Weight coefficients for the main components determine the features that most fully characterize the object under study.
RESULTS AND ITS DISCUSSION
Species of the family Ulmaceae Mirb. widespread in natural plantations of the steppe and semi-desert zones of the Lower Volga region. They are part of both mixed deciduous forests and form clean plantations along river floodplains, ravines and gullies. Aboriginal species include smooth elm (Ul.laevis Pall) and hornbeam (Ul.carpinifolia Rup.ex Suchow). The most widespread in the region is the introduced stocky elm (Ul. Pumila L.), which occupies more than 70% of the area of all plantations.
Research has established spontaneous hybridization between Ul. pumila and Ul. carpinifolia. The prerequisites for its appearance were the joint growth of species in plantations, easy interbreeding due to close systematic kinship, and simultaneous flowering. It has been established that the resulting hybrids differ significantly from the parental species and surpass them in terms of the complex of economically valuable properties. This group of plants turned out to be valuable for breeding work and obtaining varieties. The study of the growth of species and hybrids in plantations showed their advantages in comparison with the stocky elm (Table 1).
The height of the hybrids varies depending on the forest growing conditions. In the best growing conditions (I group of forest suitability) they reach a height of 10.2-10.3 m, and in worse conditions (III group of forest suitability) their average height is 8.0-8.3 m.
The remoteness of the hybrids from the parental forms was determined by cluster analysis of morphometric characters based on measuring the distances between them. Euclidean distance was used as a metric. In general, hybrids are very heterogeneous. However, the distance between them is mostly closer in comparison with the parental species. Hybrids for any particular trait may have more
similarity with one, then with another species. For example, hybrids with breeding numbers 25p, 25c and 24a are closer to the hornbeam elm, and 24c to the squat elm. Data processing
morphometric analysis by the method of principal components made it possible to establish the characteristics that characterize elm hybrids (Fig. 1).
Table 1. - Taxation indicators of elm hybrids in the dry steppe zone on light chestnut soils of different forest suitability
Systematic group Group Group of forest suitability of soils Age, years Height, m Diameter, cm State, score
Sh.prida x carril / oIa I 40 10.3 21.7 5.0
S. cagrch / oIa x pshpya II 40 9.8 21.0 4.5
(control) III 40 (26) * 4.9 13.4 2.5
Note: * The age of the coppice generation is indicated in brackets.
Table 2 - Biometric indicators of fruits of elm species and hybrids
Systematic group Lionfish length, cm Lion width, cm Fruit area, cm2
Min Average and its error Max Min Average and its error Max
Ul. ritya L. 0.9 1.0 ± 0.04 1.2 1.0 1.1 ± 0.04 1.2 0.9
UI. ritya x carpinifolia 1.2 1.4 ± 0.08 1.5 1.1 1.3 ± 0.06 1.4 1.5
Ul. carpinifolia x ritya 1.2 1.4 ± 0.04 1.8 1.3 1.5 ± 0.06 1.8 1.7
Ul. carpinifolia Rupp, ex Suckow 1.2 1.5 ± 0.06 1.7 1.0 1.3 ± 0.06 1.5 1.5
Ul. laevis Pall. 1.1 1.3 ± 0.04 1.6 0.9 1.1 ± 0.03 1.4 1.2
Let us consider the inheritance of traits during interspecific hybridization of species of the genus Shty. B. The analysis was carried out on the selected plus trees of the hornbeam elm and their hybrids with the squat elm. The inheritance of traits was studied in the offspring of 50 plus trees (30 hybrids of stocky elm and hornbeam and 20 hornbeam elm). The studies were carried out on the LSP with an area of 3 hectares. The number of studied plants is 520. LSP consists of 2 blocks: hybrids (344 trees) and hornbeam elm (176 trees). The mixing scheme in the blocks is spiral.
The incidence of morphological characters of economic and scientific importance was studied: the shape of the crown, trunk, leaves and the presence of cork outgrowths.
Dominant characters give the morphological characteristics of hybrids as a systematic set. At the same time, in hybrids, traits are inherited from the parental forms. This offspring is semi-sib (only the characteristics of the mother trees are known). It was found that ma-
Terin trees are hybrids of the first generation, and the analyzed offspring are hybrids obtained from free pollination of B1 with the same hybrids and squat elm. According to the first law of G. Mendel, hybrids of the first generation are uniform. This is what we got by selecting plus trees of the same phenotype, exceeding in growth in diameter and height (heterotic) in the stands of stocky elm.
In hybrids B2, the classical splitting according to the second law of G. Mendel - 3: 1 is not observed for any pair of signs. In most cases, there is a distribution of traits in the proportion of approximately 50/50. This is possible only in one case.
- when a heterozygote for a certain trait is crossed with a recessive homozygote. Such a distribution is obtained when inheriting the shape of crowns (with an openwork crown 48.7%, with a dense crown - 51.3%), the shape of the trunk (with a straight stem 42.8%, with a curve - 57.2%), leaf size (with small leaves 53.4%, with large leaves - 46.6%). The rest of the signs are not
obey this law of inheritance, which means that they are formed under the influence of several genes.
