Protection of plants from insects with biological preparations Nemabakt and Antonem
Nemabakt and Antonem-F - preparations based on entomopathogenic nematodes
The use of chemicals in agriculture and forestry poses a threat to both human health and the state of the environment. At present, in many countries, systems of measures are being developed and implemented, in which the main methods of reducing the number of pests will be environmental ones, contributing to the reproduction and increase in the activity of natural enemies of pests.
For example, in the fight against insect pests, an important place is given to the use of their natural enemies - parasites, predators, pathogens. In this regard, in the last two decades, interest in entomopathogenic nematodes from the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae (class Nematoda) has increased.
These nematodes are microscopic worms capable of infecting more than a thousand species of insects from various orders, affecting all phases of development, except for the egg. They are adapted to long-term existence in the soil without nutrition, are compatible with many plant protection products, they can be applied to the soil and plants with any type of sprayer. Their resistance to many modern pesticides and safety for humans, warm-blooded animals and plants allows the use of these parasites as a means of controlling insects.
Nematodes penetrate the insect's body passively - with food and actively - through the mouth, anus, spiracles and cuticle, after which the nematodes release symbiotic bacteria into the insect's blood. After infection with nematodes, an insect dies for 2-3 days under the influence of symbiotic bacteria and as a result of damage to internal organs by nematodes.
In the body of an insect, nematodes develop within 10-20 days, and if, during infection, single individuals of nematodes penetrate into the insect, then at the end of development, tens and hundreds of thousands of individuals capable of infecting new insects migrate into the environment from it.
Particularly successful is the use of nematodes against the stages of insect development associated with being in the soil, in the passages of stems, shoots and trunks of trees, i.e. against those pests in the fight against which there are practically no effective means of protection. With a single application to the soil, these parasites allow for a long time to control the number of many species of insects, to form natural foci.
And now let's dwell on the peculiarities of using nematodes against insects associated in the process of their development with the soil: click beetles, cabbage flies; insects that are harmful in greenhouses: weevils, thrips, crickets, mushroom flies, as well as those in the shoots of plants: currant glass.
Clicker larvae, wireworms, are the main phase of development of this pest harmful to plants. When applying nemabact and entonem-F to the soil surface under potato bushes during the budding period or during its planting, at a consumption rate of 500-700 thousand individuals of nematodes per square meter, the number of wireworms is reduced by 93.6% by the harvesting period.
A special place among pests of cabbage and radish is occupied by cabbage flies - spring and summer. Due to the practical lack of effective plant protection agents against these insects, entomopathogenic nematodes are of considerable interest. The effectiveness of their use against cabbage flies is assessed by two indicators - crop yield and the number of puparium flies under plants during harvesting.
Nematodes are used by introducing invasive larvae under cabbage plants during the planting of seedlings in open ground. At the same time, a significant reduction in plant losses from the pest is achieved. Nemabakt and entonem-F are introduced together with irrigation water when cabbage seedlings are planted in open ground, and on radishes - after the start of laying eggs by flies. The recommended consumption rate is 125-250 thousand invasive larvae for each square meter of the garden bed together with irrigation water.
One of the most harmful thrips species that damages greenhouse crops is the western flower thrips. The nymphal stages of thrips, like in many species of this order, mainly develop in the soil and are a constant source of population renewal due to the inaccessibility of traditional plant protection chemicals.
The results of production tests show that even with a single but annual application of entonem-F to the soil of greenhouses, a threefold or even greater decrease in the number of Western flower thrips is achieved. At the same time, there are no sharp rises in the number of the pest, as is the case when using some chemical means of protection.
In production conditions on cucumber beds a high biological effectiveness of the biological product against tobacco thrips was also achieved.
In ornamental horticulture, weevils can be classified as the most dangerous insect pests. The most harmful is the larval stage of development of the pest, against which nematode preparations are used. Nematodes applied to the soil surface in the form of an aqueous suspension of invasive larvae are able to effectively infect beetle larvae distributed throughout the soil.
