Cherry plum grafting: terms and methods
For experienced gardeners, grafting is a convenient and reliable way to propagate the variety you like, add a pollinator plant, increase the frost resistance of the fruit tree and simply diversify your varietal collection. For beginners, this procedure is frightening with its seeming complexity. Indeed, grafting is not the easiest operation, but knowing the characteristics of the grafted plants, the appropriate methods and timing, even a novice gardener will master this science and cope with the task.
Terms of vaccination cherry plum
The best time to inoculate cherry plum is early spring. Grafted at the end of March or in April, before bud break, cuttings have the greatest survival rate. Vaccination can be carried out in the second half of summer, and in the southern regions even in winter, but the percentage of adhesion during these periods is much lower. The fact is that the spring sap flow contributes to the survival rate of the cuttings. It is also important that the gardener in a short time can make sure of the success of the operation. If after 2 weeks the buds swell on the scion, then everything worked out. Otherwise, the attempt can be repeated in the summer.
Adult fruiting cherry plum - garden decoration
The main methods of vaccination
There are many ways to graft fruit trees. Their use depends on various factors - the size and number of cuttings, grafted crops, the time of the operation and the experience of the gardener.
More often than others, budding, copulation, conventional and improved, and grafting for the bark or in the cleavage are used.
Budding - grafting of one kidney, cut off with a part of the bark. This is perhaps the most effective way - the grafted kidney easily takes root, while the stock is almost not injured, and in case of unsuccessful vaccination, this branch can be re-grafted. This method is especially valuable with a limited number of cuttings - after all, only one bud is needed for the scion.
- A T-shaped incision is made on the rootstock on the north side and the bark is slightly pushed back with a knife.
- A bud with a shield is cut on the scion - the knife goes parallel to the cutting.
- The flap cut from the scion is inserted into the rootstock incision and wrapped tightly with foil, while bypassing the kidney.
After fusion, such an inoculation has the shape of an eye or an eye, hence the name - budding.
Budding allows you to get several grafts from one cutting
Normal and improved copulation - grafting of the cutting, used for thin rootstock. The only drawback or inconvenience of this method is that the rootstock and the scion must be of the same diameter. The rest is easy. In normal copulation, the same oblique cuts are made on the rootstock and scion, aligned and wrapped with foil (Fig. 1). With an improved one, an additional tongue is cut out at each cut (Fig. 2). When the cuts are combined, the tongues are hooked, forming a kind of attachment.
Spring grafting by copulation gives good results
Grafting for the bark or in splitting is the easiest way, so inexperienced gardeners usually start with it. In this method, the grafted stalk is cut in the form of a wedge and inserted into the crevice of the rootstock.
Split grafting is an easy and reliable way
The success of the vaccination depends a lot on the instruments used. The knife must be well sharpened so that the cut can be done in one motion. A blunt tool will not be able to get a flat surface, and the scion with the stock will not get a tight touch. For these purposes, it is advisable to purchase a special grafting knife in the garden center.
Vaccination kit with knives for different grafting methods will make the gardener's work easier
A film is required to secure the vaccination. You can use ordinary food grade polyethylene, cut into long strips 2 cm wide, or electrical tape, but it must be wound with the adhesive side out.
To seal open sections, you will need a garden pitch. They cover the top of the scion and cuts of remote branches.
Video: cherry plum - how to get vaccinated correctly
What cherry plum is grafted on
Cherry plum, especially in the northern regions, is a rather difficult crop to grow. This thermophilic plant can suffer during frosty winters or extreme temperature changes. Such weather disasters do not have the best effect on the harvest. Vaccination will help to cope with the situation, the main thing is to choose the right stock.
The most successful are grafts between related plants, and the closer the relationship, the better.... Ideally, when varietal cherry plum is grafted onto a cherry plum seedling, cultivated plum, plum growth, and so on. Vaccinations between different stone fruits are also possible, but the survival rate is not always 100%.