Very rarely, both the hornbeam elm and hybrids have a pyramidal crown shape and isosceles leaves, as well as cork outgrowths in hybrids.
In the hornbeam elm, splitting according to the second law of G. Mendel occurred in the width of the leaf (with wide leaves 74.8%, with narrow leaves - 25.2%), in the shape of the leaf tip (with a sharp tip 73.1%, with a blunt tip - 27, 9%), by the color of the bark (with a dark bark 74.2%, with a light
Hybrid elm is distinguished by significant variability of physiological parameters.
lei. In terms of properties, it gravitates to the mother species, and sometimes surpasses it. The hybrids with a predominance of the characteristics of the stocky elm have the greatest drought resistance. With a low salinity (0.1%), the hybrids outperform the parental species, but with a higher salinity (0.2%), their salt tolerance decreases. The frost resistance of the hybrids is significant (they can withstand soil temperatures up to -19.50C), but they are slightly inferior to the hornbeam elm. Are susceptible to graphiasis. The integral indicator of hybrids is rather high (3.5 points), so they are very promising for ornamental gardening (Table 3).
Table 3 - Integral assessment of species and hybrids of elmids based on physiological parameters
Systematic group Resilience, points Rank
to drought to salinity to frost to graphiosis average score
Ul. pumila L. 3.0 3.2 0.9 4.8 3.0 4
Ul. pumila x carpinifolia 3.5 3.3 3.0 4.3 3.5 1
Ul. carpinifolia Rupp. ex Suckow 3.8 3.5 3.0 3.4 3.4 2
Ul. laevis Pall. 3.0 3.9 no data 3.1 3.3 3
Among the species, the greatest variety of forms with economically valuable characters is observed in the hornbeam elm, which is an aboriginal species in the conditions of the Lower Volga region. Introducents are less diverse, therefore, to enrich the genetic, and, consequently, morphological diversity, work on their hybridization is necessary.
The selection of variety samples was carried out in the available collection funds based on the assessment of plants for their economically valuable qualities. Primary information was obtained from the analysis of the database. Later they were checked and refined in the field. As a result, the following varieties were identified (Table 4).
Table 4 - Characteristics of promising varieties
Systematic group Decorative qualities Age, years Height, m Crown length, m
ithia ritya Pyramidal crown 25 12 2.0 x 2.0
lithium pitya x carp1m ^ Na Openwork crown 7 3.5 3.1 xZD
lithium prytia x carpit ^ Na Dense crown 7 3.4 3.0 x 3.0
lithium pitya x caramidgata Resistant to leaf beetle 7 3.2 2.9 x 2.8
utiya sagrt1 ^ Ia Drought-resistant form Long-lasting in difficult forest conditions 78 7.4 5.0 x 5.1
The largest number of specimens with traits of interest to us was found on the collection site of the Volgograd forestry enterprise among elm hybrids. This confirms the assumption that second generation hybrids are valuable for breeding. Among the species, the greatest variety of forms with economic
but-valuable traits are noted in the hornbeam elm.
Among the hybrid group, a promising variety specimen "In memory of Helmut Mattis", distinguished by its rapid growth and openwork crown, was identified .
1. Ilmovye are distinguished by a high degree of variability of morphological characteristics, which makes it possible to select decorative forms with a complex of economically valuable qualities for growing in difficult climatic conditions of the Lower Volga region.
2. The selection assessment of interspecific hybrids has shown their promising potential for growing on chestnut and brown soils.
Hybrid plants surpass parental species by 18-26% in growth and physiological resistance. Component and genetic analyzes are applicable to assess hybrid generation.
3. As a result, selection samples were selected that were distinguished by the decorative crown. The study of the morphological characteristics of the crowns of the hybrids made it possible to reveal the patterns of their inheritance in the seed offspring.
Mattis G.Ya., Kryuchkov S.N., Mukhaev B.A. Seed growing of tree species for steppe afforestation. - M .: Agro-promizdat, 1986.215 p.
Ozolin G.P., Mattis G.Ya., Kalinina I.V. Selection of tree species for protective afforestation. M .: Lesnaya promyshlennost, 1978.153 p.
Kryukova E.A., Plotnikova T.S., Biological bases of protection of oak and elm from infectious drying. Moscow: Agroprom-Publishing House, 1991.127 p.
A.P. Bogun Ways of increasing the resistance of elm plantations of dry steppe on light chestnut soils of Ergeni. -Volgograd, 1990.165 p.
Arkhangelskaya G.P. Physiological mechanisms of elm drought resistance // Bulletin of VNIALMI. Issue 3 (31), Volgograd, 1978.S. 30 - 33.
Anderson T. Introduction to multivariate statistical analysis. - M .: GIFML, 1963.500 p.
Author's certificate No. 41663. Elm in Memory of Helmut Mattis. / Podkovyrov I.Yu., Kryuchkov S.N., Popov P.P. Registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use from 04.10.2005.