As an optimal dose of nematodes in a pot culture, it is recommended to add 10 thousand invasive larvae to one plant. In this case, a fairly high percentage of pest infestation is achieved.
Growing pepper and green crops (parsley, lettuce, dill) in greenhouses is carried out using a technology that excludes the use of pesticides. Crickets lead a secretive lifestyle.
For most of the day, they live under lumps of soil and greenhouse structuresthat have contact with its surface. The habitat of crickets creates favorable conditions for the effective use of entomopathogenic nematodes against them. With the continuous application of an aqueous suspension of nematodes to the soil surface at a rate of consumption of 2 billion invasive larvae in 300 liters of water per 1 hectare, the biological efficiency of their application already on the fourth day was 74% and 77.9%, and on the 33rd day after the introduction of larvae - 95% and 100%.
The most economically significant pests of mushrooms in industrial cultivation are mushroom gnats. Sciarid larvae, feeding on the mycelium and fruiting bodies of mushrooms, reduce the yield and quality of the finished product. In the system for protecting champignons from these pests in our country, chemical preparations of the organophosphorus and pyrethroid groups and inhibitors of chitin synthesis are recommended.
When an aqueous suspension of nematodes is applied to the surface of the casing layer during the growth of fungal mycelium at a consumption rate of 1 million nematodes per square meter of plantation, an increase in yield from 4 to 6 kg per meter is achieved.
Glass currant belongs to the group of economically significant pests, its caterpillars feed on the core currant shoots and gooseberry, which leads to massive breaking off of the stems during harvesting, their premature drying.
Glass caterpillars are brought with planting material to nurseries and personal plots. The fight against glassworm, as the world experience shows, can be successfully carried out with the help of entomopathogenic nematodes.
In the fight against currant glass on currants, Nemabakt and Antonem-F are recommended. The most effective disinfection of cuttings from pests (biological efficiency 90-100%) is achieved by placing cuttings in wet sand with nematodes (concentration of nematodes 200-300 invasive larvae per cubic centimeter of sand, temperature 20-25 ° C, exposure - 4 days). For disinfection of uterine currant bushes, it is recommended to use entonem-F at the rate of 2 million nematodes per 200 ml of water per bush by spraying the plants in the early spring period.
Over the past 40 years, the All-Russian Institute for Plant Protection in the city of Pushkin has been conducting research to study the characteristics of biology, develop production technologies, use and create biological products based on entomopathogenic nematodes. As a result of this work, two biological preparations based on entomopathogenic nematodes were created and registered on the territory of the Russian Federation: entonem-F (the basis of the preparation is nematodes of the Steinernema feltiae species, strain SRP 18-91) and nematodes (the basis of the preparation is the nematode species S. carpocapsae strain "agriotos ").
On the basis of VIZR, an experimental-technological line has been created for the development of pilot and commercial batches of nematode preparations. On the pilot production line, the main technological units of industrial technology have been developed, the originality of which is confirmed by patents of the Russian Federation.
The practical use of entomopathogenic nematodes is also largely determined by the presence of preparative forms that guarantee the survival of invasive larvae during their storage, transportation and use.
Entonem-F and nemabact are manufactured in original, highly water-soluble formulations. In this case, the viability of invasive larvae lasts up to one month at room temperature and up to one year under storage conditions at low temperatures (2-50 ° C).
With the development of the technology for the cultivation of nematodes on artificial nutrient media, for the first time in our country, a real opportunity has appeared to create industrial production for the production of entonem-F and nemabact, especially since this technology does not require expensive equipment and large investments. It's time for action.
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Leading Researcher, All-Russian Institute for Plant Protection
Fighters of the invisible front: biological products for the garden and vegetable garden
Tinctures of garlic, pepper, nettle - all this is nothing more than a formidable, albeit homemade, biological weapon that gardeners and summer residents successfully use in the fight against pests and plant diseases.