Cherry plum, grafted onto felt cherry, took root and bloomed the next year
Cherry plum is a stone fruit plant, which means that it is better to graft it on a related tree. Cherries and apricots are suitable for the stock, and in the southern regions also a peach, but in order to increase the endurance of the plant, it is better to graft on local plums, blackthorns, thorny plums or wild cherry plum. Always, if there is an opportunity to choose a rootstock, preference should be given to plants grown from seed or from undergrowth.
Preparation and storage of cuttings
Cuttings for scion are harvested in late autumn, after leaf fall. On the southern side of the tree - it is there that the strongest and most mature branches are located, annual shoots 35–45 cm long with short internodes are cut. The handle must have at least 5 developed buds. The remaining leaves are removed, and the branches are tied into bunches according to varieties and tags with the name are attached. You can store them in the basement at temperatures from 0aboutFrom to +2aboutWith or in the refrigerator, wrapped in a pre-damp cloth and placed in a plastic bag. When enough snow has fallen, you can transfer the bag of cuttings to the garden and dig it in by throwing a small snowdrift on top.
For successful grafting, cuttings must be cut from a healthy, fruiting tree. The thickness of the cuttings should not be thinner than a pencil, but too thick shoots are also undesirable.
The harvested cuttings are laid out by grade, signed and stored.
How to plant cherry plum on a plum
Cherry plum for setting fruit needs pollinators, so it is advisable to plant several cuttings of different varieties. If it is possible to find cuttings of different fruiting periods for the scion, then the grafted tree will have an increase in the harvest time. However, it must be remembered that such grafts live no more than 10 years, since the immune systems of the varieties are different and if one branch sets fruits, and the other prepares for flowering, then the tree is under stress. The best rootstocks for cherry plum are Canadian, Chinese and Ussuri plums.
It is better to plant cherry plum on a plum seedling. Grafting into the crown is also possible, but over time the cherry plum can outstrip the plum stock in growth and the tree will acquire an ugly shape.
A young plum, up to 5 years old, is suitable as a stock for cherry plum. It is best to vaccinate in late March or early April, in dry, warm weather. It is important to carry out the procedure before the buds begin to bloom on the plum and cherry plum. It is recommended to do several inoculations on one rootstock in different ways - this will increase the chances of a successful operation.
Plum cherry plum grafting was a success
Inoculation of cherry plum into cleavage
For spring grafting of cherry plum on plums, the splitting method is the most successful. Even inexperienced gardeners can handle it.
You need to start by choosing a cutting for the scion (cherry plum) and the rootstock branch (plum). If it is possible to pick up shoots of the same diameter so that after connection they have the same layers of cadmium, success is guaranteed. But even with a thick rootstock, grafting usually succeeds if the layers of cadmium are correctly combined on at least one side.
- Select a stock and shorten it with pruning shears to the desired length.
- With a sharp knife, make a horizontal cut on the rootstock in one motion.
- Putting the knife perpendicular to the cut, split the rootstock branch to a depth of 3 cm. This should be done carefully, slightly shaking the knife so as not to deepen the notch.
- Sharpen the lower part of the scion from opposite sides in the form of a wedge. In this case, it is necessary to arrange the slices in such a way that, after inoculation, the lower kidney looks outward. Each cut is done in one stroke. The length of the cut should be about 3 cm.
- Insert the scion into the rootstock split, carefully driving it to the desired depth.
- Join the edges so that the cadmium matches at least one side.
- Wrap the vaccine tightly with foil or electrical tape, winding the latter with the adhesive side out.
- Cut the graft into 3-4 buds, and remove all branches below the graft from the rootstock. Cover the cuts with garden pitch.
- Wrap the vaccine on top with one layer of agrofibre and put on a plastic bag - this will protect it from sunburn and moisture loss.
The splitting method gives good results in spring grafting of cherry plum
After 2-3 weeks, when the leaves begin to bloom, the shelter can be removed. It will be possible to remove the film or electrical tape only after the scion grows 20–25 cm. The shoots appearing on the rootstock must be removed so that all the plant's forces go to feed the scion.
There is another option for cleft vaccination. In the case when a thick branch or stump is taken for the stock, then two scions, cut with a wedge, are inserted into the split, as in the first case. It is important to take into account that the thick stock and the bark will be thicker than that of the grafted cuttings, therefore it is necessary to combine the layers of cambium. The inoculation is tightly wrapped with electrical tape, as described earlier, and the open sections are covered with garden varnish. Often, such a grafting helps to save a dying tree with an injured aerial part.
When grafting two cuttings into the split, it is important to combine the outer edges of the rootstock and the scion
What is grafted on cherry plum
As a stock, cherry plum is the most suitable crop for stone fruits. Most cuttings grafted onto this tree take root well and produce sweet and tasty fruits afterwards. Most often in central Russia, plums, cherries, cherries and apricots are grafted onto cherry plum. In the southern regions, peach and nectarine are added to all these crops, although peach and almond are the best rootstocks for them, but cherry plum is also a good option.
An apricot grafted onto cherry plum increases endurance and improves the quality of the fruit.
Grafting on wild cherry plum will add endurance and frost resistance to cherries, plums and apricots, but cherry plum growth will appear below the grafting - this is perhaps the only negative. Apricot, regardless of the rootstock chosen, takes root worse than other crops, therefore, such a cutting should be grafted especially carefully and carefully.
Video: grafting plum on cherry plum
For a long time it seemed to me that planting trees was the lot of experienced gardeners and I could not cope with such a task. So I didn't even try to do it. But it so happened that out of several apple trees planted in my garden, one survived, and the most useless one - a winter variety and the fruits on it were, one might say, inedible. And then, whether you like it or not, I had to master the grafting - the tree is good, strong, and it takes up enough space. After reading the literature about different methods, I chose for myself what is simpler - inoculation into cleavage. To begin with, I decided to practice on the branches of grapes - there are a lot of them left after pruning. At first, it was not even possible to make an oblique cut. The main thing here is a knife, comfortable and very sharp. When I got the right tool, things got more fun. I planted three different varieties on this apple tree and they all took root. She did not harvest cuttings for the winter, but took them from neighbors in the spring and immediately grafted them. It turned out that everything is possible. One subtlety that experienced gardeners told me about is that in no case should you touch the cuttings of the rootstock and scion with your hands. Vaccination is an operation, so sterility during the procedure should be like in an operating room. After that, I experimented with both plums and cherry plums - most of the vaccinations took root, although not without losses. Now, when my hand has already filled, the next in turn is an apricot - I will try to plant Ussuri and felt cherries on the plum. I think everything will work out.
Vaccination is challenging but fun for the gardener. Perhaps not everything will work out the first time, but skill will come with experience and knowledge. The main thing is to start and not be afraid to experiment. Having failed - try again, apply different methods and once, growing apricots on cherry plum, or cherries on plums, you will feel like a gardener of a new level.
Hobbies play an important role in my life - floriculture, gardening, traditional medicine, pets. I love nature and all living things very much, so I read many articles on various phenomena and laws of life, everything that brings harmony.
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Inoculation of cherry plum into a split: how and why it is done
So, quite often, instead of the large-fruited plum promised by the seller, an unavailable tree with small fruits grows, which, moreover, can also hurt. It's a pity to dig him up, and why? If you plant cherry plum on the remaining healthy branches of plums, next year you will be able to enjoy delicious fruits, and in a few seasons a bountiful harvest will be ensured.
It is best to vaccinate in early spring, before the buds bloom on the trees. You can plant several varieties of cherry plum on one plum at once, which will increase the yield.
Stone fruits. Which rootstocks are better
Please tell us what apricot, cherry plum, plum and peach are grafted on. Can a pear be grafted onto an apple tree and vice versa?