Gardeners and summer residents successfully use homemade biological weapons in the fight against pests and plant diseases
All these products are an excellent alternative to the harmless "chemistry". Effective, environmentally friendly, easy to prepare - what else do you need?
Pepper, scattered in the aisles of redis and cabbage, will scare away blobs and cabbage flies
The same qualities are also distinguished by biological preparations created by specialists - microbiologists and biochemists - for plant protection. Only their choice of "material" is wider (although it is often impossible to see it with the naked eye) - these are viruses, bacteria and their metabolic products, nematodes, fungi, essential oils, pheromones, plant hormones, etc.
Every year, more and more new biological products appear on the market - imported and domestic - and it is not so easy to keep track of them, to figure out what is for what. It is important to understand that all these funds are divided into:
- bioinsecticides - preparations for the fight against harmful insects (fitoverm, bitoxibacillin, lepidocid, nemabakt, etc.)
Our market - an illustrated catalog of products from various online stores - will help you choose biological products for protecting plants from insect pests. View a selection of bioinsecticides.
- biofungicidesthat fight all kinds of bacterial and fungal diseases (trichodermin, planriz, alirin-B, gamair, phytosporin-M, etc.)
- bioregulators - funds aimed at strengthening the immunity of plants and enhancing their growth (ecogel, epin-extra, zircon, cytovite, etc.)
You can read more about them in the publications Miracle drug "Epin" and How to Raise Champions? "Epin", humates and other stimulants of vegetative growth.
- EM drugs - effective microorganisms that actively process organic matter and increase soil fertility (Baikal, Shining, etc.).
But in addition to drugs of a narrow focus, there are also complex drugs that have a wide spectrum of action. For example, one of the most popular biofungicides, phytosporin, not only inhibits pathogenic fungi and has a bactericidal effect, but is also able to regulate plant growth, reduce the toxic effects of herbicides and chemical fungicides.
Gaupsin - a double-acting drug: the bacteria underlying it protect plants from both diseases and pests, and many EM drugs, in addition to their main purpose, also suppress pathogenic microorganisms. They can be used both during the flowering period of plants and at the time of the ripening of the crop. In addition biological products, unlike chemical pesticides, do not accumulate in plants, not addictive to garden pests.
But, as they say, advantages are a continuation of disadvantages, and biological products have their own characteristics... The fact that most of them are based on living organisms makes their use somewhat difficult. Firstly, it is very important to observe not only the terms, but also the conditions of storage and transportation (especially in winter) - if they are violated, the biological activity of the drug is significantly reduced. Secondly, many biological products (bacterial strains, fungal spores, nematodes) require not just dilution in water, but some preparation... And ready-made ones are not stored for long, they quickly disintegrate in the light. In addition, some start working only when the weather is warm enough (from + 18 ° C). therefore you must read the instructions for the drugs very carefully and follow them scrupulously.
And finally - the result is still not as obvious as after treatment with a chemical agent: mass death of harmful insects after the application of bioinsecticide can begin after a week, and one treatment is often not enough, it is necessary to resort to them several (from three to six) times ...
The main advantage of biologics before chemical agents - in that they do not pose a danger to people and animals, predatory insects and pollinators.
Biological products do not pose a danger to pollinating insects
And further: to give up chemistry and use biological products are only part of the concern for the health of the garden. Only package of measures: selection of varieties and species of plants resistant to pests, the use of all kinds of protection methods (mechanical shaking off and manual collection of pests, traps, including pheromone traps, covering plants with nets or film, mulching), attracting “helpers” to the garden - birds, insects and etc. And in extreme, especially advanced cases, it is possible to use chemicals, but they must be used extremely carefully, choosing the lowest hazard class.
Currant kidney moth
This "piebald" butterfly, unlike the previous one, prefers white and red currants, with early and mid-season varieties. The insect is easily recognizable by its long, pubescent wings with large brown-white spots and a yellow head. The currant kidney moth itself is not so small - it reaches 17 mm in length. Insect larvae are half the size of adults and at different stages of development have a color from orange-red to gray-green with a dark head.