A.A. RADZIEVSKY, Bryansk region, s. Uruchye
Due to the incompatibility of the grafted components, a pear is not grafted onto an apple tree or an apple tree is not grafted onto a pear. Many years ago, I mistakenly grafted a stalk of a marbled pear onto a two-year-old apple tree stock. After 4 years, the pear reached a height of 1.5 m and produced its first harvest. Everyone was delighted with the fruits obtained, since the pears exceeded their usual weight several times. One fruit weighed about 1 kg. However, after picking up the fruits from strong gusts of wind, the young tree broke at the grafting site.
What can you plant a pear on?
I use quince as rootstock for pears. Not all pear varieties are compatible with quince, therefore, pear varieties are used as an intermediate insert between the scion and stock, compatible with quince (Forest Beauty, Skorospelka iz Trevu, Lyubimitsa Klappa, Treasure, Decanka winter, 2-9-54, etc.). In the first year, I graft on a quince a cutting of the variety that is compatible with it, and next year I graft the desired pear variety on the already adopted cutting. As a stock, I widely use Provencal quince, but now a new variety of quince (Upitis quince) has appeared, surpassing Provencal quince in terms of frost resistance of roots. A pear grafted onto a quince stock turns out to be undersized.
What are the roots, such are the tops
In order not to reinvent the wheel, I will list which crops and what can be grafted onto. The apricot grows well in the crown of the plum, without forming a build-up in the grafting sites. An excellent combination is obtained by grafting any varieties of cherry plum into the crown of a plum. However, plum varieties grafted to cherry plum grow poorly. The cherry plum stock is not suitable for plums. From such a combination, a lot of stumbling cherry plum is formed. Plum cuttings can be planted in the crown of a thorn or other plum variety. After grafting the plum on the blackthorn, the trees are dwarf and do not give growth. Felt cherry is an excellent stock for plums. It is also suitable for grafting peach and cherry plums on it. So that the tree does not break in strong winds or from high yields, it is grown using supports or trellises with trees tied to them.Felt cherries can only produce puffed growth. Grafting an apricot on a felt cherry breaks off after a few years due to the incompatibility of the grafted components. Therefore, the apricot must be grafted with an intermediate insert of cherry plum or plum (that is, first a stalk of cherry plum or plum is grafted onto a cherry, and the next year an apricot is grafted onto the accreted graft of cherry plum and plum).
On the rootstocks and in the crown of the apricot, grafts of plums of the Hungarian group almost always die. Hungarian plums are mostly blue in color with elongated fruits, and sometimes with a neck. On an apricot rootstock, individual varieties of plums of a group of renklodes can be propagated. Renklods have a round or flat-round shape of fruits of different colors.
Grafting a peach on a plum stock produces plum shoots. A peach grafted onto a thorn has shorter shoots, much shorter than usual. They ripen earlier and better. Poor compatibility of peach with apricot stock is observed. Peach grafting in the crown of the pole takes 3 or 4 years and gives a good harvest, showing good compatibility at the grafting site. "Northern" peaches (bred and selected for winter hardiness by amateur gardeners) are 90 percent compatible with rootstocks from perch seedlings.
Cherry plum is also of little use for peach as a rootstock: the stump shoots are growing. Unlike plum, cherry plum is hardly affected by pests and diseases, although cherry plum is one of 35 types of plum. In order for cherry plum to bear fruit, you need to grow at least 3-4 varieties of it, you can by grafting in the crown of one tree.
If the land area on the site is strictly limited, you can use rootstocks as a stock for peach, cherry-plum, plums: VVA-1, OP-23-23, Druzhba, Eureka-99, AP-1, VSV-1 and others that do not give growth ... Grafting of apricot on a rootstock from seedlings of wild alpine cherry plum shows itself well.
BBA-1 is a hybrid of felt cherry and cherry plum, it is a good semi-dwarf rootstock for plum, cherry plum, peach, apricot. Allows you to get semi-dwarf trees and significantly accelerate the entry into fruiting, drought and frost resistance. OP-23-23 is also a semi-dwarf rootstock for grafting cherry plum, plum, apricot and peach.