Caterpillars of moths wait out the winter in cocoons, in the crevices of the bark and at the base of the bush. In early spring, they get out of the cocoon, climb the plants and penetrate the pulp of the apical buds, gnawing it from the inside. One such larva can damage up to seven currant buds. Shortly before the beginning of flowering, the currant caterpillars descend into the soil, where they pupate. During the period when ovaries appear on the bushes (late spring), adult moth butterflies appear from pupae, laying eggs in green berry ovaries.The larvae hatched from the eggs feed on the seeds of unripe fruits for some time, and before they ripen, they descend to the base of the bush, where they again settle for the winter.
The infected plant significantly lags behind in growth, its defenses and productivity are reduced, for wintering such bushes go depleted (they look like frozen or burnt), and can hardly tolerate frosts. For berries affected by moth currants, false premature ripening is characteristic. Severely damaged bushes can die.
Adult butterflies of the currant bud moth for laying eggs can fly from one plant to another, as well as to neighboring areas. The spread of the pest with planting material is also possible.
Stem bandage to protect wood from bark beetle: master class
Prepare a 40-50 cm wide foam strip and a wide plastic wrap. You will also need any cord to secure the bandage to the tree.
Open the thermos with the working product. Measure out 80 ml (half a thermos cap).
Take a bucket or bowl with a volume of 8-10 liters and pour 5 liters of water at room temperature (+15. +20 ° С). At temperatures below +15 ° C, the nematodes will not wake up, and at a higher temperature (from +28 ° C), they die. Pour the preparation into the prepared water.
Dip the foam to soak well.
Without wringing out, wrap the trunk with soaked foam rubber at a height of 1.5 m from the root collar of the tree. Wrap with plastic to keep the band damp longer and secure with wire.
For uniform application of the drug in the near-stem circle, remove the divider (net) from the sprayer stand.
Carefully pour the rest of the preparation from the basin into the sprayer. You can use a regular funnel.
Treat the trunk circle. With a diameter of the trunk circle of 1.5 m, you need 1–1.5 liters of diluted preparation under a tree. Spill evenly in a fanning motion.
In order not to buy a fake, buy Nemabakt from manufacturers. There are only three of them on the territory of the Russian Federation: Biometrics (Moscow), Biodan (St. Petersburg) and an exclusive dealer - IP Tarasova N.V.... ([email protected]). The optimal buying season is April-May (at a stable air temperature of + 15 ° C) to September-October.
We are grateful to Natalia Tarasova for her help in preparing the material and conducting the master class.
Plant protection measures in the Russian Federation: rules for ensuring quarantine
Plant quarantine can be considered the first line of defense in protecting plants from pests; it should play a very important role in the complex of plant protection measures.
Plant protection quarantine is a system of state measures aimed at protecting the plant resources of our country from the importation of quarantine and other especially dangerous objects from other states and at preventing their spread throughout the country. Many phytopathogens and plant pests entering new areas find favorable conditions for development there. The likelihood of the appearance of new quarantine objects is high, as the volume of exchange between countries of seeds, planting material, and plant products increases. Plant quarantine in the Russian Federation is a task of state importance, and its solution is entrusted to the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Supervision of the Russian Federation (Rosselkhoznadzor), which exercises control and supervision functions in the field of plant quarantine.
Distinguish between external and internal plant quarantine, each of them has its own rules. External quarantine measures include inspection of imported goods and, if necessary, laboratory examination, decontamination of products, destruction or return of them to the supplier. According to the rules for ensuring internal quarantine, the following functions are performed: survey of the territory in order to establish foci of quarantine pests, localization and elimination of them, control over the transportation of plant cargo within the country and abroad.
The regulated articles requiring phytosanitary quarantine control include products of plant origin - seeds of cultivated and wild plants, plants and their parts, grain, seeds, fresh and dried fruits, fibers of industrial crops, flour, cereals and similar processed products that can serve as a carrier quarantine objects products of animal origin - raw materials for the leather, knitwear, textile industries and for the production of fertilizers, soil, lumber, etc., which can serve as a carrier of quarantine objects.
The following pathogens belong to quarantine objects that are absent on the territory of the Russian Federation: causative agent of Indian wheat smut (Neovossia indica), causative agent of white rust of chrysanthemums (.Puccinia horiana), causative agent of potato tuber smut (Thecaphora solani), causative agent of golden yellowing of grapes (Grapevine flavescence doree phytoyplasma), causative agent of rice bacterial burn (orepomonas) the causative agent of the American latent mosaic of peach (Peach latent mosaic viroid), several potato viruses (including Potato Andean mottle comovirus, Potato Andean latent tymovirus, Potato T trichovirus), as well as pests: Asian barbel (Anoplophora glabripennis), banana moth ( Opogona sacchari), eastern fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium), western diabrotic corn beetle (Diabrotica virgifera), mulberry scale beetle (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) and others
Quarantine objects, which are limited in the territory of the Russian Federation, include: the causative agent of southern helminthosporiosis of corn (race T) (Cochliobolus heterostrophus), the causative agent of sunflower phomopsis (Diaporthe helianthi, syn. Phomopsis helianthi), the causative agent of late blight of raspberry and strawberry roots (Phytophthora crayfish burgariae) Ralstonia solanacearum, causative agent of plum pox (Plum pox potyvirus), American white butterfly (Hyphantria sipea), black speckled barbel (Monochamus impulviatus), small black spruce barbel (Monochamus sutor), tobacco white-winged (Bemisa tab) Japanese rod-shaped scabbard (Lopholeucaspis japonica), golden potato nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella), etc.
The concept of plant quarantine also includes numerous measures taken against the local spread of harmful objects in greenhouse plants and greenhouses: providing greenhouses with disinfecting mats that are placed at the entrance, disinfecting vehicles entering the territory, processing returned containers with hot steam, and prohibiting the free movement of people from one greenhouse. to another.
Rules and terms for processing currants from glass
Each currant bush accounts for about a liter of solution. All recommended dosages should be indicated in the instructions for use of the drug.
Planting treatments are usually carried out at a time when the caterpillars have just hatched, but have not yet had time to leave the surface of the shoots. This falls around the period when the first leaves bloom on the currant. The bush is sprayed with chemicals 2-3 times with a frequency of 10-12 days.
Treatment with biological products is carried out twice during blooming. The break between sprays should be approximately two weeks.
How to process open ground after tomatoes
Growing tomatoes in the open field is fraught with difficulties. Including because this culture often becomes a victim of a variety of diseases and pests. In order for the soil to please you with a rich harvest in the next season, you should carry out the final processing of the soil in the fall. Now is the time.
Disease and pest control requires a systematic approach. It is not enough just to follow agricultural techniques and carry out systematic treatment of plants with certain preparations throughout the season; in addition to all this, attention must be paid to tillage after harvest. Even if your plants remained healthy throughout the season and showed no signs of pest infestation in the spring and summer, this does not mean that you will not have to carry out the final processing of the soil in the fall. The dampness brought by the rainy season is a frequent cause of the spread of dormant pathogens in the earth, while fluctuations in night and day temperatures and rapidly approaching cold weather force harmful insects to go in search of winter shelters.
How to treat the soil from diseases
Soil disinfection is an important stage in soil cultivation. Over time, fungal infections (late blight, scab, rot, etc.) begin to accumulate in certain layers of the soil. Even if your plants did not show any signs of disease, this does not mean that the soil is free of pathogens. Perhaps they are just waiting for the right moment.
Copper sulfate can be called, perhaps, the most popular fungicide, which is used to prevent infections both in the garden and in the garden. To disinfect the soil, a 3-4% solution of copper sulfate is carefully sprayed over the surface of the soil, after which the bed is dug up with compost or humus. Copper is often included in the composition of industrial fungicides, for example, it is an active ingredient in fungicides such as Abiga-Peak, Indigo, Bronex, Oxykhom, Kuprolux, Kurzat, Proton Extra, Homoxil, and so on.