Friendship is a weak rootstock for apricot and cherry plum.
Eureka-99 is a medium-sized stock for peach, cherry-plum and plum grafting.
AP-1 is a vigorous stock for the use of peach, cherry plum and plum grafts.
ALL - a low-growing semi-dwarf rootstock for grafting plum, cherry-plum, peach.
Trees on low-growing rootstocks, in comparison with seed stocks (giving very large trees with a late entry into fruiting and having a lower yield), are the most productive, the fruits ripen earlier and may be somewhat larger.
Of the new and promising plum varieties tested on my site, the earliest ripening variety was the Alleynaya variety. The weight of the fruits is 30 g, the largest - up to 40 g. The taste is dessert, the stone is easily separated, the yield is high. Fruits are of an elegant light burgundy or burgundy color.
Plum varieties Vision, Stanley, Dream are also distinguished by high frost resistance (withstood frosts down to -35 ° C) and have a large fruit weight.
In addition, more than a dozen new large-fruited and promising varieties of plums are being tested, the fruits of which weigh 80-120 g.
For advice and purchase of planting material (by enclosing a signed envelope for a response), please contact: 394002, Voronezh, st. Dimitrova, 157, apt. 491, tel. (0732) 79-77-32, from 21.00 to 22.00 h.
Evgeny Ivanovich ZHELTOV amateur gardener 09/16/2005
Plum is a fruit plant that is widespread in our country. It is famous not only for the excellent taste of the fruit, but also widely known for its beneficial effect on human health. Thanks to the vitamins, nutrients and microelements included in the composition, the plum helps to maintain a favorable state of health and normalizes the functioning of the body's systems.
Many gardeners plant and grow a representative of this type of stone fruit on their plots. But what if the quality of the plant's fruits does not meet expectations? Or, for some reason, the plum suddenly began to die irrevocably from some unknown disease, and the tree must be saved by any means? To solve this problem will help plum grafting... which is a special type of vegetative propagation of plants, which is carried out by combining one part of a plant with a part of another.
A procedure of this kind requires professional skills and a serious approach; it is not as difficult to execute as it seems at first glance. It is necessary to clearly understand how to inoculate plums correctly and in accordance with the processes taking place in the tree. We will talk about this in this article.
When to vaccinate
It is best to graft plants during the spring season. During this period, it is quite warm outside, but at the same time it is still not hot and not dry. There should be no rain a few days before the planned event. It is in the spring that the plant sap actively circulates throughout the body, which causes an increased survival rate of cuttings. It is best to carry out the procedure in conditions of stable temperature, in the second half of April or early March.
If the best time for grafting has already passed, the procedure can be carried out in the summer.
At this time, the cuttings will also successfully take root, overwinter and form an ovary next year. However, it is better to eliminate the ovaries in order to enable the branch to grow stronger and fully develop.
There is also an autumn grafting, however, it is applicable, rather, in the southern territories, that autumn is mild and late, and severe frosts are uncharacteristic for winters. Vaccination must be carried out no later than mid-October. At the same time, low ambient temperatures will have a negative effect on the cuttings. For the winter, if they take root, they need to be wrapped in warm material.
General rules and tips for grafting plums
Before you carry out activities for grafting plums, you should familiarize yourself with the basic rules and recommendations:
- when grafting a fruit tree, you need to use a special tool - a grafting pruner
- the vaccination site is best covered with a self-destructive tape that is breathable and does not pinch the branches
- all manipulations must be sterile, and at the end of the work, the cuts must be covered with garden varnish
- it is better to grow the scion near the trunk of the tree - part of the trunk from the root to the first branch
- in pursuit of an even cambial layer of the cutting, it is important not to overdo it, so as not to reduce the scion to a poorly established critical size
- cambium layers must match
- the scion is grown only on fresh cuts of the rootstock
- vaccination should not be done on the south side of the tree - to avoid direct sunlight
- the best time for vaccination is a clear early morning with a humidity of 60% or more.