Follow the rules for working with copper sulfate: do not use preparations based on copper for soil disinfection more than once every 4-5 years, do not use it simultaneously with organophosphate insecticides. Remember that copper sulfate should never be diluted in metal containers.
Biological means that are obtained from all kinds of natural sources. In particular, preparations based on the soil fungus Trichoderma and the bacteria hay bacillus (Bacillus subtilis) are most often used to combat plant diseases. Trichoderma preparations: Glyocladin, Trichoderma Veride 471, Trichocin, Trichodermin, Trichoplant, etc. The above agents are used in accordance with the instructions. On average, it takes about 150 ml of the drug diluted in 10 liters of water to process 1 weave of land. Hay stick preparations: Alirin-B, Bisolbicide, Gamair, Fitosporin, Baktofit and others.
Carefully read the instructions for biological products, especially the part where information is indicated on the temperature range at which the use of the product will bring the greatest effect. The vast majority of biological products are used at temperatures above 5-7 ° C; processing in colder weather will not bring the desired result.
When biologicals and copper-based products are powerless, "heavy artillery" comes to the rescue in the form of industrial fungicides. For processing the soil after growing tomatoes in personal household plots, you can use, for example, Consento, Profit Gold, Revus, Skor, Thanos, Famox, Healer and others.
How to treat soil from pests
Autumn tillage is the best moment to carry out a "total cleanup" of harmful insects. In the process of digging up the soil and covering the grown green manures, the shelters of many pests lurking in the soil turn out to be "declassified". Some, hitting the surface of the earth, die from the cold, others are left without adequate nutrition, and still others fall prey to birds. At the same time, treatment with special preparations can also be carried out.
Bioinsecticides. These are funds based on highly specialized fungi, viruses and other microorganisms or substances produced by them. Entering the body of larvae or adult insects, as well as ticks or worms along with food, the drug causes intestinal paralysis or serious metabolic disorders, which lead to the death of the pest. Many biological insecticides, among other things, also enrich the soil with available forms of nitrogen and have a beneficial effect on vegetable yields. Funds can be divided into four groups:
* bioinsecticides based on bacteria (Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocid, Bactoculicide, etc.)
* bioinsecticides based on microscopic fungi (Fitoverm, Verticillin, Pecilomycin, Aktofit, Boverin)
* bioinsecticides based on nematodes that infect a large number of insect pests (Antonem, Nemabakt)
* bioinsecticides based on viruses that infect specific types of harmful insects at the caterpillar stage (Karpovirusin, Madex Twin, Helicovex, FermoVirin, etc.)
Commercially produced insecticides come to the rescue in situations where the problem of pests becomes almost visible to the naked eye. However, even if you carry out regular planting treatments with such preparations, you still will not receive a 100% guarantee of protection from intruders. By and large, an industrial insecticide does not destroy all pests living in your area, but reduces their population to certain limits.
At the same time, you need to constantly remember the rules for the rotation of pesticides. If you do not do this, then over time, insects will stop responding to the drugs used. Please note that the same active substance may be hidden under different trade names, and you need to look at it first of all in the process of choosing an insecticide for soil treatment. For the ground after tomatoes, the following means are used: Avant, Aktara, Aliot, Iskra Double Effect, Clotiamet, Confidor Extra, Coragen, MatrinBio and others.
The use of special drugs will be much more beneficial if you do not forget about the following rules:
* Never leave the remains of infected plants on the site. All diseased and pest-affected tomatoes should be disposed of.
* Try to observe crop rotation: do not plant eggplants, potatoes, peppers, tobacco, physalis and other crops that belong to nightshade after tomatoes.
* Do not thicken the planting.
* Follow the watering recommendations.
* Use zoned tomato varieties and be sure to process the seeds before sowing.
Timely processing of the soil in which the tomatoes grew will help avoid serious problems next year. Take good care of the soil and it will surely reward you with a decent harvest.